Knowledge management technology

SECI Process

Nonaka et al (2000) have created a model of knowledge creation, sharing and transfer. There are four modes of knowledge conversion in the SECI process, Socialization (from tacit to tacit), Externalization (from tacit to explicit), Combination (explicit to explicit), and Internalization (explicit to tacit). To elucidate this process we will follow a story of knowledge conversion and transfer, borrowed from Nonaka's article The knowledge creating company from 1991, and slightly adapted.


In the Socialization process tacit knowledge is shared between individuals through shared experiences. It is called socialization to emphasize that tacit knowledge is exchanged through joint activities, such as working together and living in the same environment, rather than through verbal or written instructions. Socialization can also occur in informal social meetings outside the office, where tacit knowledge such as our view of the world, mental models and trust can be created or shared. (Nonaka et al 2000) On its own, socialization is a rather limited form of knowledge creation, since neither the apprentice nor the master gains any systematic insight into their craft knowledge. Their knowledge never becomes explicit and tacit knowledge is not easily leveraged by the organization as a whole. (Nonaka 1991)

  1. social networks: both within and outside of companies, increase the value of collaboration by reducing the search and coordination costs of connecting parties who have related knowledge and interests. While face-to-face interaction is the optimal way to share knowledge, this is often not possible given the limitations of time and geographic dispersion of employees.
  2. Meeting: during the meeting all the people who have the experience in some filed going to share their knowledge, in order to come out with a new knowledge.
  3. Observation: observation is one of the effective learning skill, that based on observe the mechanism of some process, observe natural behave to collect a knowledge and use it I another way, such as bees algorithm.
  4. Participation: the participating in some training courses gives the participant the chance to receive the knowledge from the trainer and from the trainee around him.
  5. Community: the community is the main resource of the knowledge, when the person lives in a different communities he will receive different knowledge just from adopting with the new community.


In the Externalization process, tacit knowledge is articulated into explicit knowledge. When tacit knowledge becomes explicit, "knowledge is crystallized, thus allowing it to be shared by others, and it becomes the basis of new knowledge". Other examples of externalization are when someone has an idea for a new product, and creates an articulated concept out of it, or someone working on the shop floor, who makes improvements on the manufacturing process, by articulating the experience he or she has gathered over years on the job. (Nonaka et al 2000)

  1. Chat: from chatting the people together they can share their knowledge.
  2. Wiki: through writing a wikis about something they can share their experiences
  3. Blogs: through writing a blog about something they can share their experiences
  4. Email: sharing emails between friends and mates to share the knowledge about wide sector of knowledge
  5. Video conferencing: one of the advanced technological way to share the knowledge between people have an experience without caring about distance.


In the Combination process explicit knowledge is converted into more complex and systematic sets of explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge, collected from the inside or outside of the organization is combined, edited or processed and becomes new knowledge. Explicit knowledge is often dispersed in the organization, but computer communication networks and databases can facilitate this mode of knowledge conversion. One example is when a controller gathers financial information from different parts of the organization and puts it together in a financial report. The financial report is new knowledge in the sense that it synthesizes knowledge from different sources, and puts in a different context. Combination can also mean to break down an overall concept into parts, for example a corporate vision that is broken down into business or product concepts. (Nonaka et al, 2000)

  1. Reviews: when the readers write an reviews about whet the have read in wikis or blogs, their reviews will be like an addition on the topic of it.
  2. RSS or Really Simple Syndication: used to distribute regularly efficient works such asblogentries, news headlines, audio, and video. They help readers who want to contribute to timely updates from preferred websites or to combined feeds from many sites into one place.
  3. Metadata: is an developing exercise with close draws to librarianship, information science, information technology and GIS. It can be useful to a huge group of items including both physical and electronic articles such as raw data, books, CDs, DVDs, images, maps, database tables, and web pages.
  4. Mashups: The termmashupinvolves easy, fast addition, commonly using openAPIsand data sources to create results that were not the original reason for creating the raw source data.
  5. Personal Learning Environments (PLE): are systems that help learners take control of and manage their own learning. PLEs contain the addition of both formal and informal learning events into a single knowledge, the use of public networks that can irritated recognized limits, and the use of networking protocols to connect a range of resources and systems within a personally-managed space.


In the Internalization process, explicit knowledge is embodied into tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is shared in the organization and when people pick it up and start using it, it soon becomes tacit. For example, the controllers report from the combination process might cause a revision of the financial control system. When other people use the innovation, they eventually come to take it for granted as part of the background of tools and resources necessary to do their job. (Nonaka et al, 2000)

  1. Trial and Error: or trial by error is a general technique of problem resolving, fixing things, or for finding knowledge. For example, Trial and error has usually been the key technique of discovery new drugs, such as antibiotics. Chemists simply try chemicals at accidental until they find one with the wanted result.
  2. Learning-by-doing: is a idea of economic concept. It states to the fitness of employees to rally their efficiency by frequently reiterating the equal type of achievement. The enlarged efficiency is achieved through repetition, self-perfection and trivial innovations.
  3. Simulation: is the artificial of some real thing, state of activities, or process. The action of simulating something usually involves in place of certain key features or manners of a selected physical or mental system.
  4. Manuals: Societies offer teaching programs for its employees at diverse intervals of their working with the corporation. By reading these training manuals and documents employees adopt the tacit knowledge and attempt to make new knowledge after the internalization method.
  5. Visualization: is any system for producing images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imaginings has been an active way to interconnect both mental and actual concepts.


  • Mackinlay, Jock D. (1999).Readings in information visualization: using vision to think.Card, S. K., Ben Shneiderman (eds.). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. pp.686.
  • Gottschalk, P. (2005).Strategic knowledge management technology. Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub.
  • Marwick A. D.(2001). Knowledge management technology. IBM Systems Journal 40.

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