This research will provide a clear definition of Ethical energy polices and how it affects human lives in this universe. Humanity need such ethical polices to meet challenges like global climate change due to illegal and unethical usage of nonrenewable energy resources. If the countries doesn't restricted and limited the usage of energy in ethical ways, many environmental problems that threatening our planet will appear.
UK is one of the developed countries that plays significant role to keep earth planet safe against energy threatening and energy shortage by adopting ethical energy polices, setting rules of energy usage and continuous looking and encouraging the usage of clean energy resources.
It is one of the most sophisticated and relatively safe energy resources over the world and it physically defined as energy produced by the splitting one atom nuclei or emerging two nuclei of atoms and mostly the uranium atoms are used for this purpose. (Cravens, Gwyneth ,2007).
2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear Energy:
- Nuclear energy does not cause Carbone dioxide emission in the ambient atmosphere like oil burning.
- It is considered one the mostly cost competitive resources.
- Huge amount of uranium are available the earth and oceans.
- The power stations uses nuclear to produce electricity are occupy smaller areas than ordinary ones.
- Radiation of remnants and explosions are hardly controlled and cause serious illness and injuries for lives and environment.
- Can be used as a weapon and killing people by irresponsible people and countries.
- Nuclear reactors are depreciated in higher rates than ordinary power plants.
- Higher chances for serious problems like reactors meltdown are possible which causes radiation leakage in high amount in the surroundings. Good example to mentioned here the reactor meltdown of Russian Chernobyl power plant the causes
It is a definition gives to any type of energy produce from natural resources such as (sun, wind, geothermal heat, tides and rain). The need for renewable energy comes after the limitations resources of oil, so the need for finding new resources to meet the requirements of our life appear to the world in the 20th century. Now any type of energy produce from natural resources called renewable energy source, the energy stations that produce energy from renewable energy sources located in remote places because they need a large scale area to establish on it. (Gary Frey, Deborah M. Linke,2002).
Challenges of Energy sources
There are many challenges faces the recent energy sources ( oil sources ), here are some of the problems that faces oil energy sources:
- Atmosphere problem that come from carbon the released emissions from coal manufacturing process.
- Maintained and monitoring of oil sources equipments are so hard compare with renewable energy sources.
- The limitations of these sources since the oil lately or recently will be finish from the world because of huge usage of it.
- The difficulty of searching and discovering oil sources places and also the difficulty and cost of extract that oil from earth.
Ethics of Energy policies
These energy policies write and published by the united kingdom government in may 2007 in a energy white papers. These policies write to meet the long term challenges that will face the united kingdom energy sources ( nuclear, oil, renewable).
Here are the four key policies goals:
- To put the united kingdom on a path that help it in cut carbon dioxide emissions by some decrease percentage of 60% by about 2050, with real progress by 2020.
- Maintain the reliable energy supplies.
- Promote competitive markets in the united kingdom and beyond, and helping to raise the rate of sustainable economic growth of the united kingdom markets, and also to improve productivity.
- To ensure that every home in the united kingdom is get the requirements of it is heated.
Now in these days there is a big problem facing the whole world it is nuclear power usage in producing energy, the main problem is the waste of nuclear power where it is very dangerous waste and not easy to disposal it. So now in the united kingdom government policies make a big effort to control and provision nuclear power companies and the way they produce energy in it and also the way they disposal it. The ethics of companies start from the management and going down till reach the employees level where the management issue rules and instructions to employees to be more ethics in their work and to follow the policies in producing and disposability the waste of nuclear power. (Ferguson, Charles D.,2007).
Nuclear power versus renewable resources
Now these days the energy producing technology getting more difficult from day to day. All peoples now that the technology use in producing nuclear power is more complex, cost and dangerous compare with the technology use in renewable energy sourcing.
There is different technology use in nuclear power production differ from one country to another. One of the main technology use in producing nuclear power is nuclear reactor technology which is a device that nuclear chain of reactions are started, controlled and sustained in a steady state. Nuclear power companies should be build in very far place from any citizens assembly point and of course any technology use in nuclear power energy producing should be follow the rules and instruction of how to build the energy machines building to prevent and radiation from nuclear reaction process. (Cravens, Gwyneth ,2007).
Since there are many types of renewable energy, this research will mention some technologies that used in some types of renewable energy sources:
- Wind power: this type of power should be established and located in a places facing a lot of winds daily. The technology use here so simple and easy to implement and control it is "wind turbine". The process of producing energy from it so easy, it only need to air flows through the turbine and after that some process happened to produce energy and when the air flow speed increase the energy produce from turbine increase. Now days modern wind turbines have a range from 600KW to 5 MW.
- Solar energy: it is an energy that derived from sun through some type of solar radiations. The main technology use in this type of renewable energy sources are photovoltaic cell and heat engines. Solar energy technologies are categorized into two type either (passive solar or active solar), it is categorized depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute energy.
- Active solar: it is a technique include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to use the energy.
- Passive solar: it is a technique include orienting a building to follow the Sun, selecting materials with suitable thermal mass or light dispersing and designing spaces that allow naturally circulate air.
Reliability and safety
Now a days when we make a deeply looking about we have these days, it can conclude that the reliability of renewable energy sources more than nuclear power from different side such as the cost of technology and the environmental issues. Also all peoples can notice that the renewable energy sources will not be finish till Allah end the world so the reliability of it will be more in degrees than nuclear power. (Cravens, Gwyneth ,2007).
After making another looking on the subject from safety side, also renewable energy sources will be the best in this side because there is no dangerous technologies like that use in nuclear power. The technologies use in the nuclear power system need to build in a very far place and build under international standards to avoid any radiations which radiate from nuclear reaction process. There is also another big problem makes the renewable energy sources more safety than nuclear power it is waste problems since there is no dangerous waste produce from renewable energy sources compare with the waste that come after nuclear power production process. It should be some ethics in this side (waste side) since the management of nuclear power companies know the dangerous from disposing of waste in non legal way.
In the financial issues nuclear power cost more than renewable energy sources because of many reasons, such as:
- Technology cost: the technology use in nuclear power cost more than that one use in the renewable energy since it need more specifications and more planning compare with the one use in renewable energy.
- Infrastructure cost: when talking about the infrastructure, it talks about land and buildings use. In the case of nuclear power it cost more than that one use in renewable energy sources.
- Maintain and monitoring cost: this is one of the most problems that face nuclear power since it is cost so much to maintain and monitor it compare with renewable energy sources.
In 3rd world countries; it is so difficult to get nuclear power companies because of the previous reason and another reasons, and it is easy to implement renewable energy sources companies because of little cost compare with nuclear power. (Ferguson, Charles D.,2007).
The future development of the nuclear power system and technologies will be so hard since now the world going into nuclear weapons war and in this case no country will look carefully into the dangerous of use the same type of power.
Nuclear power technologies improve from day to day but not in the right way because all countries want to use this power in the war field, but when making another look to renewable energy sources it can be developed and distribute widely because of it is easy to implement and little cost compare with another energy sources. (Gary Frey, Deborah M. Linke,2002).
Here the ethics play main rule since any county or company looking into the nuclear power case in a good view that will change a lot and maybe lead this technology to be the leader of power world.
After doing this research and reading a lot of references, here are some recommendations:
- Every country should put rules and instructions on nuclear power companies to avoid any problems in the future with these companies.
- Nuclear power should be use in good way not in the way that lead world into 3rd war using this weapon (nuclear weapon).
- All the world should put international guide book that describe in it the way that the buildings of nuclear power technology should be as and also the way that should be use to disposal nuclear waste.
- Encourage countries to use renewable energy sources and give facilities to renewable energy companies which will lead to use less oil sources and to keep that for more time.
It can conclude from this research that nuclear power can affect on bad way on the world if there is no ethics and rules control this type of power and the bad use of this power maybe lead into disaster on the whole world. Radiations and wastes of nuclear power should be studied carefully and it should be control and monitor by the countries itself to avoid any problems in the future.
Using the renewable energy sources will lead world into shiny century since it will effect on the environment like another types of power sources because it is the environment itself and because of using it oil sources will remain longer and longer.
- Cravens, Gwyneth (2007). Power to Save the World: the Truth about Nuclear Energy. New York: Knopf. pp.464. ISBN 0307266567.
- Denis Du Bois (May 22, 2006). "Thin Film Could Soon Make Solar Glass and Facades a Practical Power Source". Energy Priorities.
- Eric Martinot and Janet Sawin. Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update, Renewable Energy World, September 9, 2009.
- Ferguson, Charles D., "Nuclear Energy: Balancing Benefits and Risks", Council on Foreign Relations, 2007 .
- Gary Frey, Deborah M. Linke. Hydropower as a renewable and sustainable energy resource meeting global energy challenges in a reasonable way. Energy Policy. June 9, 2002.