In past years, face recognition has completed great strides. It received attention from whole world's awareness and quickly increasing growth in researches. In these days, face recognition has been broadly useful in security system, surveillance system, credit card verification and other applications. Automatic face and facial features recognition have become significant for face recognition Francis Galton is the first person who introduced the method of face recognition in 1888. The requirements of Automated face recognition is administrate to locate features(eyes, ears, nose and mouth) on photograph in advance than it determine distances and ratios to a common situation point, which then compared to reference information. This technology was developed in 1960.
In this technology, there is no need of any human being co-operation so it is very useful and plays great role in video based surveillance system. Due to some environment conditions face recognition algorithms suffers many problems. Facial Recognition is computerised method during this method anyone can recognize or verify from a video image or video source. It can be done through selecting some facial features from the image and by facial database.
Functions of face recognition for video surveillance
Face recognition in video has received large concentration due to its great job in designing surveillance systems. There are two main functions of face recognition:
- From Security point
- Used in Business
- Face Recognition Technology
One of the main benefits of face recognition is in the security of large installations of the globe. Some most important places in the world where security is necessary have cameras which identify and verify the faces. The cameras are very helpful against the terrorist because they a have fisheye to capture anyone's movements .These fish eyes are made by 360 - spherical lens As a result, in serious situations these cameras are helpful to expose any illegal person.
At ports, this technology is very useful in defensive nuclear and radiological resources. These resources are regularly transported throughout ships and with the help of video surveillance less chance of risk of nuclear explosion from ships. The full theory is based on portable container scanning overlap transporter which is able for container recognition, number coding and marking.
Today, most of the organizations uses face recognition software for the safety and security of their organizations. Face recognition technology scan the images of the people and helps to recognize the face of the particular person. It helps to recognize the criminals and other people who are involved in the crimes. The following are some of the types of face recognition technologies used for the recognition of the faces:
- Biometric Security Technologies: It is the common technologies used in finger print, palm print, Iris scan, and face recognition and so on. It helps to ensure true possession of keys.
- Principal Components Analysis (PCA): The probe and gallery images must be the same size and must first be normalized to line up the eyes and mouth of the subjects within the images with the PCA techniques. The PCA approach is then used to reduce the dimension of the data by means of data compression basics and reveals the most effective low dimensional structure of facial patterns.
- Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA): It is a statistical approach for classifying samples of unknown classes based on training samples with known classes. This technique aims to maximize between-class (across users) variance and minimize within-class (within users) variance.
- Elastic Bunch Graph Matching (EBGM): It relies on the concept that real face images have many non-linear characteristics that are not addressed by the linear analysis methods such as variations in illumination, pose and expression.
Video surveillance is widely used all over the world and its value is increasing day by day. Most of the organizations used video surveillance technology for the safety and security of the organizations. The study in 2009 showed that there was 13 percent reduction in crime after the installation of 18 cameras in Philadelphia. Both private and public sectors, in city streets and parks used thousands of cameras nowadays. As with any technology solution, wireless video surveillance networks are evolving and improving rapidly. That's why it's important to partner with a provider that knows wireless technology inside and out. There is a whole range of socially productive interactions that can only happened outside-in particular, anything involving people we don't already know, or anything unplanned, unexpected, or kept secret from the people we live with. The legal regime should protect the trust and the values that underlie it, not undermine it with unchecked spying.
Not only this, video surveillance cameras are becoming popular and almost all the organizations are using it. It is also useful in night time in low light areas and afraid of investing in product that won't give the returns as thought. The solution to this problem is infrared cameras. It's a perfect product who needs to capture the images in the dark for work. It uses the infrared light instead of ordinary daylight to get better images in complete darkness or in low light situations. It records only in Black and White.
Video surveillance system is the computer device where the owner protects the assets, valuable items and the properties from unauthorized sources. Most of the companies used facial recognition software to promote their production. Today, most of the businessmen invest in video surveillance system to control the entire functions of the organizations. The overall operations and systems are controlled by video surveillance system in the organizations. It is used in cases where the organizations' get some sort of emergencies such as when the manager is out of office and if something wrong happened at the time. It tracks record in all the departments of the organizations. It helps to identify the person who is trying to shoplift from the shops. This system has helped the organizations a lot and has protected their valuable properties and valuable things from being stolen from the thieves or from the criminals. Video surveillance is more useful in the off peak office hours where all offices will be closed and there will be more chance of being frauds and stolen in the organizations. Not only this, video surveillance has done a lot for the customers. The customers' right such as the right to talk, the right to buy freely and the right to sell has been protected by the video surveillance system. This is because there will be video surveillance cameras to see them in case some sort of unnecessary or unusual happens. It has become essential for everyone because it not only protect in the organizations but also in the homes from being stolen or from being unusual happenings in unexpected time.
- Employee and customer relations issues.
- Fake sense of Security:
- Regulatory concerns.
- Restricted access.
Nowadays, most of the managers believe that employees are the valuable assest of an organization. Turnover results due to the job satisfaction which affects the overall performance of the business. If employees come to know that video cameras are used to "spy" on them, overall job satisfaction levels will most likely to decline. Additionally, It should be notified to employees that at their workplace there is a certain areas which have been captured regularly. Thus, clearly visible notices of surveillance with cameras should be placed.
It is the responsibility of the employer to make sure that the video surveillance systems are correctly operating within the organization. There should not be any sense of false security in the organization. It is believed that a false sense of security can be very hazardous. People may only assume that if they are just the sufferer of criminal activity with in the organization premises but the facts supporting the crime can be obtained by accessing the captured video recording. This is impossible with the fake system and it may potentially mislead. An incorrect functional video surveillance system can make false sense of security in the minds of the employees in an organization.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) contain very clear standards governing patient confidentiality in the U.S. The position of cameras, privacy laws and how collected data is stored and accessed is governed by HIPAA.
Moreover, the U.S. courts have decided that it's practical for employees to expect privacy in regions such as lockers, rest rooms, and lounges. The camera and other surveillance technology are avoided in these areas. Another regulatory issue might arise if audio is included with such videos. It is recommended that recording solutions don't violate federal, state, or local laws.
The video files are very confidential. They should be classified and accessible strictly under the specified guidelines. Most of the time, only legal persons and investigators should view them. Likewise, real-time monitoring of cameras should be restricted to a selected and cautiously examined team. Lastly, the camera networks must be considered to be isolated from business network and from the Internet physically or logically.
- Provides the elusion of active monitoring - With the dummy camera, it is hard to find out that whether it is recording the live footage or not. Dummy camera looks exactly like the real one. So it is assumed to be an active surveillance camera.
- Likelihood of criminal activity decreases - Employees act to be more careful of their events when know they are lively video monitored and their actions are recorded. Therefore, the presence of camera may be sufficient to prevent some probable crimes from ever happening.
- Fake cameras can be revealed - It is very reasonable that a criminal could find out that a fake video camera was being used even though at first look it would be difficult to notice but a little analysis and careful observation could disclose the uselessness of the system.
- Once a fake system is discovered criminal activity increase - Once a fake surveillance system is revealed, the risk increases. We could see the increment in criminal activity so far as the limitation of security system is exploited.
On the whole, dummy cameras might provide prevention against criminal activity in the short term but if looking for a long-term successful security plan, dummy video cameras are not preferred.
Technology Improvements in Future
The competitive market in the field of video surveillance is forcing vendors to integrate new and innovative features. For example, pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) cameras track incidents or people and zoom in for a nearer look by using remote control or through integral automation. New-generation surveillance cameras are integrating infrared light sources that have the ability to work 24 hours a day in darkness ruthless outdoor environments.
Researchers are concentrating on the development of Ethernet-based video-matrix switchers which simplifies the process of managing multiple video surveillance systems and at the same time, it reduces the cost of operating individual cables through an analog system. Mobile Digital Video Recordings (DVRs) used in police cruisers, ambulances, and fire trucks were primarily record-only types and they are now available with an optional cellular air card that is responsible for converting the device into a wireless unit. This is successfully able to transmit broadband digital stream of both real-time and recorded images through the Internet to cell phones, computers and PDAs.
- Face recognintion dl.ac.cn/project/faceId/.../FRJDL-FG04-BoostedGabor-Yang.pdf