System analysis and design

INTRODUCTION

My name is ZIN MAR LWIN. I am a learner of KMD computer training center, in Yangon, Myanmar. Now, I am learning the IADCS course which is held by NCC education, UK. In the first term, we have to study 3 subjects (System Analysis and Design (SAD), Advanced Java and Enterprise Networking (EN)). Among them, I like SAD subject and Advanced Java because I like imaging, thinking and designing. There is another subject called project we have to do in the IADCS course. Therefore, we can do nothing without understanding SAD and programming language. We are learning how the manual system is changed into the computerized system, how to collect the information from the user, how to try to meet the user's requirements and how to design the new system, etc.

The title of this assignment is "National Hostelling Association". We have to analyze and design a system for NHA. This association currently has 40 hostels of varying sizes that can accommodate between 10 and 40 guests at any one time. In manual, the manager in each hostel keeps paper records of bookings, free beds and payments taken. Records of the bookings and money received are posted to head office on a monthly basis. The NHA wishes to centralize its bed booking into a single national bookings office where all bookings will be taken by telephone. Therefore, we assume that the NHA requires a new IT system in order to manage this centralized process.

Task 1 - 20 Marks

Create a process model for the hostelling association's bed booking system comprising:

  1. A Context Diagram of the bed booking system. (4 marks)
  2. A statement of the aims and objectives of the bed booking system. (2 marks)
  3. A Data Flow Diagram for the bed booking system (6 marks ) including:
  • Process description (2 marks)
  • Dataflow description (2marks)
  • Data store contents (2marks)
  • External entity definitions (2marks)
1 (b) Aims and objectives of the bed booking system

The main aim is to centralize bed booking into a single national booking office. In order to manage this centralized process, new computerized system will be the best. All bookings will be taken by phone and every new booking will be automatically sent to the relevant hostel via e-mail including the name of the guest, start date, number of night they are staying, amount paid, etc.

Another objectives are connecting each hostel to the system so local staff can make bookings for customers if the system is successful. Further development of the system may include a website that allows association members to book their own accommodation via the association's website.

Task 2 - 20 Marks

Create a data model detailing the data structure required to support the information and process requirements of the bed booking system including:

  • An Entity Relationship Diagram for the system. (6 marks)
  • Entity descriptions for all entities in the diagram. (4 marks)
  • Appropriate attributes for all entities including primary and foreign keys. (6 marks)
  • Relationships detailing optionality and degree of relationships between entities. (4 marks)

Task 5 - 15 Marks

Use software of your choice to create a prototype graphical user interface for the bed booking system including, as a minimum, the following functions:

  • Searching for hostels with free beds on a particular date. (5 marks)
  • Processing a bed booking for an existing customer. ( 5 marks)
  • Adding a new customer to the system. (5 marks)

Task 6 - 20 Marks

Create a comprehensive, professional standard report (3 marks) describing in detail your system design for the bed booking system (3 marks). This should include the details of Task 1 - 5 plus a discussion of the privacy/security issues relating to the tasking and recording of customer payments during the booking process (6 marks). You should also include a discussion of any assumptions and choices you have made during the design process (3 marks) plus a review of your work including any weakness and suggested improvements ( 5 marks).

Task 6

REPORT

SYSTEM DESIGN FOR BED BOOKING SYSTEM

The NHA wants to centralize the bed booking of 40 hostels at one place as the head office. Therefore, we assume that the information of the 40 hostels will be gathered from each hostel and recorded at the head office. So, we assume that we have to set up a single national booking office where the customers can be taken the bookings of any hostel. In our computerized bed booking system, we would like to take account of the following requirements such as recording of bed bookings including customer name, hostel name, start date, number of nights and amount paid. When recording customer information, we assume that we should record details so that we can contact in the case of special offers or problems with their booking. If there is no free bed, the system would not allow a booking to be made. We also assume that a search facility because the booking staff has to find available beds based upon a number of criteria such as location, number of nights ,date, etc. In the case of financial records, the customer has to pay deposit 10% before staying. We would like to create 6 processes such as record hostels' information, enquiry and search free beds, booking, payment, send e-mail to each hostel and post monthly report.

DETAILS OF TASK 1- 5

In task 1, we created context diagram for the new computerized system of bed booking. There will be customer who comes and enquiry for booking the free beds as the external entity of the system. There will also be individual hostels which must provides the hostels details of each to the head office and the head office will also send e-mail of daily booking details to the relevant hostels. The head office records the information of the individual hostels in the related files and provides information to the customers who enquiry for the bed booking.

We also expressed our assumptions of the aims and objectives for changing into computerized system. In manual system, the manager in each hostel keeps paper records of bookings, free beds and payment taken and posts the records of the bookings and money received to the head office on a monthly basis. Therefore NHA wishes to centralize its bed booking into a single national booking office where all bookings will be taken by phone. So, the NHA wishes to change its bed booking from manual to computerized system in order to manage this centralized process.

We created also the data flow diagram (level 1) and process descriptions, data flow descriptions, data store descriptions and external entity descriptions. We assume that there will be six processes such as recording the individual hostel details, enquiry and search free beds, booking beds, make payment, send e-mail to relevant hostel and report monthly. Recording individual hostel process includes requesting the details of the hostels from each hostel and records the information in the hostel file, room file and hostel detail file for searching easily. When someone comes to enquiry for bed booking, the enquiry and search free beds process will be started. The staff of the system asks for the customer's requirements such as location, date and room type, etc. Then the staff searches the free beds on the date of customer's enquiry and confirm available or not. Booking beds process means making booking from the customer on a particular date. The staff records the customer information, booking information such as hostel name, room type, etc. Next process is making payment. In the case of payment, we assume that the customer can do two times payment. First, he/she should pay the deposit 10% when making booking and the rest will be on start date. At the end of a day, the staff from the head office will send booking details and payment details to the relevant hostels via e-mail. The hostels will also produce monthly report and post it to the head office.

In task 2, we created Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) for the system including entity descriptions, appropriate attributes for all entities and relationships details between entities. There are seven entities in our ERD including hostel, room type, hostel details, customer, booking, booking details and payment.

Hostel and room type are many to many relationship because there will be many room type in each hostel and the hostel has the same room type. Hostel and booking is "one to many" relationship and there is optionality between them because every booking may not be booking at one time. Booking and customer is also "one to many" relationship because a customer can do more than one booking at one time. Booking and booking detail is "one to many" relationship because there will be many bookings in booking details. Booking details and payment is also "one to many" relationship because there will be two times payment for one booking.

In task 3, we drew an Entity Life History (ELH) for a bed booking. In this bed booking process, we record the customer information when the customer comes for booking. If the existing customer, we will update the customer information and in the case of new customer, we will record new customer information in the customer file. After recording customer information, the next step is making booking. In this stage, there will be confirm booking and cancel booking. If the customer confirms booking, we will record booking details including hostel information and customer information. Moreover, the customer also needs to pay deposit 10%.

In task 4, we created database design for bed booking system including normalization and Data dictionary. There are three forms including hostel registration form, hostel booking form and payment we created. The Data Dictionary (DD) includes Data Element, Data Structure, Data Store and Data Flow.

In task 5, we use VB.net 2005 programming language for creating the prototyping of searching for hostels with free beds on a particular date, processing a bed booking for an existing customer and adding new customer to the system. We also explained the notation of the symbol and validations.

SECURITY ISSUE

In the case of payment, the customer will pay by cash or credit card. To maintain the security, we assume that we should control the payment with the password. If so, only the authorized person can access the payment file.

We should also define user level. We should decide to what data and software comes with their authority. The level of restriction necessary depends on the sensitivity of the data and on the possibility of corruption of that data. For example, the staff who accept customer enquiry can access the hostel information to explain customer. However, he\she is not allowed to access the data of payment. Only the authorized staff (accounting staff) can access this file.

We should also consider for backup copies of data. All communication lines into the building should be secured so that they cannot physically be tapped into.

ASSUMPTIONS

After reading the scenario, we understand that the NHA wishes to centralize its bed booking into a single national booking office where all the bookings will be taken by phone. The NHA has 40 hostels of varying sizes that can accommodate between 10 and 40 guests. Therefore, we assume that the head office should have the information of these 40 hostels. To get these hostels information, we assume that the head office should contact the individual hostel for hostel information so that the head office can know which hostel has which type of room, how many room, facility and rate, etc. Moreover, the system is required to record bookings, search for free beds on a particular date, record payments made, etc.

We assume that there should be

  • Hostel file to record mainly hostel name and location
  • Room file to record room no and room type
  • Room type file to record room type, rate, no of room
  • Hostel detail file, the combination of hostel and room type file
  • Customer file to record customer name, phone number, etc
  • Booking file to record customer's booking
  • Booking detail file to record confirmed booking information
  • Payment file to record deposit 10% for confirming booking

In the assignment scenario, there is no restriction of payment. We can consider how much percentage will be received as deposit. Therefore, we assume that we will receive 10% of charges as deposit. The rest payment will be on the first stay day. In the case of searching free beds, we will record the bookended room in the calendar record with start date and end date.

By changing into computerized system, when a new booking is made an e-mail will be automatically sent to the relevant hostel giving the name of the guest, date of the first night they are staying and the number of nights they are staying.

REVIEW OF WORK

As the assignment requirements, we changed the manual system of the National Hostelling Association (NHA) into the computerized system for a centralized control. We assumed that the head office first requires the individual hostel's information. After receiving the information, we record them in the hostel file, room type file and hostel detail file. We created the necessary files for relevant record. The daily booking information and payment (deposit) will be sent to the individual hostel via e-mail. In our computerized system, we can found a few weakness and improvement when reviewing our work.

WEAKNESS AND IMPROVEMENTS

The main weakness is "Searching free beds" because we can't control this process well. There will be a few drawbacks in the control of bookended room and free rooms. For example, the particular room is already bookended by two customers where the start date of the second booking will be on the three days after of the end date of the first booking. If this room will be bookended by the other customer who wants to book on the date between the first and second bookended we don't know how to control this case. Moreover, how to search the free room? We can search the free room on the particular date but how to know this room will be free from which date to date.

The improvement of changing computerized system is that we can control 40 hostels at one place. Therefore, the customers no need to book beds in a hostel by telephoning the individual hostel directly and only need to call the head office and can know rapidly the booking information. The manager in each hostel no need to keeps paper based records of bookings, free beds, payments taken and also no need to post records of bookings and money received to the head office monthly. Therefore, we can centralize the payment of booking fees thus simplifying the association's accounting procedures. Moreover, an e-mail of new booking will be automatically sent to the relevant hostel giving the name of the guest, date of the first night they are staying and the number of nights they are staying. if the system is successful, we can also consider future plans such as connecting each hostel to the system so local staff can make booking for customers.

REFERENCES

Websites
  • http://www.edrawsoft.com/Design-Data-Flow.php Access Date : 15th March 2010
  • http://www.getahead-direct.com/gwbadfd.htm Access Date : 15th March 2010
  • http://www.saintmarys.edu/~psmith/417lab5.html Access Date : 19th March 2010
  • http://www.jacksonworkbench.co.uk/stevefergspages/papers/entity_event_modelling/index.html Access Date : 25th March 2010
  • http://www.smartdraw.com/resources/tutorials/Entity-Life-History-Diagram Access Date : 28th March 2010
  • http://www.computing.dcu.ie/~renaat/ca2/ca214/ca214elh.pdf Access Date : 5th April 2010

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