Human Resource DevelopmentOf the Private Sector in Saudi Arabia
Human resource represents an essential challenge for most of the Middle East countries for its significant role in economic development. Saudi Arabia has attempted to improve its human resources' skills to facilitate the enhancement of its modern experience as similar to other Gulf States, where the responsibility of human resources in national growth planning is vital and remains a considerable challenge. Therefore, some important objectives will be mentioned such as effect of developing HR and training of strategic management. It is worth to emphasize HR development as an important factor in the process of economic growth and as an effective component in economic structure. As such, the living standards, the social and cultural life characteristics as well as the society's well-being are considered to be closely linked amid the growth of person possessions. It is therefore, remains a real challenge for the decision makers and business owners in developing countries.
Since the early 1970s when the revenues of oil started to contribute considerable improvement to the socio-economic conditions in the country, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has implemented a development planning system that aimed to maximize oil income during the first two development plan periods (1970-1980). (The Ministry of Planning), through creating investment opportunities in order to accelerate the rates of economic growth. Subsequently the concerned planners recognized the importance and necessity to diversify the country's economy in order to minimize the risk of reliance on only one commodity (oil). Therefore, the country's infrastructure was promoted in addition to other improvements in both the quality and quantity of public services, especially health, education as well as social services.
A review of human resource development literature reveals a great many attempts by several authors to define human resource development. These attempts have been varied, reflecting the diverse academic and socio-political backgrounds particularly apparent in relation to human resource development.
A-Al-Dosary and S.B.Garba, (2008) stated that human resource development is a huge area of practice and knowledge, perceiving it as interdisciplinary field that has something to do with various areas of study. These include economics, psychology, sociology, learning theory, performance improvement, etc. However, human resource development as a technical term was first coined by the US writer Leonard Nadler in the late 1960s, and was defined originally as “a series of organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce behavioural change” (A. El-Kuwaiz (1997). Nevertheless, human resource development is best seen by
O. Abdul Rahman (1987) as the planned management of training, progress and of management / specialized education intervention, so as to attain the objectives of the association whereas at the same time ensuring the full expenditure of the information in specify and skills of personality employees. It is apprehensive with the administration of employee education for the long-term adherence in mind the clear and business strategy. Human resource expansion is apprehensive with the situation of learning and upgrading opportunities that support up the getting of business strategies and development of managerial, team and individual performance (S.S. Al-Qahtani (1998).
The proposed research depends on various sources of data. Secondary sources of data will be approached; in this regard, the essay of the concerned governmental private sector's authorities will be reviewed, in addition to the statistics and progress reports chamber of commerce and the universities and training institutions' libraries. Moreover, Primary data will be collected from one or two of the major companies owned by the private sector.
Quantitative data will be collected using a questionnaire and implementing direct interviews with the concerned persons of these companies. While qualitative data will be collected from these companies as well, through focus group discussions.
The collected data will be used to perform descriptive analysis; statistical methods are going to be used to test the difference that human resource development might cause, in addition to correlations between variables and cross tabulations.
Instruments will be used for data collection are: first Questionnaire: to collect data on from the sample companies. Second, guide for interviews with officials and focus group discussions. A pre-test will be conducted to ensure the compatibility of the questionnaires design, types of questions, question order and question wording. Moreover, this pre-test is a test for the interviewers themselves and their familiarity with the questionnaire.
To emphasize the significance of the effect of developing human resource on the improvement of the private sector. Therefore, in every organization there must be a human resource management. But some firms don't take the human resource management seriously, especially in the private sectors in Saudi Arabia and some of the Middle East. Whereby, they don't know that human resource plays important aspects in raising the profits for organisation and developing the economy in general this help creating jobs for those who are unable to find. Therefore, the aims are to encourage the private sectors to develop more training, get experience people, put the right employees in the right place, develop the reward system to help encourage employees and reduce the mediated employees.
To investigate the difference that an enhancement in human resource capacities, through training and skills' promotion would create towards improving the private sector in Saudi Arabia. The training of strategic management, improvement of supervision/ professional training involvements, in order to complete the firm aims whereas at the same time guarantee the process of the information in skills and capability of personality and employees. It is apprehensive with the administration of worker wisdom for the durable care in mind the clear and business strategy. HRD is apprehensive with the provision of learning and growth opportunities that support the achievement of business strategies and upgrading of managerial, team and personality feat (Armstrong, 2009).
To evaluate the strategies and plans of human resource development implemented in the private sector. A strategy in businesses is about winning. It's not a detailed plan or programme of instruction; it is a joining idea that gives reason and way to the conduct and decisions of an personality or establishment. In this case firms in Saudi Arabia should develop their strategies in order to compete and win in the market place. The private sectors in Saudi Arabia are poor in many strategies such as, firstly establishing the long term direction of the firm. Should be looking at a number of years ahead and attempting to identify the product, markets and geographical locations. Secondly, driving the organisations forward to achieve a sustained competitive advantage. Thirdly, determining the scope of the organisations activities, in term whether it chooses to remain primary in one sector and line of business or diversity into other areas. This can be done to spread the risk by creating a balanced portfolio or seeking success from growing markets and higher profile margin products. Fourth, matching their inertial resources and activities to the environments in which the organisation operates so as to achieve a strategic fit. This requires an assignment of inner strengths and weak point as well as exterior opportunities and fear (SWOT) in order to fix on how best to design the company to meet current and future needs. (Marchington & Wilkingson 2008)
When private sectors achieve human resource development it is likely to gain the following, knowledge, perceiving it as interdisciplinary field that has something to do with various areas of study. These include economics, psychology, and sociology, learning theory and performance improvement. Since the 1970s till now the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have developed a lot, therefore it's not impossible that the HR plays its rule in the Kingdom which will lead the companies to a better success. The expected learning from the HR is, there will be more experienced people working for companies because the training will give the ability to the workers. Second, when the employees have the ability and the experience it is likely that companies could save money and time. As say by many authors save money save time.
As mentioned before investment of money in the field of human resources (employers training) lead to increasing skills and ability of employers to done works as perfect as.
Ideally I can predict that employers training have been led to done them work in most facility, easy ways and the works are ongoing quickly and more accurate. As a result the factories product increases. So investment for employer training one dollars today leads to harvest 2 dollars tomorrow.
Finally investment in the field of employers training is of significant to increase the product both in general (government) and private sectors. So strongly recommended to employers training.
To conclude this essay has covered many important aspects. Background have been explained as seen how the previous researchers have concluded the human resource management. Moreover, the overview of the essay covered some points such as the developing of human resource as well as developing the straining and putting strategies to the businesses.
- Armstrong, M. (2009) Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 11th ED. London. Published by Kogan Page Limited.
- Marchington, M. Wilkinson, A (2008) Human Resource Management at Work, People Management and development, 4th ED. Publish by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development London.
- Al-Dosary A.and Garba S. (1997). Inter-organizational Coordination: a case Study of the Education and Training System in Saudi Arabian Manpower Planning," Human Resource Planning, (20), 1. Available online on the following link (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3821/is_200404/ai_n9399317/pg_7/) accessed on the 4th February 2010.
- The Ministry of Planning (1995), Sixth Development Plan, (Riyadh: Ministry of Planning Press, 1995)
- A. El-Kuwaiz (1997), "Economic Integration of the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf: Challenges, Achievements and Future Outlook", in J. Sandwick, The Gulf Cooperation Council, (Washington D.C: Westview Press, 1997)
- S.S. Al-Qahtani (1998), "The Extent of Adequacy of Higher Education Output to the Labour Market Needs: Exploratory Study of King Saud University and Riyadh Private Sector," Journal of Public Administration, (38), 3