What organisations need more than anything else is more Leadership and less Management.
This essay will be based on leadership and management in an organisation.
Leadership and management is at times confusing, they can be used in place of each other. However there is a distinctive different between both leadership and Management. This essay will examine both management and leadership, analysis will be made to see which of this is important, recommendation will be made as to which one organisation should make use of.
Leadership and management takes place in an context known as an organisation.
Defining organisation is quite a complex one, however different researchers have defined it based on their own opinion and research
"(Mullins,2005) as cited by Senior and Fleming(2006,p.4) defined organisation as an individual and groups interact within a formal structure. Structure created is created by management to establish relationships between individuals and groups, to provide order and systems and to direct efforts to carry out goal seeking activities."
According to Statt,B(1991) he defined organisation as a group of people brought together for the purpose of achieving certain goal.
An Organisation is a collective plan which search for combined objective and controls its act and has a border separating it from its setting.
Both definitions have recognised the interaction of people to achieve a common purpose, the process of coordination these activities to achieve a common goal is known as Management.
An organisation is categorised by size, sector and type.
The above chart shows the different types of Firms in the United Kingdom.
"Source: Business for Foundation Degree and higher awards by Dransfied,R et al(2004.p.207)"
Aims of an Organisation
As stated earlier, an organisation is set up to achieve a common goal. An organisation needs to have its aim and goals in order for it to succeed. Although, different organisation have different goals.
What is Leadership?
The term leadership have been given different meanings by theorist.
" Rauch & Behling (1984)as cited by Yukl ,G(2006,pg.6) leadership is a method of influencing or controlling an organised group of people in order to achieve a set goal."
Although other researchers have also argued that leadership is an individual's capability of inspiring, influencing and enabling others to put in efforts towards the achievement of success and effectiveness of an organisation. (House et al, 1999)
A leader is meant to carry out specific selected leadership role, while a follower is a person who accepts that a leader provides direction on the work set. A follower is meant to do what they are asked, although they could also help to perform the duties in an organisation.
Leadership involves a method where deliberate authority is exerted by one person over other people in an organisation to structure, direct, and smooth the progress of the organisation. However, most practitioners appear to think that leadership is an observable fact that organisations need for effective day to day running.
According Hersey and Blanchard (1988) as cited by Dransfield, R.et al(2004) leadership arises when an individual tries to influence the actions of a group of people or an individual.
Skills are cultured capacity in accomplishing goals through effectiveness. There are various types of skills required of a leader. They are explained below;
Interpersonal skills: this involves the manner in which a leader interacts with followers or deal with them, a leader is meant to communicate what needs to be done effectively. For example if a leader does not communicate properly with a follower, he/she might not want to do as she is told to do.
Decision making and problem solving: for effectiveness a leader should be able to make decisions considering the future and the present situation. That if there a situation, a leader should be to think about the situation, if it is critical then he needs to make a conclusion at that time.
All these skills are essential in leadership for effective running of an organisation.
Theories of Leadership
Most leadership theories in the past used to concentrate mainly on the 3 types of variable effective for leadership.
- "Characteristics of the leader: which involves traits, behaviour influence e.t.c" (Yulk,G .2006. pg 12)
- "Characteristics of the follower: involves traits, trust , task commitment and effort."
- "Characteristics of the situation": involves the type of organisational unit, position power an authority, task interdependence."
These three variables contributes toward effectiveness of leadership
The diagram represents "causal relationship among the primary types of leadership processes."
Source: Leadership in an Organisation (Yulk, Gary.pg 13)
The effectiveness of leadership have gone beyond these 3 variables. Recently, researchers have developed other theories of leadership. They are explained below:
Trait theories: this approach is based on the hypothesis that some people are born to be leaders. They possess leadership characteristic such as values, skill and motives.
Style theories: also known as the behaviour approach. This is the way in which a leader handles different situations in different ways.
According to Hersey and Blanchard (1977) he classified leadership style in accordance with situation arising. These are:
Telling: it is also known as Autocratic :this style of leadership style takes place in an organisation where the leader makes all the decisions based on what he thinks is right and then communicate his decision to the staffs, without consulting the members or staff about what their views or opinion.
This style tends to be more controlling and demotivating resulting into dissatisfaction of followers.
Selling style also known as Persuasive Democratic: "this means that leaders make the decisions anyway and or make the effort to encourage the followers that it is the right decision..
This means that in one way or the other the leader is still trying to carry them along with what he the decisions made. He can still welcome their own ideas if they wish to contribute. Although, it slows down the decision making process
Consult Style: Leaders ask for the opinion of the follower, that is he carries them along by letting them have a say, but then his own decision is final.
Joins Style: the decision making process is based on an agreement between leader and follower. The followers are left to carry out the task, all the does is to identify the task. This type of style requires more maturity from the followers.
As stated earlier, researchers have viewed leadership from different perspective.
According to Blake and Mouton's (1991) managerial grid also known as Leadership Grid they both examined two basic measurement of leadership.
The management grid illustrates:
The concern for people and production in an organisation they have labelled They modeled these permutations as a grid; it is ranked on a scale of to nine. One side of the grid is for people concern and the other for task concern. (1 = low and 9= high).
The 1,1 improverised management: shows less concern for both production and people's need.
The 5,5, middle of the road style: focuses on balance between both production and people's wants.
The 9'9 style focuses on both needs and concern for people.
Contingency theory: this theory is looks at leadership based on the fact that situations vary and a leader needs to adopt the type of leadership that suits its own situation.
"According to John Adair(2004,pg 35,36) approach he sees leadership as a set of three overlapping and interacting areas of need" . They are
Source the inspirational leader, Adair,J(2004,p 36)
"He further went on to say that in order to achieve this three needs, certain function are needed to be performed. He argued that leadership training should be based on these activities They are:
Controlling: making sure all acts contributes towards the objectives of the organisation.
Planning: having a set plan on how achieve goals
Supporting : giving confidence to one another, and the creation of team spirit
Informing:letting one another know if there is any new information
Evaluating: aiding group and individual to assess their performance
Initiating: assigning tasks and standards setting.
Management in an Organisation
In a formal organisation, both management and leadership are elements of organisational existence.
According to Mullins (2005) management takes place in an organisation, for the purpose of goal achievement, which is not done on its own, but through the hard work of people by means of actions.
Management in an organisation is done through a manager. "According to Bennis and Nanus (1985) cited by Yulk,G (2006,pg.4) managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing."
One of the objectives of managers is to make sure that there is utmost productivity and in an organisation. Management in an organisation entails decision making on how a set goal needed for effectiveness will be accomplished.
There are different theories of management functions by different theorists. However, some researchers have looked at management based on what they think it is.
"According to Fayols' Theory(1949), he said management functions are divided into five. They are Planning, Organising ,Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling" Dransfield,R .et al.(2004,pg 140-143)
Planning and organising in an organisation works together because an organisation need to evaluate their objective and their available resources. it is needed by management in the putting together of short term plans and projects.
Commanding in an organisation as to do with telling the subordinate what to do after the plans are well organised.
Coordinating: it is the role of the manager to coordinate or direct the doings of the subordinates from all areas of the organisation. It is basically putting things together . For there to be an effective coordination, managers have to make sure that he/she knows the plan the aim and so on.
Control is also vital in for management purpose. It is about looking into the performance and improvement and then coming together to put the wrong things right.
However Minzberg(1989) as cited by Senior and Fleming(2006) after his assessment of chief executive officers of small and large organisations. He split managerial role into three categories , which are then subdivided. They are:
Figurehead: this role identifies managers as a figure for representative of the organisation. He is required to carry out duties as the head, such as attending meetings, entertain official visitors.
leader : manager is focused how to motivate his staff. He needs to be able to relate with his staff by being passionate about what he does. if he is going to be leading, it should be by laying good example for effectiveness.
Liaison: this role focuses on managers been able to make contacts, not just in the organisation unit, but outside as well. .
Informational roles: (monitor, disseminator, spokeman)
Decisional roles (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocation): Managers tend to assign their resources very well . for example, if there is a budget, managers have to make sure that there are enough resources assigned to specific areas , in order execute their budget.
Also manager tend to make sure he handles unexpected situations like fire strike in the best way as quick as possible as it is his main concern at that time.
The conclusion of both researchers is that management is more focused on what goes on in an organisation within its arrangement and aims. On the other hand leadership is looking at interpersonal conduct. Minzberg views management as a perception achieved and developed from experience and circumstances it finds itself rather than theoretical standard.
Differences between Management and Leadership
There is a vast difference between Leadership and Management. Researchers have differentiated both leadership and management based on their own views.
According to Kotter (1990) he established the difference between management and leadership in requisites to their key procedure and planned result.
Management focuses on certainty by organisation of people through recruitment, allocating responsibilities and laying down of effective objective .
Leadership on the other hand, looks into the far prospect of the organisation, creating changes in relation to the organization.
However other researchers like Minzberg(1973) analyse leadership and management in an organisation as a different approach. "He portrays leadership" as one of 10 M.anagerial Roles. Leadership is examined as an introduction to managerial role. that is leadership role makes it possible for managerial role.
On the other hand, management all the other nine roles needed in an organisation.
Supervisor role is also one of the level of management with his function being that, he doesn't allocate all his time on amangerial work.
In conclusion, the effectiveness of leadership is quite complex to assess the effectiveness of leadership as there are so many ways in which the effectiveness of leadership can be measured analysed by different theories
The type of leadership style adopted in an organisation, depends on the type of organisation. For effectiveness in an organisation, an organisation should consider its own structure and weigh which ever style it thinks would suit the organisation in terms of the achievement of set goals. I believe leadership and management go hand in hand, if ther was management organisation with different units will be disorganised, which will in turn affect its existence
Adair,John.(2004) The Inspirational Leader.1st edition. Great Britain:Kogan Page Limited
Dransfield,R.et al(2004) Business for Foundation Degrees and Higher Awards.1st edition.Halley Court , Jordan Hill, Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers.
Senior,B and Fleming,J(2006)Organizational Change.3rd edition. Edinburgh Gate Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Yukl,G(2006)Leadership in Organisation.6th edition.United States of America.Pearson Education Limited.