Networking features of Windows
Windows XP Networking Features and Enhancements
Internet Connection Firewall (ICF)
When a computer is linked to the Internet or other pathway to the external world, there is the risk of unlawful attempts to entrance the computer and data. Whether the computer linking to the outside network is a standalone computer, or is acting as a gateway for a network at the back the computer (see Internet relationship distribution below), a firewall can lookout your residence network not in favor of the risk of risky network route while allowing suitable network route to pass.
Windows XP includes the Internet Connection Firewall to be used to save from harm your computers and residence networks linked in such a manner. This software-based firewall is enabled mechanically when the Network Setup Wizard (below) is run; setting your firewall up with default settings that occupation for most networks. The firewall can also be enabled or disabled automatically through the Network Connections folder.
The Internet Connection Firewall monitors connections and route that originated from in the interior the firewall to use in determining what route should be permissible from the outside network. Route originating from the outside network will not be permissible through the firewall by default. When hosting services or programs (such as a web server) at the back the firewall, these settings can be changed to go well with your needs.
Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) Enhancements
Windows 2000 incorporated ICS to enable distribution of a single Internet connection in the middle of all of the computers on a residence or small office network. The computer linked to the Internet would have ICS enabled and supply addressing and network address conversion services for all of the computers on the network.
In addition as long as a DHCP allocator for automatic addressing and a DNS proxy for name resolution, the Windows XP ICS service has also been improved to leverage Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) in Windows XP.
ICS participates in the UPnP network as a device hosted on Windows XP, announcing its attendance on the network periodically. Windows XP ICS clients use UPnP to detect and situate ICS hosts on the network. Once discovered, UPnP is used to entrance and control the ICS host.
The system running ICS broadcasts information concerning the standing of the service to the network, excluding connection standing, uptime, and data. ICS will also broadcast whenever there is modify in the service's condition, such as connection or disconnection.
The client can then make use of UPnP to carry out a variety of proceedings against ICS. These proceedings exclude the aptitude to connect or disconnect ICS, to list network address conversion port mappings, or to produce or change port mappings. This enables clients interior to the network to agree to inward bound connections.
Network Bridging Support
When building a network in a residence or small office, you may find out that a meticulous network medium works well in one area of the network, but not in another. Such as, more than a few computers may be situated close to telephone jacks enabling them to be linked using HomePNA networking devices. Other computers may be nowhere in close proximity to a phone jack, requiring selection of another network medium for example wireless. Many medium types are supported by Windows XP, excluding Ethernet, Phone line, Wireless and IEEE 1394.
This outcome in a network configuration consisting of a single, easily configured network segment connecting all network mediums. The Windows XP Network Bridge will forward packets on the suitable segments based on the device address and preserve information concerning what system is on which corporeal medium.
Quality of Service (QoS) Enhancement for Home Networks
When a residence network is linked to a corporate or other network through a slow link, for example a dial-up line, a circumstances can exist that will increase the delay on route traversing the slow link.
If the getting client is running on a comparatively speedy network (100Mb/s Ethernet such as) at the back an Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) box and the server this recipient is communicating with at the back the remote access box is using a speedy network, the mismatch exists. In this scenario, the recipient's accept window is put to a great value based on the speed of the link linked to. The sender starts out sending at a slow speed, but since packets aren't lost, ultimately increases to sending almost a complete windows size of packets.
This can affect the performance of other TCP connections that pass through the same network, making their packets wait in this potentially great queue. If packet loss occurs, a complete windows size has to be retransmitted additional congesting the link.
The solution to this is to have the ICS box on the border of the network put the take delivery of window to a smaller size suitable to the slow link, overriding the recipient's specification. This setting will not unfavorably affect route as the window size is being put as it would were the recipient linked directly to the slow link. The QoS packet scheduler part running on the ICS box makes this window modification.
Network Setup Wizard
Windows XP provides you with a Network Setup wizard to effortlessness the task of setting up your network. This wizard allows you to configure the Internet connection the computers on your network will use, enable the Internet Connection Firewall, configure the network adapters on your computer and enable the Network Bridge if suitable, share files and printers and name your computers. The network setup wizard can be run on the Windows 98, Windows ME and Windows XP computers on your network using the CD or a floppy disk.
Network Diagnostics Features
Network diagnostics features were additional to Windows XP to support diagnosing network problems. With increasing numbers of people setting up small networks, these features enable troubleshooting of what can be multifaceted problems by almost any level user.
* The Network Diagnostics Web Page and NetSh helper
– The Network Diagnostics web page can be instantiated from multiple locations, excluding the Network Connections folder, the Tools segment of Help and Support, or the Help and Support detailed information segment on either troubleshooting or networking. This web page makes it easy to salvage important information about the local computer and the network it is linked to. The web page also excludes a variety of tests for troubleshooting network problems. Besides, a NetSh helper DLL is provided to enable implementation of more widespread tests than the web page, but from a command line. This helper is accessed from the 'diag' context of NetSh.
* Network Connections Support Tab
– The Standing page for each network connection in the Network Connections folder now excludes a Support tab. From this tab, information and tasks formerly provided in Windows from side to side the IP configuration tool, Winipcfg.exe, are provided. Part of this excludes the Repair option, used to try and reset your network connection to a working condition.
* Network Connection Repair Link
– Sometimes the computers network configuration can get into a condition that prohibits network communication, but can be repaired from side to side a put of ordinary events for example renewing the IP address and DNS name registrations. To keep away from having to take these steps by hand, a Repair link has been added to the network connection's context menu. Choosing this option causes a series of steps to be taken that could very likely solve communication problems but are known not to cause worse problems.
* Task Manager Networking Tab
– A Networking tab has been added to Task Manager that will display real time networking metrics for each network adapter in the system. This tool will provide a quick look at how the network is performing.
* Updated Command Line Network Diagnostics Tool
– Part of the support tools that come on the Windows XP installation CD, netdiag.exe is a command line diagnostics tool improved from the version provided in the Windows 2000 resource kit.
UPnP Client Support
Windows XP excludes complete support for Universal Plug and Play Control Point applications.
A set of COM interfaces are available on Windows XP that agree to an application to discover UPnP devices on the network, salvage information about those devices and the services they provide, and control those services from side to side executing exposed methods. This UPnP execution enables the application to only be concerned about accessing the available devices and not about UPnP specific protocols. A UI part can be added to enable UPnP devices to be displayed in My Network Places.
Network Location Awareness and Winsock API Enhancements
Windows XP excludes components that detect information about the network the system is attached to. This permits for seamless configuration of the network stack for that location. This information is also made available from side to side a Windows Sockets API, permitting applications to salvage information about the current network or be notified when the network information changes.
Components in Windows XP also use the network location to provide the suitable services. Such as, the Network Setup wizard will use the location information for multiple adapters in the system to figure out which device is your connection to the Internet. The group policy for ICF is also location aware. ICF will check to see if group policy is put, and then use location information to determine how to apply the policy.
Additional Microsoft extensions to Windows Sockets have been added to Windows XP. This excludes Connect Ex ( ) – Used to send a block of data after establishing a connection and Transmit Packets ( ) – Used to transmit in memory and/or file data over a connected socket.
Windows XP excludes the aptitude to produce connections using Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE). Using Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and a broadband modem, LAN users can increase individual authenticated entrance to high-speed data networks. By combining Ethernet and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), PPPoE provides an efficient way to produce a separate connection for each user to a remote server. Access, billing, and choice of service are managed on a per-user basis, rather than a per-site basis.
Having this aptitude built into Windows XP permit you to leverage built in services like Internet Connection Sharing and Internet Connection Firewall. It also enables your connections to integrate seamlessly with Internet Explorer and other Windows applications.
PVC Encapsulation – RFC 2684
Windows XP excludes an execution of Internet RFC 2684. This was added to making DSL simpler for vendors to execute. The execution is an NDIS intermediate driver that looks like an Ethernet interface, but uses an DSL/ATM PVC to carry Ethernet (or TCP/IP only) frames. This machinery is commonly used in the industry by carriers and others deploying DSL. With Windows XP and an ATM miniport driver for a DSL device the deployment can use the following protocol configurations.
* TCP/IP->PPPoA (PPP over ATM)->vendor xDSL ATM miniport
* TCP/IP->RFC2684 (4 encapsulation types)->vendor xDSL ATM miniport
* TCP/IP->PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet)->RFC2684 (4 encapsulation types)->vendor xDSL ATM miniport
Besides, 802.1X authentication can be added to the RFC 2684 Ethernet interface. This variety of options meets the needs of a greater part of DSL deployments.
Internet Protocol over IEEE 1394 (IP/1394)
The aptitude to network computers and devices on IEEE 1394 using TCP/IP has been added to Windows XP. With this capacity, a new network medium is available that is commonly used to connect audio and video equipment. This feature excludes improvements in Windows XP to carry out translational bridging of TCP/IP frames between IEEE 1394 and the other IEEE 802 interfaces. To do this, Windows XP uses the Network Bridge already discussed.
Networking features of Linux
As it is the outcome of a concerted effort of programmers around the world, Linux wouldn't have been possible without the global network. So it's not surprising that in the early stages of development, several people started to work on providing it with network capabilities. A UUCP execution was running on Linux almost from the very beginning, and work on TCP/IP-based networking started around autumn 1992, when Ross Biro and others produced what has now become known as Net1.
After Ross quit active progress in May 1993, Fred van Kempen began to work on a new execution, rewriting major parts of the code. This project was known as Net-2. The first public release, Net-2d, was made in the summer of 1993 (as part of the 0.99.10 kernel), and has since been preserved and expanded by several people, most notably Alan Cox. Alan's original work was known as Net-2Debugged. After heavy debugging and several enhancements to the code, he changed its name to Net-3 after Linux 1.0 was released. The Net-3 code was additional developed for Linux 1.2 and Linux 2.0. The 2.2 and later kernels use the Net-4 version network support, which remains the standard official offering today.
The Net-4 Linux Network code offers a wide variety of device drivers and advanced features. Standard Net-4 protocols exclude SLIP and PPP (for sending network route over serial lines), PLIP (for parallel lines), IPX (for Novell compatible networks, which we'll discuss in Chapter 15), AppleTalk (for Apple networks) and AX.25, NetRom, and Rose (for amateur radio networks). Other standard Net-4 features exclude IP firewalling, IP accounting (discussed later in Chapter 9 and Chapter 10), and IP Masquerade (discussed later in Chapter 11. IP tunneling in a couple of different flavors and advanced policy routing are supported. A very large variety of Ethernet devices is supported, Besides to support for some FDDI, Token Ring, Frame Relay, and ISDN, and ATM cards.
Hyper-V only provides basic virtualization support for Linux guests out of the box. Para virtualization support is, however, available by installing the Linux Integration Components and Satori InputVSC drivers. On July 20, 2009, Microsoft submitted these drivers for exclusion in the Linux kernel under GPL, so that kernels from 2.6.32 will exclude inbuilt Hyper-V Para virtualization support.
INTEROPERABILITY FEATURES OF UBUNTU WITH THE EXISTING MICROSOFT WINDOWS
For programming, administration, a substitute for an UNIX workstation and a moderately the theater desktop Linux works well. Using key applications for example Openoffice.org productivity suite, progress for a mail client, GAIM for instant messaging, Fire fox as a web browser, GIMP for graphics, CUPS for printing, Samba for interoperability, Linux has a lot going for it. It also uses less resource than additional operating systems.
Ubuntu works fine for comparison purposes. Ubuntu has in overload of 25% of the Linux desktop market which compares to number two SUSE with 11.4% of the market. So, I'll use Ubuntu to represent the Linux desktop in this report.
Like all Linux desktops, Ubuntu has restrictions. It lacks applications for example Photoshop, Frame maker, PageMaker, Visio, Access, QuickBooks, a PDF converter, legal DVD players and the majority prominently profits tax preparation software. Without those applications ported directly to Linux, Ubuntu remainder a mid-level desktop.
I use Ubuntu for 12 or more hours a day. So, I'm not complaining about the lack of those applications. I have found GIMP an sufficient substitute for Photoshop and I just completed a 30 day testing period for the latest allocation of Photoshop.
The Linux desktop has a lot of advantages more than its counter parts for developers in particular when it comes to programming web services, porting applications and engineering tasks. It runs on moderately priced hardware and takes a smaller amount memory for graphic intensive software. I can make use of 512MB of RAM to execute the same jobs that have need of 1GB of RAM on other systems.
All in all, Ubuntu does an outstanding job replacing UNIX workstations and has a better desktop. It fits of laughter mid-level desktop users and works for about 80 to 90% of endeavor users.
Home users find it a good operating system in particular for stability, effortlessness of use and for those who can lawfully use applications like Xine, Mplayer, etc. for audio and video software which only plays on the Mac and Windows in the US.
A personalized Ubuntu will give the user all he or she might want with the exemption of tax preparation software. With that in mind, you will find software preparation capabilities on-line at tax prep web sites.
For additional applications, Code weavers Crossover office provides an environment for using Windows applications in Linux. VMware and Win4Lin work for some users who need some Windows applications. Tran Gaming Technologies provides similar emulation for popular Windows Games.