Introduction/ Initial idea
The 9/11 attack against the twin towers in USA, along with the bombing attacks in London underground and in Madrid's railway station, reopen the discussion concerning the issues of terrorism and victimhood , not only because of the incidents themselves but due to the ideological context and the social causes which fostered them. After those attacks, a new debate started with philosophical characteristics focusing on what terrorism is and whether it is morally justified or not, considering its tragic consequences (Meggle, Georg, ed. 2005). As a result, the portrait of the terrorist was reshaped following the new data provided by this debate while the way the society faces the issue of terrorism, mainly as it is presented by the media, was examined. Furthermore, the counter terroristic laws and additional legislation that were brought in Europe and America after the attacks mentioned above, and the statements and declarations of the former USA president George W. Bush and other political leaders, concerning the war against terrorism (Shanahan, Timothy, ed., 2005), were on the centre f major political concern and criticism. The previous incidents comprised the first idea in order to begin to search the phenomenon of terrorism and I wish to initiate my research from the starting point of terrorism as a concept in Europe which through an evolutionary process took its contemporary form. During my initial research several questions came up, which had to be answered. However, in this process, the issues of terrorism and victimhood gained a new approach as new questions were posed: for example, how the actions of terrorism influence our society either in practical or consciousness level (Goodin, Robert E, 2006).
- What is the starting point of terrorism as a concept in Europe which through an evolutionary process took its contemporary form?
- How the actions of terrorism influence our society either in practical or consciousness level?
- The position and the relationship that develops between those who exercise violence and those who are directly affected by it?
- Which are the socio-political frames where terrorism can be developed and what are the motives of the persons or the groups that are intentionally involved in this issue?
- What are the historical frames where the victimhood factor was altered to such an extent in the evolutionary progress that led from the militaristic model to the international terrorism?
- What are the visual testimonies that present this evolution and how these testimonies assist us in understanding historically and ideologically the concept of terrorism and its contribution to the social evolution from the feudalism to the civic model?
- How the actions of terrorism influence our society either in practical or consciousness level.
Aims of the Research
This research aims to analyse the parameters that developed terrorism as a mean of political instrument either for oppression or intimidation and what are the visual documentations (similarities and differences) that support this development. The objectives of this research are:
- To complete a full literature review about the philosophical content of terrorism and victimhood along with the aesthetic values that depicted in the artworks of J. Callot, F.Goya and H.Daumier.
- To investigate the evolutionary parameters that lead to terror depending on philosophy and art history.
- To investigate the changing face of victimhood and the relationship between victim and victimiser, according to the artists' perspective.
- To develop a complete understanding of several strategies in artwork analysis.
- To investigate the historical frame that present the transition from one socio-political system to another where war terror and victimhood played a great role as it is depicted in Jacques Callot's Large Miseries of War, in Francisco de Goya's Disasters of War and in the four period artworks of Honore Daumier.
In order the aims of the research to be achieved the methods of investigating and approaching the issues would have the form of a Philosophical and art history analysis. Specifically, the methodology would be a combinational investigation of the philosophical method according to Aristotle and Hegel in relation to Heinrich Wlfflin, Erwin Panofsky and Roland Barthes aesthetic analysis where the three artists present three sets of cohesive methodologies, each with a highly evolved visual literacy and supportive technical and conceptual skills.
Prior Analytics/ syllogism (Justification)
According to arguments analytical justification there will be given great attention to theoretical references regarding the propositions and the conclusions related to terrorism and victimhood. The argument in this case is a set of logical and scientific propositions that are closely linked. At this level the conclusion is supporting the claims of the proposals. So the theoretical premises of terrorism along with their conclusions function as proof of arguments. The justification of philosophical arguments is an important method and thus the concepts that cause terror and victimization are explained based on the root causes to their effects on society.
Posterior Analytics (Enunciation)
According to the statement of the argument it will be referred to theories that explain and demonstrate the issues of terrorism through the analysis will be explained as philosophical problems. The argument will be based each time on two different points of view that will show the similarities and contradictions. It is, namely, the form of compensation, explanation and argumentation.
Philosophical criticism/ Plato: Socratic dialogues
Another philosophical element for the interpretation of the issues of this research is the philosophical criticism. This method makes the philosophy a social criticism on which philosophers present definitions, explanations and solutions for the phenomenon of terrorism in order through the confrontation lead to new proposition in order to solve the problem. This method of philosophical exchange views leads to the revision of the premises on terrorism and described as dialectical methodology. It is a method in which the issues of this present research, questions statements concerning terror and proceeds to a methodical search of the purpose and process of terrorism regarding its' social implementation.
Hegelian dialectic/ Triads
Hegelian dialectic are presented the historical and the philosophical elements and characteristics of the application of the issues. There are three dialectical scopes of formation according to Hegelian triads:
- Thesis: It is an intellectual proposition. (e.g. French Revolution).
- Antithesis: It is negating to thesis and comprises an element that reacts to the initial position. (e.g. The Reign of Terror).
- Synthesis: The results of thesis and antithesis. Resolve the dispute and the points the common elements in order to form a new proposition (e.g. Constitutional rights / citizenship).
Art history methods
Heinrich Wlfflin and stylistic analysis
Wlfflin in his Principles of Art History includes five phases of an artwork analysis. There are five pairs of opposite or divergent principles concerning the formalistic and stylistic aspect of the artworks of the artists in the present research.
- From linear, (which is referred to contour of the themes as it is presented through the ideation), to painterly (which is referred to the tactile of the themes, the use of light and shadow so as to be created an integral relation between them which can replace and surpass the ascendancy of the contours that determined the boundaries).
- From the plane to recession (This refers to the order of the depiction in stratification analogical plane, to planes depicted in-apparent by giving emphasis to the foreground and background association so as to engage the viewer in recessions).
- From closed form to open form (Closed form it refers to the composition's self-contained laws concerning the central vertical and horizontal antithesis. On the other hand the open form refers to the composition motion that includes angels and lines which opposed to the vertical and horizontal formation. Nevertheless, the close and open form are related together in order the composition's self- succinctness to be allocated).
- From multiplicity to unity (They refer to the quality of the elements. The multicity includes the co-ordination of the accent and tonality while the unity includes the subordinated details that function in order to isolate the dominant line so as to increase the unification of the manifold total)
- From clearness to unclearness (They refer to the revelation of a theme and the functionality of the subthemes. Specifically, in the pictorial representations that characterized by absolute clarity, the subject is depicted in a more informative and rendering way. On the other hand the relative clarity is used in order the effectiveness of an informative character to be avoided so as the pictorial representation to be generalized)
Erwin Panofsky and iconography
Erwin Panofsky in his Studies in Iconology enters an idea of art history understanding and analysis which is comprised by three stratum which are related in subject theme and meaning of an artwork. Panofsky's method is necessary in approaching and analysing thematically the artworks of the artists aforementioned in order to identify the meanings.
- Primary or Natural Subject Matter: The most fundamental stage in order to understand an artwork is the stratum which consists in the perception of the pure forms.
- Secondary or Conventional subject matter (Iconography): According to this stratum goes the approach of the theme further in order an equivalence to the general cultural and iconographical knowledge to be brought.
- Intrinsic Meaning or Content (Iconology): At this point the analysis takes the form of a personal, technical and cultural statement. The comprehension of the theme is not only focus on the incidents and the events but also to the whole historical environment.
Roland Barthes and semiotics
Finally, after the stylistic and the thematic investigation, another parameter has to be added, the semiotics. The importance of the use of this method is essential in order the provenience of the meanings (terrorism and victimhood) to be revealed. In Image, music, text (Rhetoric of the Image) of Roland Barthes analyses the semiotic analysis of an artwork according to:
- The linguistic level of analysis: This refers to the verbal texts accompanying an artwork. This type of analysis has two functions. Initially, a text is an "anchoring", as Barthes name it, in which the viewer focuses so as to decide correctly concerning the perception and to observe the proper details. There is an ideological background of this function which is related with the freedom of the depiction meaning as the verbal text acts as a repressive factor. Secondly, the verbal text functions as further information while the text serves as accessorial references.
- The denoted meaning is referring to the meaning recognition depending on visual signs. The denoted depiction can transform an accustomed figurative message into a semasiological deception of connotation.
- The connotation is referring to the immediate cultural logical coherences that are associated with the recognition.
The research investigation includes visual parameters concerning the selection of the artists and their specific artworks. This research focuses either on the use of the medium or on the themes that were depicted by the three artists. Initially, this research will seek what were the significance of the use and the functionality of the printmaking during the time that Jacques Callot, Francisco de Goya and Honore Daumier lived. The questions that arise are why Callot used dry-point, Goya used aquatint and Daumier did lithographs, why each one developed the technique of his choice and which are the differentiations and the similarities with their contemporary artists who used printmaking as a medium of expression? According to this parameter, must be stated whether the use of the medium in each artist conformed or deviated with the technical methods of representation of their time. In order these questions to be answered has to be referred to the historical frame during which printmaking was invented and developed relatively not only with the serviceableness of the preproduction identical images but also its relation with the development of typography. Relevantly to this parameter, there are theoreticians and art historians that specialize in printmaking like Antony Griffiths (Prints and Printmaking: An Introduction to the History and Techniques 1996) and Linda C. Hults (The print in the western world: an introductory history 1996). Additionally more specific in the techniques that the three artists considered in this research like Jacques Tribalat (L'choppe: un art de vivre 2003), Ruth Leaf (Intaglio printmaking techniques 1976), Benjamin Francis Morrow (The art of aquatint 1935), John Roland Abbey (Travel in aquatint and lithography, 1770-1860: from the library of J.R. Abbey : a bibliographical catalogue 1991), Henry Cliffe (Lithography: a complete handbook of modern techniques of lithography 1965), Peter Weaver (The technique of lithography 1965) and Michael Knigin (The technique of fine art lithography 1977).
A second aspect to be investigated is the way each artist uses the space, which creates a series of questions concerning the relationship established between the artist and the theme which was depicted and between the artwork and the viewer. Specifically, what was the psychological state of Callot when he created the Miseries of War and which are the similarities and differences with other artworks of his? Respectively, what was the psychological state of Goya in creating the Disasters of War and that which are the differences and similarities with other artworks of his, like Los Capritsos, La Tauromaquia and Los Disparates. Similarly, what was the ideological / psychological background of Daumier that led him to have a satirical tone to his themes? On the other hand, regarding their relationship with the viewer, to whom the artworks are directed and what the artists expected to succeed or cause with their representations to the viewer? At this point there is a connection with the title of this research that concerns the involvement of terrorism and victimization in both artist-theme and artwork-viewer relationship. These questions can be answered by taking under consideration the visual communication according to Aldous Huxley with The Art of Seeing (1982), Max Wertheimer with Gestalt theory (1944) and Edward Tufte (The Visual Display of Quantitative Information 1983, Envisioning Information 1990, Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative 1997) and more specific to William Mills Ivins (Prints and visual communication 1969).
The didactical offer of the artworks of Callot, Goya and Daumier is one additional important and interesting parameter that concerns communication, reporting, commentary and moralising with regard to violence both in pragmatic and an ideological / psychological level. The questions raised are related to the objectives of the artists to communicate their personal commitment and discomposure through visual data presented in their engravings. Thereupon, questions are resulted regarding which are the visual media that are used by the artists and through what process of evolution are connected? In order these questions to be answered besides the combinational observation in the prints, there is the necessity of reference to theoretician and art historians who studied in depth the aforementioned artworks of the three artists such as Esther Holden Averill (Eyes on the World: The Story and Work of Jacques Callot - His Gypsies, Beggars, Festivals, "Miseries of War" and other famous Etchings and Engravings together with an Account of his Days 1969), Diane H. Russell (Jacques Callot Prints and Related Drawings 1975), Robert Hughes (Goya 2006), Evan S. Connell (Francisco Goya 2004), Sarah Symmons (Goya 1998) (Daumier 2004), Bruce Laughton (Honor Daumier 1996), Howard P. Vincent (Daumier and His World 1968) and Oliver W. Larkin (Daumier: Man of his Time 1968).
Furthermore, an additional important approach concerns the semiotic analysis and the use of symbols in Callot's Miseries of War, Goya's Disasters of War and Daumier's satiric judgements. According to this approach it will be understood the emotional, mystical and political messages which are occulted inside the etchings and also the effort of the artists to reveal the truth through exaggeration, imagination, metaphor, allegory and symbolism. Thus, the question arises through what archetypes or based on what code is presented this visual language? The previous questions, in order to be answered, will be required the instrumentality of the symbolism (The Symbolist Movement: a critical appraisal 1967) in relation to the analysis of aesthetic theory of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 -1860) (The World as Will and Representation vol 1, book 3, 1958) as both of them comprised by common elements of mysticism, otherworldliness and mortality. Finally, another important factor is how and by what means each artist increased the dramatic disposition of the specific etchings in order to the viewer to experience the modifications, simplifications, exaggerations and what is the psychological and moral impact of these in the viewer. Three artists used means that have similarities and differences of how they depicted the figures, the atmospheres, time, space, agony, desperation, fear, terror, the state of being victim and thereby each one achieved his own dramatization in representing the events. In order to identify and clarify these means, an analytical observation of these artworks characteristics is needed along with the analysis of the general aesthetic ideology of each artist by taking under consideration and looking through the scope of the artistic movements that occurred during their time. This appears in the specific characteristics of their artwork and in each one biography as they are referring according to Edwin de T. Bechtel (Jacques Callot 1955), Robert Hughes (Goya 2003) and Bruce Laughton (Honor Daumier 1996).
Literature review chapter's structure
The literature review is the initial procedure in order the thesis to gain a scientific character along with assistance to the researcher to achieve knowledge enrichment. Furthermore, the literature review is the main dynamic in comprehending the issues of terror and victimhood in relation to the engraving and lithographic depictions of J. Callot, F. Goya and H. Daumier. Specifically, the literature review will include the following:
Preface: The preface of the thesis will be divided into three parts which will include the initial idea and the motives that led the researcher to begin an investigation concerning the representation of victimhood and inflicted terror in the artworks of J. Callot, F. Goya and H. Daumier. The second part will concern two very important parameters, the chronological frame that the artworks were created and the artistic medium which was used. In the third part there will be a brief analysis about the importance of the relationship between the historiography and the art history referring to the works of the artist reviewed in this research.
INTRODUCTION: PHYCHOLOGICAL STATE "AGGRESSION AND WAR VIOLENCE. The introduction will be separated in two parts. In the initial part will be analysed the primary psychological states that lies on the human nature. There will be an analysis of the behavioural psychology concerning extroversive drive. Firstly, according to Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) will be approached the issue of aggression as it is presented in his Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920) and Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) the death drive or Thanatos. Thanatos, concerning the human existence and human behaviour, is contained within two parameters. These two parameters are forces that are often expressed with extreme violence. For example in the first case when Thanatos is introversive, the consequences to the individual have an inner distractive and disorganizing character. But in the second case, when it is extroversive, the violent character of this force turns not only into a situation of mass spread of violence but also into a source of inner urges for reforms within the social structure that occurs. According to Freud's analysis, humans are capable of extremely cruel and brutal actions.
The issue of aggression will continue to be analysed from the point of view of Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as it is presented On Aggression (1966). Lorenz adopts the Darwinian theory of evolution and the survival principle, and enters the "fighting instinct" as a parameter of great importance for the human evolution. He considers the aggressiveness and the violent instinct as a psychobiological characteristic in human nature. On the other hand, besides the biological approach of aggression and violence according to Lorenz, there is the theory that the aggressive behaviour is a subject of learning. Albert Bandura (1925- ) in his study Aggression: A social learning analysis (1973) after a series of experiments, concluded that every social behaviour can be learned, including and the aggressive and violent behaviour. Furthermore, the disappointment and the desperation along with the aggression comprise a combined mechanism which is the basic source of the human ability to produce violence as Ted Robert Gurr (1936- ) suggested in his book Why men rebel (1970).
The analysis of the psychological state of aggressive and violent behaviour is very important for this research because of two reasons. Firstly, this behavioural state is directly connected with the war violence and war terror which is a generalized form of aggression. Secondly, such aggressive behaviour is depicted in the artworks of the aforementioned artists.
The concept of war and especially its application is a significant part of the present research. War is a concept that, according to Alexander Moseley (1943- ) in his A Philosophy of War (2002), that divided into four approaches: the definition, the etiology, the relation with the human nature and the ethics. Definitions about war expressed by many theoreticians and experts of war like Cicero (106-43 BC) in his De Officiis, Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) in his On the Law of War and Peace (1625), Denis Diderot (1713-1784) in his Encyclopdie (published between 1751 and 1772), Voltaire (1694-1778) in his Philosophical Dictionary (1764). The most appropriate definition to this research is the approach of Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) on his book Vom Kriege (On War, 1832-1834) who referred to the political instrumentality of war.
The causation of war according to Alexander Moseley can be observed through the determinism and the free will. Depending on the deterministic approach war has fateful characteristics and thus the humanity is powerless to defy. In addition, the human beings are unites of their environment but they have also the power on it. On the other hand, the human beings are responsible for their actions and war is one of them which is based on the rational ability according to John Locke (1632-1704) (Second Treatise 1689), on producing culture as Immanuel Kant (1724-1894) (Perpetual Peace 1795) suggested and on biological causes as Richard Dawkins (1941- ) defined it (The selfish gene 1976).
The relation of war with the human nature enters the concepts of violence, terror and victimization in the social frames. Aristotle (384-322 BC) approximated the natural hypostasis of the human beings as a political animal in his Politics. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) in Leviathan (1651) described the state of humans, before they develop societies and the role that played the concepts of war violence and terror ever after. The most revealing aspect of the socio-political behavioural evolution of the human nature is described by Kenneth Waltz (1924- ) who recommended a three-point of view observation at worldwide relations behaviour: The first is the humans' individualism and nature, the second is the ethnic/nation state and the third is the international model (Man, War, and State 1959). At this point the war as a political instrument reflects its ugly face through a historical transition from one political system to another where the terror was its application to produce victims.
CHAPTER 1: TERROR AND VICTIMHOOD. Thus the militaristic terror and terrorism must be observed through two scope of approach. The first one is the philosophical approach that is suggested by Per Bauhn (1960- ) in his book entitled Ethical Aspects of Political Terrorism: The Sacrificing of the Innocent (1989) with "wide" content "The performance of violent acts, directed against one or more persons, intended by the performing agent to intimidate one or more persons and thereby to bring about one or more of the agent's political goals" (Bauhn 1989: 28). And the second philosophical approach with "narrow" content that is suggested by C.A.J Coady (1936- ) in his study about terrorism in Enccyclopedia of Ethics (2001) "The tactic of intentionally targeting non-combatants or non-combatant property, when significantly related to life and security] with lethal or severe violence ... meant to produce political results via the creation of fear" (C.A.J Coady 2001: 1697) along with the definition that Igor Primoratz gave "The deliberate use of violence, or threat of its use, against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating some other people into a course of action they otherwise would not take" (Igor Primoratz 2004: 24).
If we look carefully at the three definitions above, we can see that there is a significant difference. While Coady and Primoratz defined terrorism as violence against civilians and innocent people, Bauhn avoided including such a restriction. Therefore, the definitions of Coady and Primoratz can be described as narrow and Bauhn's as wide. Specifically, the wide definition covers the entire history of terrorism by imposing the rule of terror (Reign of Terror) by the Jacobins until today and everything that the term includes in the modern sense. On the other hand, the narrow definition restricts the use and the analysis of terrorism in the brutal attack against civilians and innocent people. It is approaching the issue from the moral point of view. Terrorism as a sociological and historical concept will be analyzed by using the narrow definition while as a philosophical issue will be defined according to the wide one. Because of the complexity of the issue of terrorism in this survey there will be used the combination of both processes in approach and analysis as the moral side of the issue is directly related to its pictorial display as it will be seen below.
Terrorism has preoccupied society mostly in terms of the number of victims, mainly the innocent ones. The key question is whether terrorism is morally justified concerning its existence. Therefore, since there is no specific definition that defines terrorism, any approach to explain whether it is morally justified would be unfounded. In this research the term terrorism will focus on the analysis of a violent act against innocent civilians and citizens and function as a tool to intimidate and coerce. At this point, the relationship between victim and aggressor should be clarified. The viewpoint that both the victim and the aggressor is a two-way relationship that defines their existence is an obvious fact as there wouldn't be a victim if there wasn't a terrorist and vice versa. The question is whether the victim is totally innocent and what are those parameters that can turn the victim into an aggressor. Initially, the victim may be civilian or an ordinary citizen, but, nevertheless, he may not be completely innocent or uninvolved in what the terrorist is fighting for, having justified his/her actions in both ideological and sociological ways, secondly, the existence of both, works as a balance in terms of social development. Bearing in mind the foregoing questions about what the socio-political contexts in which terrorism prospered and evolved, we have to examine the notion of the victim thoroughly.
The first two questions can be analyzed by approaching the issue of terrorism and the victimhood philosophically, according to the previously mentioned methodology. The exploration of the third question is essentially a process in which we try to connect our philosophical analysis to the modern consciousness of these issues. A key factor which develops consciousness perception along with a thorough historical documentation is art (Herbert Edward Read 1955). The methodology to investigate the issues of the terrorism and the victimhood, at this point, is of great interest because it combines the philosophical syllogism with the visual depiction. Thus, in order to approach and analyze the elements which specify, describe and define the issues of terrorism and victimhood, philosophically and consciously, we will use a specific branch of the history of art, iconography. In this research iconography, as a visual language of analysis, will examine the details of specific issues through the artwork of three artists Jacques Callot (c. 1592 - 1635), Francisco Jos de Goya y Lucientes (1746 -1828) and Honor Daumier (1808-1879). The choice of those three particular artists came as a result of the fact that they created artworks whose themes represent three major periods in which the phenomena of terrorism and victimhood were simultaneously, reasons and results of the socio-political and ideological change on the European continent.
CHAPTER 2: JACQUES CALLOT. As a matter of fact, the period Jacques Callot lived, particularly the socio-political environment of governance and everyday life, followed the pattern that existed during the Middle Ages, namely the parochial. Due to the need for change, the total reconstruction of the economy, and the redefinition of religious influence under a single doctrine, the social structures and the governance model that prevailed in the Middle Ages would obtain a more concentrated character. The method of governance in the ?iddle Ages until the end of the 16th century followed the model of the feudal system. Under this socio-political structure a decentralized control was adopted stemming from the feudal lords who owned large tracts controlling and dominating everyone who lived within them, thereby weakening the central authority. Therefore, there was a weak monarchy since the feudal lords were not supported nor accountable to it, and certainly not seeking to protect their fiefdoms as they had self-protection which was provided by small groups of armed mercenaries (SH Steinberg 1966). In addition, the 16th century was a period of religious upheaval as in October 1517 Martin Luther (1483-1546) reintroduced the question of issuing indulgences by papal church (Michael A. Mullett 2004). Within such a frame of social, religious and political reshaping the Thirty Years War broke out (1618-1648) which, although at the beginning took the form of religious conflict quickly generalized in one of the most destructive wars in European history, which ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 (Geoffrey Parker 1997).
During exactly this Thirty Years War time, Callot lived in Nancy, the capital of Lorraine. In Nancy, he created the series of artworks which is addressed in this thesis. It is a series of eighteen engravings entitled Les Grandes Misres de la guerre (The Large Miseries of War) which were published in 1633 and is considered the first anti-war petition to the art of Western culture (Ann Sutherland Harris 2005: 258). Generally, this series of artworks is a narration or a visual narrative documentation of the violent atmosphere that existed during the invasion of troops sent by Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) in 1633 to occupy Lorraine. The purpose of Callot appears not to be a historical depiction of the invasion, but an effort to develop a logical sequence to deplore acts of war or war itself as a practice. Therefore, he focuses on presenting his themes in a theatrical way and keeping a distance from the events of violence. In particular, the illustrations in the second and third engraving of Callot focus on the recruitment of soldiers and correspondingly to a generalized battle, which are the only of this series. Then he compiles the engravings in two groups. From the fourth to the eighth engraving he describes the looting and violence against civilians and innocent villagers. The ninth engraving serves as a transition, and describes an organization that seeks to capture the perjured soldiers, which leads to a crescendo of violent and heinous punishments and executions from the tenth to the fourteenth engraving which are reminiscent of the practice of sovereignty and terror the Jacobins imposed in France (see Antoine De Baecque 2003: 91). The next three etchings describe another kind of punishment, misfortune that awaits those who escaped or survived the human verdict. The last engraving indicates the end not only of the war but also the passing from one era to another, the collapse of feudalism and the rise of absolute monarchy (Esther Holden Averill 1969).
Technically, the series of engravings The Large Miseries of War reflects the perception of the artist of the socio-political environment within which the prints were created. The landscapes have a pastoral character depicting a more feudal way of life than an urban one. Callot also groups the figures of people and creates faceless forms as during that time there was no sense of individuality, so we cannot talk about the value of human as a unit, a self-inclusive personality and therefore as an active citizen. An additional factor is the distance that keeps the artist from the theme he depicted, in order to show, on the one hand, that he specifies neither the victims nor the aggressors because in such violent war atmosphere and social life in general there was no national cohesion in order for someone to take position on the actions of violence and terrorism. On the other hand, the themes that Callot depicted were so appalling and the society was so turbulent that the fear kept him away from focusing to the victim or the aggressor. He focuses only on the presentation of violence and on the switch of roles between the victim and the aggressor in order to come to declare the restoration of social balance and the beginning of a new era (Joseph Canning, Hartmut Lehmann, JM Winter 2004: 135-140, 148-149).
CHAPTER 3: FRANCISCO DE GOYA. Continuing the pictorial description of the philosophical approach to terrorism and victimhood, the series of engravings of Callot The Large Miseries of War was an inspiration and influence for a Spanish painter Francisco de Goya to create his own set of prints entitled Disasters of War. Goya created the series between 1810 and 1820, and it is divided into three thematic sections. But before we look at the content of the engravings, we must mention the historical and ideological frame in which they were conceived and created. Initially, the epoch we examine is a time when the lessons and the results of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution (1789) are still fresh. The Enlightenment was a major ideological movement that covers almost the entire 18th century and inspired society with important values such as tolerance, freedom and equality. These values, with the help of science and rationality, clarified the empirical philosophy as a way to solve problems in the social level as for example the fact that people have natural rights and that there should be separation of powers. Thus, the propagandist of scepticism criticizes the social and religious hierarchy and denies the nobility and of course the reign of absolute monarchy (Peter Gay 1995).
This ideological movement began to suggest the concept of citizenship and strengthen the rising bourgeoisie in its efforts to improve the absolute monarchy at that time and turned into a constitutional factor, providing citizens with physical and legal rights under the lessons of the Enlightenment. This was the occasion of the outbreak of the Revolution in France but the transitional period will be characterized by violence and the reign of terror of the Jacobins. From the French Revolution until the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) is the period of massive military conflict. Within this frame the Peninsular War occurs during which the French led by Napoleon invade Spain and Goya as an eyewitness records the disasters of War and the atrocities that the French soldiers committed. The Disasters of War of Goya is a visual presumption of violence and terrorism that existed during the French invasion of Spain and its results in the Spanish society.
In particular, the series is divided into three major sections. The first group of prints (plates 1-47) describes the violence, executions, rapes and, in general, the horror of war. The terrified Spanish suffer from the savagery of the French soldiers with minor flares of courage for resistance and revenge. The second group (plates 48-64) describes the effects of famine in Madrid that lasted a year from 1811 until 1812. They are incidents from various regions of Spain which Goya captured to present a general view of the results of the war regarding the suffering of ordinary people. The third group of series (plates 65-82) describes the restoration of power from House of Bourbon and the enthronement of Ferdinand VII (1784-1833). In this situation, Goya kept a critical position that essentially was a political protest with satirical attitude concerning the persons and the institutions that are dealing with power such as politicians and the Church (Philip Hofer 2006).
Technically, the engravings are generally dark. Goya uses the environment to give the feeling of fear and horror of war with dark forms. Also, the use of dark patterns is explained emotionally because of the deafness problems afflicting the health of the artist. The figures are depicted realistically affordable initially because of the medium (using the method of aquatints), and secondly because it aims to show greater distress of both the victims and the aggressor with the gruesome purposes. The most important thing in the technique used by Goya is that he focuses on the theme and observes both the victim and the aggressor, but with more sympathy to the victim. This is initially for sentimental reasons because he placed himself in the position of the victim as he was Spanish, so he compassioned with the misery of his compatriots. Also, the social structures had changed and the concept of the nation had become a crucial matter. So it is self-evident the fact of the attack of a foreign nation (in this case the French) against the Spanish people. Another reason that Goya focuses on is an ideological issue. The human being, especially after the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, had gained value on the individuality and the rights of the citizen. Therefore, the Spanish citizen was not a simple war victim but he was the personification of the violation of human rights and the abolition of civil liberties (Fred Licht 1973).
CHAPTER 4: HONORE DAUMIER. From the 19th century until the early 20th, the period is characterized by large and significant changes in economic, industrial, geographical, social, political and ideological level that gradually led to the reshaping of the functioning of European countries, by helping in this direction the so-called Concert of Europe which was restored by the Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (1815-1898). Particularly, the ideological ferment and the social requirements have created a series of revolutions and transnational disputes with regard to the political influence, which lead to inevitable wars. The 19th century is the period of the industrial revolution, the civil war in the U.S. and of course the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) that led to the Paris Commune (1871). This atmosphere of terror was not only in the battlefield but it was also transferred to urban centres. It obtained a civil nature by developing the conditions for urban guerrilla warfare of generalized type (Edward M. Burns 2006: 462-799).
The Industrial Revolution created an enormous accumulation of people from rural areas to cities, which were transformed into major urban centres. These people were the essential labour force to the industrialized urban growth. The working class was therefore bound gradually to acquire class consciousness that would lead to their demand for labour rights and their opposition to whatever would contradict to their own interests, having as a weapon the revolution. Such a revolution broke out after the end of the Franco-Prussian War in Paris and the revolutionary government group known as the Paris Commune (David A. Shafer 2005).
Because of these major changes in Europe and using the same method of research, we must see how art reflected the evolution of terrorism and the victimization of an artist whose life and work is covering most of the 19th century, Honor Daumier. During this period, Daumier had created artworks in which he satirizes militarism and condemns the political and state violence. Specifically, in the first period, Daumier is dealing with political "cartooning" and worked for the magazine La Caricature. While working for the magazine he satirized the King Louis-Philippe I (1773-1850). This criticism led him to a six-month imprisonment because of the censorship which was imposed in 1830. In the second period he created allegorical compositions satirising the policy pursued by Louis-Napoleon III (1808-1873). The next sentence in the decade of 1860 will give great attention to artwork with antimilitarist content using the metaphor as a tool to capture ideas on lithographs. Finally, the abhorrence of the practice of war and violence will describe the projects listed in the Franco-Prussian War (Howard Paton Vincent 1968). Technically, the Daumier is dealing with terrorism and victimhood as a result of violence or using semiotic references from ancient myths or anthropomorphising ideological principles to express the truth. The environment for Daumier has secondary importance and thus mostly he leaves it blank or sometimes the background consists of victims of violent actions in order to give a dramatic tone in his composition. The censorship that was imposed during the government of Louis-Napoleon III was a major reason that Daumier used a semantic approach to subjects. This becomes the contents of prints from a social and political satire to intense protest (Charles F. Ramus 1978).
CHAPTER 5: CHANGING FACE OF VICTIMHOOD AND INFLICTED TERROR BASED ON AESTHETIC CRITERIA.
In this chapter the issues of victimhood and terror/terrorism would be analysed based on the aesthetic criteria that resulted from the above artworks. Specifically, there will be a syncretic and comparative study among the artists and their artworks. Firstly, the comparison will cover the functionality of the artists as observers of their epoch. Namely, the biographical elements of each artist will define their perspectives and their ideologies concerning the socio-political environment in which they created their series. In addition, there will be an analysis of their presence either in war terror actions or in the socio-political alteration and transition they witness. The anaphors in the methods that the artists used in order to depict their themes will be analysed extendedly according to the methodological process which is described above. There will be a comparative analysis in the methods of testimony: Firstly, according to the stylistic method of Heinrich Wlfflin in order the evolution of the medium and its usage to be evaluated. Secondly, according to Erwin Panofsky the thematic depictions depending on the perspective will cover the aspect of receiving their themes and finally Roland Barthes aesthetic analysis will envelop the revealing of the encrypted meaning that lay underneath the symbols that are depicted. Thus, the artwork will show the transformation of terrorism and victimhood through the transition from feudal society to the early ethnical-national state and urban model.
CHAPTER 6: EPILOGUE.
Continuously, the results of this comparison study will lead to the present approach of terrorism as an international issue in order to analyse the post-modern aspects of victimhood. This chapter will include the results and the conclusion of this research which will comprise the researcher's contribution to knowledge. This research focuses in investigating and proving that the collocation and the transition of the artworks of the aforementioned artists comprises the starting point of the sense and apprehension that exists nowadays concerning the terror as a political practice and the victimhood as a result of this practice. In addition, the researcher expects to contribute to the cultural scientific sector of academia that investigates social issues through the history of art. This contribution will be useful educational tool in the hands of philosophers, sociologists, art historians and theoreticians.
- Arendt, Hannah, 1958, The Origins of Totalitarianism, 2nd edn. Cleveland: The World Publishing Co.
- Aristotle 2007, Aristotle: Politics, Forgotten Books.
- Aristotle 2004, Posterior Analytics, Kessinger Publishing.
- Aristotle 1989, Prior Analytics, editor: Robin Smith, Hackett Publishing.
- Balakian Anna Elizabeth 1967, The symbolist movement: a critical appraisal, Random House.
- Bandura, Albert 1973, Aggression: A social learning analysis, Prentice-Hall.
- Bauhn, Per, 1989, Ethical Aspects of Political Terrorism: The Sacrificing of the Innocent, Lund: Lund University Press.
- Cicero Marcus Tullius, Andrew Roy Dyck 1996, De Officiis, University of Michigan Press.
- Clausewitz Carl von 1982, On War, Translated by Anatol Rapoport, Penguin Classics,
- Coady, C.A.J 2001, "Terrorism", in Becker, Lawrence C, and Becker, Charlotte B, eds, Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd edn, New York and London: Routledge.
- Dawkins Richard 2006, The selfish gene, 3rd eds, Oxford University Press.
- Frey, R.G. and Morris, Christopher W, eds, 1991, Violence, Terrorism, and Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Freud, Sigmund 1990, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, W. W. Norton & Company.
- Freud, Sigmund 1989, Civilization and Its Discontents, W. W. Norton & Company.
- Gandhi (Mahatma) 2001, Non-violent Resistance, Dover Publications.
- Gilbert, Paul, 1994, Terrorism, Security and Nationality: An Introductory Study in Applied Political Philosophy, London and New York: Routledge.
- Goodin, Robert E, 2006, What's Wrong with Terrorism? Oxford: Polity
- Grotius Hugo 2004, On the Law of War and Peace, Kessinger Publishing.
- Govier, Trudy, 2002, A Delicate Balance: What Philosophy Can Tell Us about Terrorism, Cambridge, Mass: Westview Press.
- Gurr, Ted Robert 1970, Why men rebel, Published for the Center of International Studies, Princeton University Press.
- Hobbes Thomas 2008, Leviathan, Forgotten Books.
- Huxley Aldous 1982, The art of seeing, Creative Arts Book Company.
- Kant Immanuel 2005, Perpetual Peace, Cosimo, Inc.
- Kerr, Wilfred Brenton (1985). Reign of Terror, 1793-1794. London: Porcupine Press.
- Lackey, Douglas, 2004, "The Evolution of the Modern Terrorist State: Area Bombing and Nuclear Deterrence", in Primoratz.
- Laqueur, Walter, ed. 1987, The Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology, 2nd edn. New York: New American Library.
- Locke John 1980, Second treatise of government, Hackett Publishing.
- Lorenz, Konrad 2002, On Aggression, 2nd eds, Routledge, New York
- Machiavelli Niccol 1988, Machiavelli: The Prince, Cambridge University Press.
- McTaggart, John Ellis McTaggart 2005, Studies in the Hegelian Dialectic, Adamant Media Corporation.
- Meggle, Georg, ed. 2005, Ethics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism, Frankfurt/M.: Ontos Verlag.
- Moseley Alexander 2002, A Philosophy of War, Algora Publishing, United States.
- Naigeon, Jacques Andr 1821, uvres de Denis Diderot, Volume 9, digitalized 2007, J.L.J. Brire, the University of California.
- Oates Joyce Carol, Atwan Robert 2001, The Best American Essays of the Century, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
- Plato 2009, The Socratic Dialogues, Kaplan Publishing.
- Primoratz, Igor, ed. 2004, Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Schama, Simon (1989) Citizens - A Chronicle of the French Revolution, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
- Schopenhauer Arthur 1958, The world as will and representation, Volume 1, Dover Publications.
- Shanahan, Timothy, ed. 2005, Philosophy 9/11: Thinking about the War on Terrorism, Chicago: Open Court.
- Thucydides, Fanis I. Kakridis 1998, Pericles' funeral oration: Thucydides' history of the Peloponnesian War, Book II, xxxv-xlvi, The Hellenic Parliament.
- Tolstoy Leo 2007, War and peace: original version, Harper Perennial.
- Tribalat Jacques 2003, L'choppe: un art de vivre, Illustrated by Dominique Le Lann, A d.
- Tufte Edward R. 1983, The visual display of quantitative information, 2nd eds, Graphics Press.
- Waltz Kenneth Neal 2001, Man, the state, and war: a theoretical analysis, 2nd eds, Columbia University Press.
- Wertheimer Max 1944, Gestalt theory, Hayes Barton Press.
- Abbey John Roland 1991, Travel in Aquatint and Lithography, 1770-1860: World, Europe, Africa (Abbey Collections of Colour-Plate Books in Aquatint & Lithography, 1770-1860), Alan Wofsy Fine Arts.
- Averill, Esther Holden 1969, Eyes on the world: the story & work of Jacques Callot: his gypsies, beggars, festivals, "Miseries of war", and other famous etchings and engravings, together with an account of his days, Funk & Wagnalls, USA.
- Barthes Roland 1978, Image, music, text, Hill and Wang.
- Cliffe Henry 1965, Lithography: A Complete Handbook of Modern Techniques of Lithography, Watson-Guptill Publications.
- Connell Evan S. 2004, Francisco Goya, Counterpoint Press.
- Griffiths Antony 1996, Prints and Printmaking: An Introduction to the History and Techniques, University of California Press.
- Harris, Ann Sutherland 2005, Seventeenth-century art & architecture, Laurence King Publishing.
- Hofer, Philip, 2006, The Disasters of War. Dover Publications, New York.
- Hughes Robert 2006, Goya, Alfred A. Knopf.
- Hults C. Linda 1996, The print in the western world: an introductory history, University of Wisconsin Press.
- Ivins William Mills 1969, Prints and visual communication, MIT Press.
- Knigin Michael 1977, The technique of fine art lithography, Revised edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
- Larkin Oliver W. 1968, Daumier, man of his time, 1st eds, Beacon Press.
- Laughton Bruce 1996, Honore Daumier, Yale University Press.
- Leaf Ruth 1976, Intaglio printmaking techniques, 1st edition, Watson-Guptill Publications.
- Licht Fred 1973, Goya in perspective, Prentice Hall, Inc.
- Morrow, Benjamin Francis 1935, The art of aquatint, G.P. Putnam's Sons.
- Panofsky Erwin 1972, Studies in iconology: humanistic themes in the art of the Renaissance, Harper & Row.
- Ramus Charles F. edr, 1978, Daumier, 120 great lithographs, Dover Publications, New York.
- Read, Herbert Edward 1955, Icon and idea: the function of art in the development of human consciousness, Harvard University Press.
- Russell Diane H. 1975, Jacques Callot Prints and Related Drawings, National Gallery of Art.
- Symmons Sarah 1998, Goya, Phaidon Press.
- Symmons Sarah 2004, Daumier, Chaucer Publications.
- Tufte Edward R. 1990, Envisioning information, Graphics Press.
- Tufte Edward R. 1997, Visual explanations: images and quantities, evidence and narrative, 4th eds, Graphics Press.
- Vincent Howard Paton 1968, Daumier and his world, Northwestern University Press, Chicago.
- Weaver Peter 1965, The technique of lithography, Reinhold Pub. Corp.
- Wlfflin Heinrich 1950, Principles of art history: the problem of the development of style in later art, 7th eds, Courier Dover Publications.
- Baecque Antoine De 2003, translated by Mandell Charlotte, Glory and Terror: Seven Deaths Under the French Revolution, Routledge, New York.
- Burns Edward ?. 2006, Western Civilization, translated by Tasos Darveris, Epikentro Publications, Thessaloniki, Greece.
- Canning Joseph, Lehmann Hartmut, Winter Jay, 2004, Power, violence and mass death in pre-modern and modern times, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
- Clausewitz, Carl von 1968, On war, Volume 1, 2nd eds, Babylon Dreams.
- Gay Peter 1996, The enlightenment: an interpretation: the science of freedom, W.W. Norton
- Mullett, Michael A. 2004, Martin Luther, Routledge, New York.
- Parker, Geoffrey 1997, The Thirty Years' War, 2nd edn. Routledge, New York.
- Shafer David A. 2005, The Paris Commune: French politics, culture, and society at the crossroads of the revolutionary tradition and revolutionary socialism, Palgrave Macmillan,
- Steinberg S.H 1966, The Thirty Years' War and the Conflict for European Hegemony 1600-1660, W.W Norton & Company Inc, New York.