LO.1. Understanding The Principles of Project Management

· Scope Definition:

Scope Definition is the plan for the scope stage turns the customer's requirements into objectives. The objectives will later form a potential computer solution. The scope stage has just one major activity: produce the specification. For example, the customer has a requirement for a word-processing system. The objectives, among others, might say that:

• New documents must be compatible with existing documents

• Documents must be compatible with those within the rest of the organization

• The system must be similar to the old system as only a limited amount of effort is available for training

§ Objectives

Objectives are the requirements (or deliverables) for the project-what needs to be delivered. These are identified in the Definition of Scope.

§ Stakeholders

A stakeholder is anyone, internal or external to an organisation that has a vested interest in a project or will be affected by its deliverables.

§ Deliverables

Something that the project produces, or delivers to, one or more of the stakeholders. It may be, for example, equipment, a working part of a system, documentation or training.

A product, capability to perform a service, or other result, that must be produced to complete a project. Deliverables can be produced by the project team or, in some cases, by suppliers contracted to the project.

§ Success Criteria

This is the criteria in which you base the decision whether the project is a success or a failure. This criteria will usually be based on whether you have met all the objectives set; the majority or all of the main stakeholders are happy; and most importantly - whether the client is happy with the deliverable

§ Benefits

Benefits are the positive influence or advantages which the project delivers once it is live or built and being used. These can include: making a project more efficient; carrying out tasks which were previously impossible; or captivating a wider target audience

§ Costs

§ Materials and equipment - many projects take existing software and put these in place in a business. Projects often need new desktop computers, servers and cabling.

§ Labour - this is often the largest part of an IT. There is the cost of the IT professionals who analyse, specify, design, build, test, and put in place the project. There is also the cost of the customers time as well as training the staff who are going to use the software.

§ Constraints

Constraints are the factors that you will need to consider during the life of the project that you are not able to change. These may include deadlines, regulatory requirements and dependencies on other projects to deliver.

§ Resource Requirements

Once the objectives, scope and evaluation criteria for the project have been agreed between the client and the project manager, the resources required for the project will need to be assessed. The project manager will need to identify the resource required to complete each deliverable. Resources will often be based on:

• Equipment - the project manager will need to identify what specialist equipment is required for the project. Hardware may need to be hired to complete a particular task, and the amount of time required for this should be identified at an early stage as this will have an implication for the budget.

• Expertise - similarly, the project manager will need to identify any tasks within the project that requires expertise beyond the project team. Again, the project manager will need to assess the amount of time required for this kind of a task so the cost of hiring a specialist can be accounted for in the budge.

• People - sometimes a project may need a great deal of specialist equipment or expertise, but it may need a lot of man-hours. In this case, the timescale of the project may be shortened by increasing the size of the project team. However, this also carries a consequence for the budget and the client should state whether time or money is their priority.

§ Estimated Completion Date

The Estimated Completion Date is the predicted date at which all requirements for a defined task or project will be completed.

Project planning:

tasks and sub-tasks,



critical path,




quality assurance,

acceptance testing,

communication with stakeholders,



Project management:

monitoring and communicating progress

against plan,

risk assessment,

responding to changing


incident reporting,







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