Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Report from Technical Department

To extract the vitamin E and beta-carotene that needed as the raw materials from crude palm oil, we need to undergo transesterification process to convert the crude palm oil into methyl ester first which are easily extractable with CO2. After that, we apply a technique called Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE).

Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)

From the phase diagram above, we can see that the phase boundary between liquid and gas does not continue infinitely like boundary between liquid and solid. It stops at a point which we called it as critical point. Above the temperature and pressure above the critical point, the phase of liquid and gases cannot be distinguished. In this technique, we use carbon dioxide (CO2) as the supercritical fluid.

The above shown is the schematic diagram of SFE apparatus. There is a CO2 tank to supply CO2 and a pressure cell to contain the sample which is methyl ester. The liquid CO2 (below 5°C , 50 bar) goes through the cooler to be cooled and then to the pump. The fluid is cooled before pumping so that it can be maintained at liquid conditions. The pump stroke here is used to compress the fluid in order to increase its pressure. Then, it will be pumped to heating zone and heated to supercritical condition. After that, this is followed by passing into the extraction vessel. Later, we pass the supercritical solvent into a vessel which pressure is lower than the extraction vessel. The density, and hence dissolving power, of supercritical fluids varies sharply with pressure, and hence the solubility in the lower density CO2 is much lower, and the material precipitates for collection. The CO2 can then be recycled.

The figure shows the recovery of carotene, vitamin E, sterols and squalene using continuous supercritical fluid extraction. The recovery of Vitamin E and carotene is quite high. The vitamin E and carotene that produced can be up to 95% concentration.

Advantages

This is a new technique that replaces the normal chemical extraction technique. If we use chemical extraction, the chemical solvents may react with the active compounds and degrade them. After that, the foreign chemicals that we add in have to be removed in the final stage. To remove them, we need high temperature, the high temperature and the chemical residues may cause some effects to our products.Carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-explosive and can be readily removed from the finished products and recycled. Besides that, it does not create waste disposal so it will not relate to environment problem.

Our product's main ingredients are green tea extract, vitamin E, beta-carotene and orange which is abundance of vitamin C. We make use of the vitamin E and beta-carotene produced from our palm oil so that we can cut the cost of production. At first stage of consideration, we have suggested to buy carrots since carrots have a lot of beta-carotene. However, after discussing with our research team and technical group members, we stick to use back our own beta-carotene produced. This can reduce our problem on finding reliable supplier. Besides, due to we have orange flavor added in the end, the adding of carrots will make the taste feel weird. Orange flavor is the most popular flavor that people like from the survey that had been conducted by our research team.

After gathering all the raw materials, we are now to the process of beadlet production. Initially, this is not the desirable form of product. The researchers had suggested us to make our product in drink form. However, there exist solubility problem. Our raw materials are fat-soluble, therefore there is problem to make them water soluble. Alternatively, beadlet production has been solution to our problem. Beadlets do not require additional modification and they reduce the need for overage, making products more cost-effective. Since this product is the first trial to other sector of industry, we need to make sure it is successful. Beadlet technology is a technology that embeds several nutrients in a single matrix.

Process of Beadlet Production

Our ingredients chosen like beta-carotene, Vitamin E and green tea extract all are fat-soluble. Beadlet technology can make our fat-soluble ingredients to be easily dissolved in water. Beadlet production is made up from several steps:

- Form an emulsion (active ingredients + emulsifier + reducing sugar)

- Convert emulsion to droplets

- Coat droplets with finely dispersed powders

- Separate a dry particulate form from the remaining finely dispersed powder

- Heat treating (90 degree C - 140 degree C) for certain time period (30 seconds - 30 minutes/ 1 minute - 10 minutes/ 3 minutes - 7 minutes)

- Final beadlet formed (This beadlet has a core and a surface region where the core has high concentration of the active-ingredients while only less than 10% of the active ingredient are left in the surface region)

Clinical Test

Our final product had gone through clinical trial before launching to the market. In June 2009, 50 women took part in the 2 Fix Clinical Trial. The clinical trial was overseen and reviewed by independent Dermatologists and America Association for Cancer Reaseach. They were asked to consume 2 Fix for two months. After the “washout period,” blood was drawn and baseline GST enzyme levels were determined for each participant. Besides, our clinical test was followed by a series of tests including Minimal Erythema Dose (MED), -Blood Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and skin biopsies.

Results From Clinical Test

Green tea extract contain catechins which can enhances the production of Glutathione S-transferase (GST). GST helps in detoxification of xenobiotics.GST catalyzes the formation of the thiol group of glutathione to electrophilic xenobiotics. It is found that GST activity was improved from the analysis of the participants' data.

2 Fix is clinically proven that it can increase skin's natural protective antioxidant barrier to fight those sunlight-generated free radicals. Therefore, the free radicals are stopped in their tracks and hence can help to protect the skin from sun-related damage.

Besides, 2 Fix enhances the antioxidant activity in our body so that skin aging process become slower. 2 Fix is made up of with natural antioxidants from nutrients and herbal extracts which fight free radical damage to help stop skin aging at its source.

Other than that, 2 Fix is clinically proven that it can help to make the skin tone even, results in younger-looking skin. 2 Fix promotes the even distribution of melanin and it contributes to even skin tone, diminishes the appearance of blotchy and aging skin.

Reference:

1. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/9-9-2006-108129.asp

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercritical_fluid_extraction

3. http://sfe.vemt.bme.hu/angol/supercritical.html

4. http://www.cee.vt.edu/ewr/environmental/teach/smprimer/sfc/sfc.html

5. http://www.saiadsorbents.com/flash.htm

6. http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090214661

7. http://www.ihealthbulletin.com/blog/2007/08/12/high-egcg-green-tea-extract-boosts-anti-cancer-gst-detox-enzymes/nl/

8. http://www.glowelle.com/glowelle-proof.html

9. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajbb/ajbb44345-353.pdf

10. http://www.aseanfood.info/Articles/11020296.pdf

11. http://palmoilis.mpob.gov.my/publications/TOT/tt151.pdf

Report from Researches Department

Before I explain more about the materials and ingredients that used to make this new health product, let give your attention to the pie chart below. This chart is the result of the pilot test that has been conducted by our team to get responds from people. It was in a form of questionnaire. It's about 6 questions and I only choose 2 out of 6. The first question is, are there people interested to buy this product? And as we can see here, 80% of respondents say yes, they are interested and they want to buy this product while 20% of them not interested. For the second question, we have asked them about the appearance either in a drinking water or tablet. And the result is 70% of respondents like tablet more than drinking water.

Now, I will explain about the materials. As we know, our company is major in manufacturing product of palm oil. So, we have decided to choose palm oil as the raw material for beta carotene. For your information, beta carotene or pro vitamin A is an organic compound, with a red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. It is widely used as antioxidants or dyes in commercial applications.

As a potent antioxidant, beta carotene has the capability to preserve the body cells from the detrimental effects of free radicals, thus, the reputation to potentially combat the big C and aging. Beta carotene is also valued for its capacity to boost the immune system function. Besides cell protection, beta carotene also foster communication among cells. Recent findings have shown that the overgrowth of cells that cancer ensue from is a result of faulty cell to cell communication. This explains the significant role of carotene in warding off cancer.

Beta carotene may also have an important participation in the female reproductive system, as its highest concentration in the body is found in the yellow corpus luteum. Insufficient amount of beta carotene consumption may not directly trigger any disease or health problems. Although symptoms correlated to vitamin A deficiency is likely to manifest when this beta carotene insufficiency is coupled with low consumption of vitamin A.

The other material is vitamin E, which is same with beta carotene, they share antioxidant properties, meaning they are able to slow down or stop the oxidation, or aging, of other molecules. The example of oxidation is what happens when an apple turns brown or a nail begins to rust. We don't want that to happen with our bodies.

Because of its antioxidant activity, vitamin E is vital in protecting skin cells from ultra violet light, pollution, drugs, and other elements that produce cell damaging free radicals. It is believed that vitamin e is most effective in its natural alcohol form rather than its acetate form where it is a less effective antioxidant. It helps skin look younger by reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Also, free radicals are believed to play an important role in skin aging and therefore the antioxidant activity is quite valuable for this skin problem.

Palm oil extracted Tocotrienols and Tocopherols (the optimal forms of all eight types of vitamin E:alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocotrienols-and alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols) have naturally occurring cardioprotective plant, phytosterols, squalenes and carotenes. They also offer exclusive heart and cancer protective benefits.

Vitamin E works as an anti-aging supplement by protecting the body's cell against free radicals, or by-products of the way we metabolise energy. These free radicals can harm cells and thus contribute to often age-related illnesses such as cancer and heart disease. Tocotrienols posses a rather astounding ability. They are the great protectors of healthy cells and never bother them. On the other hand, they can tell when a cell has gone wrong, including a cancer cell and can facilitate its death.

References :

1)http://www.articlesbase.com/supplements-and-vitamins-articles/beta-carotene-source-a- wellspring-of-anticancer-and-antiaging-agents-1810428.html

2) http://www.cocoscience.com/pdf/tocotrienols.pdf

3) http://www.healthy-skincare.com/benefits-of-vitamin-e.html

ii-

Another ingredient, we are using herbal green tea because its gives many benefits include a lot of healing and preventive processes that cater to diseases like cancer, heart disease and many more. By taking recommended amounts of green tea, the human body is cleansed from toxins that usually cause a lot of health problem which in the future improves your health and your lifestyle as well. Green tea is able to provide people with these benefits because it contains certain vitamins which are a powerful anti-oxidant that inhibits cancer cell growth and kills present cancer cells without harming the rest of healthy tissues in the body.

This element helps in lowering cholesterol levels, balances them, and prevents the abnormal formation of blood clots in wounds. The thrombosis problem which is the problem of blood clotting, usually leads to severe heart attack and stroke. You will feel relaxed and full of energy, and even develop a good outlook in life once you take a beadlet containing green tea. You can expect very few side effects or maybe none at all when taking it regularly because green tea is natural. Other benefits that have been discovered recently include effective burning of calories when mix with caffeine and the prevention of tooth decay and food poisoning because its ability to destroy bacteria as well.

We did a survey on flavor that people like the most are orange flavor. So, we take an orange as a flavor. In addition, the orange is a source of vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid which is an important water soluble vitamin and anti-oxidant.

In its natural state, ascorbic acid appears in the form of a white to yellowish crystal or powder. Commercial vitamin C is often a mix of ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and/or other ascorbates. Because the vitaminis water-soluble, it must be regularly replenished and is commonly found in fresh fruits, especially in the citrus family that is dominated by oranges, lemons, limes, and tangerines. Vitamin C is also abundant in green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin C is perhaps the most popular vitamin among the common nutrients and biochemical and the body requires it to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin. It is also one of many anti-oxidants which are help to build collagen protein while doubling as an anti-oxidant along the way. Vitamin C's antioxidants activity may be helpful in the prevention of some cancers and cardiovascular disease.

The antioxidant properties of vitamin C are thought to protect smokers, as well as people exposed to secondhand smoke, from the harmful effects of free radicals. Vitamin C strengthens the collagen structure of arteries, lowers total cholesterol, and blood pressure, an inhibits platelet aggregation.

Vitamin C may have cancer-preventive activity, at least for certain types of cancer. As a powerful antioxidant, vitamin C may help to fight cancer by protecting healthy cells from free-radical damage and inhibiting the proliferation of cancerous cells. Vitamin C to improve the antineoplastic activity of doxorubicin, cisplatin and paclitaxel. The mechanism of the effect may be pro-oxidant, notantioxidant, activity of the vitamin in potentiating the effects of these chemotherapeutic agents. High concentratins of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may reduce the risk of gastric cancer by inhibiting the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Ascorbic acid is toxic to viruses and bacteria and other such harmful cells. It is also toxic to cancerous cells and a little less toxic to non-cancerous cells and so it is used therapeutically in cancer therapy. Many of the pollutants which now pervade our environment can cause carcinogenic, toxic or mutagenic effects. Vitamin C may be able to combat these harmful effects, in part by stimulating detoxifyingenzymesin the liver.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C in nonsmoking adults is 75 mg per day for women and 90 mg per day for men. For smokers, the RDAs are 110 mg per day for women and 125 mg per day for men. A dose of 200 milligrams daily is almost enough to maximize plasma and lymphocyte levels. Increased intakes of vitamin C are required to maintain normal plasma levels under acute emotional or environmental stress such as trauma, fever, infection, or elevated environmental temperatures. Full blood and tissue saturation is achieved with daily intakes of 200-500mg per day (in 2-3 divided doses).

Vitamin C is water soluble and is regularly excreted by the body. While vitamin C is generally non-toxic, however, in high doses (more than 2,000 mg daily) it can cause diarrhea, gas, or stomach upset. At high doses, some people can experience gastrointestinal side effects such as stomach cramps, nausea, and diarrhea and may increase the risk of developing kidney stones. Intake of large amounts of vitamin C can deplete the body of copper, an essential nutrient. Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron and should be avoided by people withironoverload diseases. Those who have kidney problems should check with a healthcare provider before taking vitamin C supplements. Infants born to mothers taking 6,000 mg or more of vitamin C may develop rebound scurvy due to a sudden drop in daily intake. People with hemochromatosis should not take vitamin C supplements because of enhanced accumulation of non-heme iron in the presence of thisvitamin.

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C

http://www.healthandgoodness.com/catalog/product/green-tea-tablets.html

http://www.amazing-green-tea.com/green-tea-extract.html

http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/green-tea-000255.htm

Report from Business Development Department

i-Marketing Strategies to Sell 2FIX

In a present time, we have to focus on local market first before we go to the next 5 years plan that is internationally market. The concept to market our product 2FIX are to build a concrete name especially in Malaysia, this is important because we have to have a strong brand and name before we can proceed into the next level that we plan to get into Asia market. Next, we need to get the trust from our customer this can be done by our quality products that we produce, the trust from customer is very important in order to get continuous and retain our profits of the company. Last concept is to satisfy our customer needs from time to time this can be done by enhance our quality of the products that really satisfy our customer needs.

My strategies of our company I had divided into 5 main parts. The first one is by advertising, second one is by sales promotion, third one is by events and experiences, fourth one is by public relations and publicity, and the last one is by direct and interactive marketing. Let me start with the first one by advertising our product, before we can do the advertisement I believe that we have to choose one spokesperson to represents our product. I choose Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, 38 years old, why I choose him is because he's still look young and healthy even he's 38. And he's also the first astronaut of our country Malaysia this will give the big influence of our product and I believe that many of people want to be like him and make him one of his/her idol and this is good to market our 2FIX but we have to ensure that our spokesperson also consume our 2FIX. I also pick Vanida Imran a best actress winner on “Anugerah Skrin TV3” 2007 and also the winner couples, her and her husband on “Sehati Berdansa”. She will represent our product 2FIX to convince girls in Malaysia to consume our product.

Now the spokespersons for our product had been chose and now let's go back to our first part that is advertising, the advertisement is so important to build a concrete name we can use the print ads and put in the newspapers, magazines, and etc.. In the big cities for example we can use this method to advertise our product and for example Kuala Lumpur city we can advertise our product in the train either inside or outside the train Putra LRT, Star LRT and Monorail. The good time to advertise our 2 FIX by all these train is during all workers back from their work, there are many office workers are stress during this time and they start noticing that our product is 2 in 1 benefits anti-aging and anti-cancer. This method can also be use by the taxi and busses. The way of advertisement is also important we have to start aware all people in Malaysia that the anti-aging is a big issue for women and also nowadays for guys too, and we have to aware them that the cancer is second killer disease in Malaysia.

We can also advertise our 2FIX product by broadcast ads, as we know that television is the best medium to make our product noticeable, we have to advertise our product during night because the rate of watching televisions during this time are high. The people are watching our advertisement maybe conscious about their health and start to get our product to the nearest store. Not only television, the radio also can influence people to try our new product, we have to ensure that the way we want to advertise is quite different with the television, with the radio medium we need play with the voices and music to send the message on our new product specialty that can give 2 in 1 benefits. We just have to think creative from time to time and we also need to take care of our quality of the products and the good effect that can be feeling by our new customers.

The packaging is important role by producing a good packaging outer and inserts people we are actually grabs the attention of the buyers to buy and try our 2FIX product. Other than this we can also produce brochures and booklet and put all the info of our 2FIX product to make our customer go into details. And we can put these brochures, booklets and also our products to customer who interested to buy our product to specific places like clinics and hospital to make people aware about we want to deliver and what people can get from our product since our slogan of this product is “Get What You Want, Before It's Too Late”.

2FIX advertisement can also be done by poster and leaflets and distribute in at the hot spots and target to young at age 20 above because at this age their conscious towards the cancer and aging are high. We can also paste in at the board in school, university, office and also at the hot spot like elevator/lift this will make our advertisement noticeable by people during using the elevator/lift either in the offices or shopping malls. The directories of our company is needed to easier our customer to reach our company, dealers and etc. we can include it into for example yellow pages.

Billboards are also one of the ways to make our product name famous, by doing this all people realize of our product. These billboards are the hotspots people walk through it for example Maju Junction billboards and Bukit Bintang in Kuala Lumpur. Even it's costly we have to try because “High Risk, High Return”. In the next 5 years we can plan the billboards all over the state in Malaysia and along the North-South Express Highway.

Plus we can advertise our product in the cinema, this is quiet costly but in 5 years I hope that we can think and plan for this because teenagers nowadays love to watch cinema by this we can spread the message that to delay the aging process and prevent from getting cancer they should take our product.

The second way is by sales promotion, this is important since our product is still new and we want to make our name in the market. We can do some contest and my idea is the people have to buy our product at least 3 bar code needed to participate this contest. The contestants needs to take a picture of themselves with as creative as they can with our product and the winner will bring some money as prizes and their picture will be stick on one side of our product for 1 month this contest are continuously until we want to change the next contest in the future. We are the first company doing this in Malaysia.

We should find many dealers from time to time to make our customer more convenience to buy our 2FIX product and we will try to open in all over the states in Malaysia. To select a dealer are important because they represent our company's name and product one mistakes of the dealer can destroyed our reputation. We have to select a dealer that we can trust and willing to find a strategy that can expand our business not only depending on us and with a good behaviour.

Our company should find a tender to bond some contract with ministry for example or other company in order to retain our profits in the long term and this will convince our customer that our product 2FIX is safe to use.

Sampling is also important to let our customer taste our product and feel the difference. This can be done by deliver the sample if they request like at the below of our advertisement there a Short Messaging System number or form to request for sample. We can sample our product during the fairs like “Jums Heboh” and any fairs that we can also bring our spokesperson to attract more people to come and get and autograph at the same time sell our product at the promotional prices.

In the next 5 years after we had stable profits we can give coupons and rebates to our loyal customer to appreciate them at the same time to retain our profit in the future before we can market our product internationally.

After we had built our territory in Malaysia we can wide range our product and our factory in Malaysia and we can also go international but we have to consider about the price and language that certain countries all of these should be study first before we go into global new market. First after Malaysia we target on Association of Southern Asian Nations (ASEAN) first then Asian Pacific Economic Co-operation forum (APEC), Latin America (MERCOSUR), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and finally at THE EUROPEAN UNION countries. In the next 5 years we should have more factories and to target ASEAN countries and other international countries my idea is we build our factory centred at China this can cut our cost on worker and produce our packaging with the cheap price and sell it with high price by doing this we can get more profit without change the quality of our 2FIX product.

Then comes this methods events and experiences, to attract the more customer we should do this methods, factories tour, our customer can experiences themselves on how we made our product this will more convincing our customer about the cleanliness during producing our 2FIX product. We also should held some sports activities for example we held some games activities at the Titiwangsa during the weekend where people can participate this programme at the same time we sell our product. And some fairs like I'd stated above “Jum Heboh” that's really big carnival and we can promote our product there together with our spokespersons.

In the next 5 years we can build our company museum to show how we produce our product by using the new technology and how we make it one product with 2 benefits also the background of our company where people can visit and they know more specific about our company.

The fourth methods is by public relations and publicity, I think from now maybe we just neglect on this method for a while because of the cost, our product is still new to do this methods but after 5 years maybe this is one of the vital method we should do. After we have a stable profit we can think about the charity and sponsorships, we need some publicity to build a longer profit from our 2FIX product this can be done by donate our product for example at the hospitals to the cancer patient and senior citizens at the folk house. This is because we sell health product so to sponsor something, we have to think where to sponsor our product on, depends on place, occasion and event. For example we can sponsor during the MAKNA event to show that we support and concern about cancer disease and try to make our customer aware and take action by taking our product.

It's like one of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for example one of the popular in Malaysia is Faiza where there are collect donation by their rice buyers and give it to the poor people on TV3 in “Bersamamu”, we also can follow her company strategy to show our responsibility at the same time our company will well known by Malaysian citizens because of our concerns towards people who are in unlucky conditions. These sponsorships to the poor people also can avoid us from paying the taxes of our company.

Sponsor student who want to pursue his/her degree in specific field is also a good idea. We sponsor it at the same time we get name and after the student had done his degree they can work with us. I think not only degree, masters and PhD also; we should put some budget on these sponsorships.

Publicity and public relations are not only we sponsor our product but also we can publish our own magazine and in the 5 years there are many of variety of the product we had produce in our company this also we can put many stories inside like how to maintain a good health and so on, we will sell to the people with the reasonable price.

The last one platform is by direct and interactive marketing, we should thinking to publish catalogs after we had variety of product predictable in the next 5 years. The catalogs will be sending to their letter box with a great promotion given and stated what is our new company that had been produce by our company.

I think from now on we should create our own blog and websites to put the info our product at the beginning before we publish our own magazines. In this blog and web sites the customer also can order directly through online and to make the attraction of many customers, free delivery are provided if order through our website and blogs just send your name, address of the house and the quantity of the order. We can also sending our news letter through email this is to cut cost and we can send as many letter through email.

All these are the marketing strategies that are relevant for our company that sell health product and we can be one of the tops companies in the world if we follow all the strategy stated with full of responsibility and discipline. And all these can't be done alone all should take part to develop our company and sell our 2FIX product.

Reference:

1) Marketing management, 13th edition, Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller, Pearson Education International. (2009).

ii-

First of all, I would like to introduce our product name that is called “2 fix “. The reason of choosing that kind of names is because of the main benefits that we can get from 2fix. The benefits are for anti-aging and anti cancer.

Next about our slogan. I have chosen “get what you wants before it's too late “. It is because we all want to stay healthy . Getting what you want is like to be healthy rather than anything. Am I right? So we have to take care as much as we can to maintain our body. It such kind of supplement to take.

The design of our product as shown. I have chosen the orange color for the container. It is because it suit with our flavor and also bead let colors. It also because of our main ingredients are based from orange. After a few surveying to those people, we can see that most of them are likely to choose orange colors rather than other colors. Orange colors such a bright colors that will attract people attention.

For the shape container, I choose the rectangle shape. Rectangle shapes are such a modern style and it is sophisticated design.. It also lighter and easy to carry. It also fix in the pocket and also in the handbag.

I will mention about the description about the shape using this picture. I have divided it into 3 main parts ( front, back and side ).

For the front side as you can see. I have put our slogan and also our product names “ 2 fix”. New formulation here is because of our product are new in Malaysia market and it is designed as a new health product with two benefits - anticancer and also anti aging. It also state the net weight for the bead lets.

Let us turn to the back site. At the back we have include the important information such as the ingredients, direction use and also dosage. The logo are still there to promote our product and to be known and familiar to those who have buy it.

Lastly I will explain about the side of the container. I have put the bar code that contains the information about 2 fix. Then it also have expired date. It is very important in labeling the product and to be sold. Our product cannot be use after it pass the expired date to avoid unwanted things happen. We also have the halal certificate from JAKIM. It is other important label that we have to concern about. Malaysian are mostly Muslim.

References:

www.clorets.com

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