1. Human Resource Management
Human resource management can be defined as the function with in an organization to focus on the welfare of the employees and management. This comprises of recruitment, management and dealing with the people in an organization. This can be for hiring, compensation, wellness and benefits of the employees. In function is sometimes done by line managers.
2. Key Functions of Human Resource Management 
a) Recruitment and Selection:-
a part that an employee being hired or repositioned in a company
Recruitment can be defined as recognizing a position in an organization to employee someone in order fulfill the needs of it.
Selection is the step by step procedure to choose the right candidate that is suitable enough to fill the required position.
When doing these an organization should take care of some key questions in order to carry on with procedures.
o What do we want from the position?
o How can we attract the right candidate?
o How can we identify the right candidate?
o How can we know we got it right?
o Who all should be involved in the process?
b) Redundancy: -
an employee is given proper security when the company needs fewer amounts of resources or retirements. This is usually occurring when an organization does not require the position or the organization itself is going to shutdown.
c) Industrial and employee relations:-
this is a major clause of organization status to be maintained in the industry. From the research done on this, it is widely accepted that if the employee has commitment on the organization due to attitude of organization towards its employees through considerable payment or over payment to motivate them. This is industrially called in several ways like the psychological contracts or by the loyalty of the employee to the organization. The interaction between the individuals is a major part in organizational performance and productivity.
d) Record keeping of personal data:-
keeping details of each and every employee including their work history and present status. This helps the organization to decide and allot the employee to categorize to a specific segment for the ultimate utilization of the workforce. Proper allotment of the people with their skills and knowledge on an area gives excellent outcome in the overall performance.
e) Employee benefits and compensation:-
the organization offers to the employee on situations. This is the security an organization gives to the employee for them to retain. Employees will be more confident to work with security of their job and other benefits that are available for them. This is sometimes goes competitive in order to retain talented and experienced employees to avoid them going to another companies.
f) Confidential advice to ‘internal customers' about problems at work: -
this allow the employee to have a communication with the organization in order to deal with the problems they are facing in the work place. The organization also enquire the welfares of the employees so that they should feel themselves that they are also on the eyes of the organization on considerations. Negligence is the most negative part of human dissatisfaction.
g) Carrier development of employees:-
individual development of employee develops and organization. The organizations must be always prepared with the rapid change of the environment. So they always allow employees to attain as much knowledge as they can in order to develop the company performance and standards. This improves individual performance that is the backbone of the organizational overall performance. Organizations always conduct seminars and tests in order to maintain their position in the market.
h) Competency monitoring (mapping):-
work efficiency rating of employees. Organizations always monitor the efficiency of the employees in order to understand the outcome of their productivity. This helps the organization to understand on which all segments they should improve in order to maintain its stability.
i) Time and motion study:-
time and minimal motion gives more efficient and more productive organization. This technique is implemented in many of the organization for better productivity of organization. Time and motion study is how a work is to be done on a given period of time with reduced effective motion of work for attaining high efficiency outputs.
j) Performance appraisal: -
this deals with the contribution of the employee to the organization. This is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording of information of the employee in order to understand the contribution of each employee in an organization.
3. Trends and Influences of Human Resource Management
A business operation is mainly focused on the following major influences.
a) Demographics: -
it can be defined as the characteristics of structure and size of population
e.g.: - age, work class.
b) Diversity: -
it can be defined as the difference between the people in population
e.g.: - race, gender, sexual orientation. Disability, geographic origin
c) Skills and qualifications: -
These are not only about knowledge of an individual, but also the ability of the individual in the organization as an employee.
e.g.: - .rewards, community investments.
d) Individual responses:-
the employee attitudes of different geographical locations.
e.g.: - geographical spread, occupational structure, generational difference.
creating a framework for human capital.
f) Structure: -
this enhances individual developments and acquiring targets. Can be incorporate with human resource strategies.
g) Training: -
this develops high level of work of individuals. Training gives more precise to the working environment and the employees get better knowledge and working attitudes with the environment they are coping with.
4 Strategic human resource management model 
From the above Human Resource model we understand that an environmental analysis should be initiated. Then the company has to take care of the mission and goals. This is depended by analyzing the strengths and culture of the organization. Then analyse the strategies adopted by the organization. Choose a number of Human Resource strategies like planning, attracting, placing, developing, evaluating, motivating, rewarding and maintaining human resources. This is done using Human Resource tactical plans and Human Resource systems and procedures.
5. Harvard map of Human Resource Management 
Harvard map (Beer's map) outlines four areas of Human Resource Management
a) Human resource flows: -
recruitment, selection, termination, promotion.
b) Reward system:-
pay, motivation, promotion, recognition
c) Employee influence:-
influence of responsibility, power, authority
d) Work system: -
the way in which people is arranged and defined to work in an organization.
The above walk towards the four C's of Human Resource policies which are
an employee must deliver at its best for the organization
b) Congruence: -
how suitable the employee is for the organization
c) Competence: -
how competent the employee to attain target for achieving organizational goals
d) Cost effectiveness: -
is it economically feasible for the organization to maintain the employee and position.
6. Key elements of Human Resource 
The crucial elements of Human Resource are
a) Resource plan:-
this contains all the Human Resource resources involved in a company. It contains which all human resources used in what all ways and how it is implemented.
b) Resource breakdown structure:-
this is how the Human Resource differentiate according to their function. This gives a detail about how the human resource work on each segment and on each levels like corporate, operational and functional levels.
c) Responsibility assignment matrix:-
here the Human Resource is assigned specific tasks to get responsibility in each branch of function. In this each function has its own responsibility, what all things to do for each individuals and how should it be done
d) Resource over allocation: -
this is the over allocation of Human Resource in order to do more work than in normal time. This is very expensive and needs over times. This is not a usual function. It is done when the company has limited resources and has to utilize well on critical stages in order to maintain and achieve its target on demand. Many organization use this in different ways according to the mode of function and facilities that provide to the employee and also the functional structure of the organization.
e) Resource histogram: -
this is the graphical representation of over allocated resources and makes it easy for the managers to allocate resources. This diagram gives a detail of which all resources is allocated and on what tasks and make the managers to decide the allocation frequency and requirement of each tasks in order to reallocate or schedule the resources.
f) Resource dependency:-
if a task is dependent a particular resource. In some instances resources are purely dependent to each other. If one of the resource is allocated the whole function will end up.
g) Resource leveling: -
this is the redistribution of Human Resource to avoid imbalance. This is done for improving the distribution of Human Resources to necessary tasks in order to maintain the equilibrium of the functions. This is by identifying the unnecessary over allocations to the task which has highly scarce of human resources.
7. Critics on human resource management
Critics argue that Human Resource Management does not have theoretical framework. Even with this the efficiency of Human Resource Management still has a very important role in organization development.
2. Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning is the functional part of human resource management. In an organization human resource management is an asset and human resource planning is how human resource management should be properly function like to identify and ensure its resources like manpower, supply, quality and quantity for the effective and efficient utilization of human resource for the high organization performance for maintaining its sustainability and position in the business market.
3. Human Resource Planning as a system
Human resource planning as a system constraints of a set of planning
a. Business environment
b. Overall organization goals
c. Forecasting of manpower needs
d. Identifying the supply of manpower
e. Factors that affect demand and supply of manpower
4. NatWest Plc
From the history of NatWest Plc the origin is traced its roots from the foundation of Smith's of Nottingham almost 400 years ago. The commencement of NatWest bank of its modern banking is done about three decades earlier by the merging of National Provincial Bank and Westminster Bank.
4.1. Performance appraisal
This is one of the key factors that is being monitored for the performance of an organization. Performance appraisal can be defined as the assessment of individuals of an organization in a systematic way for analyzing the overall performance of the organization.
4.1.1. Personal performance
This can be said as the general performance of an individual in an organization have qualities like initiative, leadership, dependability, team spirits
4.1.2. Professional performance
This can be defined as the performance of an individual in an organization as a professional. This is regarding the performance on his knowledge in job, work experience, output performance etc.
Organizations use different criteria to measure the performance. This can be of a number of processes.
a. Setting standards and objectives for the performance
b. Designing different steps and levels of appraisal programs in order to analyse according the level the employee can carry out.
c. Arranging performance interviews
d. Record the performance and appraise according to it
e. Keeping records of the performance data
f. Recognize key performance variables