FUGRO MAPS is a single point of access to geoinformation, with a focus on the Middle East and Africa. FUGRO MAPS acquires, processes and integrates geographic and spatial data, covering all geographic data development stages, including aerial photography, field survey, asset mapping, in-house image processing software development and system integration.
FUGRO MAPS is the Sole Distributor of QuickBird satellite imagery for sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, and reseller and system integrator for major GIS and geospatial industry software providers.
FUGRO MAPS has production facilities and subsidiaries throughout Europe, Middle East, and Africa. For over 30 years, its multinational staff of 200 engineers and technicians has executed relevant projects in over 60 countries, adding to FUGRO MAPS' reputation for providing ISO 9001:2000 standard certified excellence and customer-oriented quality.
The Fugro group acquired MAPS in July 2007, giving it access to Fugro worldwide network of technical expertise and resources.
Fugro MAPS is the leading provider of geospatial products and services in the Middle East and Africa. Utilizing the latest state-of-the-art technologies in airborne and satellite imaging, LiDAR, ground based collection systems and customized GIS software solutions; Fugro MAPS serves all land-use and natural resource industries in the region.
Fugro MAPS is a Master Reseller of QuickBird satellite imagery - the market's highest resolution satellite imagery. 
Operating throughout the Middle East and Africa with Headquarters in Sharjah, UAE and support offices in Ethiopia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Yemen.
Group companies of Fugro MAPS comprises of:
Fugro Peninsular (Survey Department) - Doha, Qatar
Fugro Middle East and Partners LLC (Survey Department) - Muscat, Oman
Fugro Geodetic Ltd. - Karachi, Pakistan
MAPS s.a.r.l. - Beirut, Lebanon
Following services are provided by Fugro MAPS 
- Aerial Photography
- Satellite Imagery
- Geodetic & Engineering Survey
- Strata Title Survey
- Topographic Mapping
- Digital Terrain Modeling
- T3D Vector Mapping
- Orthoimage Production
- Spatial Data Integration
- GIS Implementation
Fugro's mission is to be the world's leading company and services provider in the collection and interpretation of data and the provision of advice related to the earth's surface, the sea bed and the soil and rocks beneath. 
Fugro' s activities are carried out all over the world, onshore, offshore and from the air, and are primarily aimed at providing advice to the:
- Oil and gas industry;
- Mining industry and
- Construction industry.
This mission is achieved by:
Fugro supports its clients in their search for natural resources and the development, production and transportation of those resources. Fugro also provides its clients with technical data and information to enable structures and infrastructure to be designed and constructed in a safe and efficient manner.
Fugro's clients operate in many different locations and under many different conditions. To be able to meet their needs in the best possible way, Fugro's organizational structure is decentralized and market-oriented. Fugro's highly qualified specialists work with modern technologies and systems, many of which have been developed in-house. Fugro's data collection equipment includes around fifty vessels, hundreds of CPT (Cone Penetration Test) and drilling units, approximately fifty aircraft and helicopters, more than one hundred ROV's (Remotely Operated Vehicles), and four AUV's (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles), as well as advanced (satellite) positioning systems. 
Fugro holds a leading and unique market position due to its in-house developed technology, high-value services provision and strong international or regional presence. Fugro was founded in 1962. In March 2002 Fugro was included in the Amsterdam Midkap Index (AMX) and as of 2 September 2008 Fugro has been included in the AEX-Index. Early 2008 Fugro had more than 13,000 employees stationed in over fifty countries.
Fugro comprises of three divisions: Geotechnical, Survey, and Geoscience.
Investigation of and advice regarding the physical characteristics of the soil, foundation design and construction materials.
Precision positioning services, geological, geophysical and oceanographic advice, topographic and hydrographical mapping and support services for onshore and offshore construction project. Furthermore advanced geographical information services are provided.
The acquisition, processing and interpretation of geophysical and geological data, reservoir modeling and estimation of the presence of oil, gas, mineral and water, and the optimization of their exploration, development and production.
This chapter is an introduction to Fugro Maps in general. This chapter covers the various aspects involved in the working of Fugro Maps. It explains the Profile and Mission of the company.
Services provided by Fugro Maps have been explained in this chapter.
In this chapter, the Geotechnical division, the Survey division and the Geoscience division have been touched in detail.
Also the organizational structure of Fugro Maps has been talked about in this chapter. It displays the hierarchy in the company.0
Since gis is mainly what Fugro Maps deals with, the next chapter will contain the basics of gis.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
Geographic Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data, in order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records.
The key components of GIS are a computer system, geospatial data and users. A computer system for GIS consists of hardware, software and procedures designed to support the data capture, processing, analysis, modeling and display of geospatial data.The sources of geospatial data are digitized maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, statistical tables and other related documents. The roles of the user are to select pertinent information, to set necessary standards, to design cost-efficient updating schemes, to analyze GIS outputs for relevant purpose and plan the implementation.
History and Development of GIS:
GIS is relatively a science and has developed through a number of well-defined steps, normally paralleling computer technological development. 
- Pioneer/Research Period: 1950's - 1975 in USA and UK and showed Strength of individuals, with limited international links, little data and Ambition was greater than technological capability.
- Formal Experimental Research: 1973 - Early 1980's Role on individual diminished at international level, still strong at local level (e.g. head of mapping agencies).
- Commercial Phase: Started in 1982 and was characterized by Strong competition between vendors.
GIS Data Models:
There are fundamentally two different types of geographic information.
The vector model
- Information about points, lines, and polygons
- Encoded and stored as a collection of x,y coordinates
The location of a point feature, such as a bore hole, can be described by a single x,y coordinate. Linear features, such as roads and rivers, can be stored as a collection of point coordinates. Polygonal features, such as sales territories and river catchments, can be stored as a closed loop of coordinates.
The raster model
Raster model uses regularly spaced grid cells in specific sequence. An element of the grid cell is called a pixel (picture cell). The conventional sequence is row by row from the left to the right and then line by line from the top to bottom. Every location is given in two dimensional image coordinates; pixel number and line number, which contains a single value of attributes.
GIS Data Sources:
As data acquisition or data input of geospatial data in digital format is most expensive (about 80% of the total GIS project cost) and procedures are time consuming in GIS, the data sources for data acquisitions should be carefully selected for specific purposes.
The following data sources are widely used. 
- Analog maps: Topographic maps with contours and other terrain features and thematic maps with respect to defined object classes are digitized by digitizers manually or by scanners semi-automatically. Problems of analog map are lack of availability, out of date, inconsistency in map production time, inaccurate etc.
- Aerial photographs: Analytical or digital photogrammetry is rather expensive but the best method for updating.
- Satellite image: Satellite images or data are available for land use classification, digital elevation model (DEM), updating highway network etc. But the image map scale would be around 1:50,000 to 1:100,000. High-resolution satellite image with ground resolution of 1~3 meters will produce 1:25,000 topomaps in near future.
- Ground survey with GPS: Total station together with GPS (Global Positioning System) will modernize the ground survey. It is very accurate but too expensive to cover wide areas.
Need for GIS:
Many professionals, such as foresters, urban planners, and geologists, have recognized the importance of spatial dimensions in organizing & analyzing information. Whether a discipline is concerned with the very practical aspects of business, or is concerned with purely academic research, geographic information system can introduce a perspective, which can provide valuable insights as
- 70% of the information has geographic location as its denominator making spatial analysis an essential tool.
- Ability to assimilate divergent sources of data both spatial and non-spatial (attribute data).
- Visualization Impact
- Analytical Capability
- Sharing of Information
Advantages of GIS:
The Geographic Information System has been an effective tool for implementation and monitoring of municipal infrastructure. The use of GIS has been in vogue primarily due to the advantage mentioned below:
- Planning of project
- Make better decisions
- Visual Analysis
- Improve Organizational Integration
Difference between GIS and other information systems
- GIS integrates spatial and other kinds of information within one system, it offers a consistent framework for analyzing space.
- GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity.
- GIS provides the mechanisms for undertaking the manipulation, analysis and display of geographic knowledge.
The Future of GIS:
Many disciplines can benefit from GIS techniques. An active GIS market has resulted in lower costs and continual improvements in the hardware and software components of GIS.
These developments will, in turn, result in a much wider application of the technology throughout government, business, and industry.
Through a function known as visualization, a GIS can be used to produce images - not just maps, but drawings, animations, and other cartographic products. These images allow researchers to view their subjects in new and different ways than before. The images often are equally helpful in conveying the technical concepts of GIS study subjects to non-scientists.
GIS and related technology will help greatly in the management and analysis of these large volumes of data, allowing for better understanding of terrestrial processes and better management of human activities to maintain world economic vitality and environmental quality.
GIS data represents real world objects (roads, land use, elevation) with digital data. Real world objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects (a house) and continuous fields (rain fall amount or elevation).
This chapter gives an insight into the world of GIS. It lists the various advantages and advancements in the field of GIS.
It starts with the evolution of GIS and ends with the future of GIS.
GIS data sources and GIS data models have also been explained in detail in this chapter.
Since remote sensing is so closely related to GIS, it is going to be looked into in the next chapter.
Remote sensing is the science (and to some extent, art) of acquiring information about the Earth's surface without actually being in contact with it. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analysing, and applying that information.
In much of remote sensing, the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This is exemplified by the use of imaging systems where the following seven elements are involved. Note, however that remote sensing also involves the sensing of emitted energy and the use of non-imaging sensors.
- Energy Source or Illumination (A)
- Radiation and the Atmosphere (B)
- Interaction with the Target (C)
- Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D)
- Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E)
- Interpretation and Analysis (F)
- Application (G)
The Concept of Remote Sensing:
As you view the screen of your computer monitor, you are actively engaged in remote sensing. A physical quantity (light) emanates from that screen, which is a source of radiation. The radiated light passes over a distance, and thus is "remote" to some extent, until it encounters and is captured by a sensor (your eyes). Each eye sends a signal to a processor (your brain), which records the data and interprets this into information. Several of the human senses gather their awareness of the external world almost entirely by perceiving a variety of signals, either emitted or reflected, actively or passively, from objects that transmit this information in waves or pulses. 
Thus, one hears disturbances in the atmosphere carried as sound waves, experiences sensations such as heat (either through direct contact or as radiant energy), reacts to chemical signals from food through taste and smell, and is cognizant of certain material properties such as roughness through touch. In addition, one recognizes shapes, colours, and relative positions of exterior objects and classes of materials by means of seeing visible light issuing from them. In the previous sentence, all sensations that are not received through direct contact are remotely sensed.
However, in practice we do not usually think of our bodily senses as remote sensors in the way we use the term technically. A formal and comprehensive definition of applied remote sensing, as it is customarily formulated to include determination of geophysical parameters, is:
The acquisition and measurement of data/information on some property of a phenomenon, object, or material by a recording device not in physical, intimate contact with the feature(s) under surveillance. Techniques involve amassing knowledge pertinent to environments by measuring force fields, electromagnetic radiation, or acoustic energy employing cameras, radiometers and scanners, lasers, radio frequency receivers, radar systems, sonar, thermal devices, seismographs, magnetometers, gravimeters, scintillometers, and other instruments.
This chapter is an overview of remote sensing.
Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real-time sensing device(s) that are wireless, or not in physical or intimate contact with the object (such as by way of aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, buoy, or ship).
Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on dangerous or inaccessible areas. Remote sensing applications include monitoring deforestation in areas such as the Amazon Basin, the effects of climate change on glaciers and Arctic and Antarctic regions, and depth sounding of coastal and ocean depths. Military collection during the cold war made use of stand-off collection of data about dangerous border areas. Remote sensing also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed.
AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
A customer is the lifeblood of every business and you must always strive to be in tune with what your customer thinks and how they feel.
A customer's independent review of your site or product carries far more weight than your own ravings about how great your site is. Sure you know that your products and services are great or you wouldn't be selling them, but you will be more convincing if you can get honest endorsements from people who have tried them.
Customers need to be provided with a venue for expressing their needs, concerns and opinions. When a customer has an issue with an experience, they need the proper outlet to provide feedback to be accessible and easy to find. The only way to know if your product or service is satisfactory is to gather accurate and honest feedback from your customers. 
When it comes to learning about a company's client base, there is rarely anything more effective than a customer satisfaction survey. For decades, these surveys have given customers a chance to voice their concerns and sing the praises of the industries with which they deal. Very few argue against the efficacy of these mini-quizzes,acknowledging the surveys as a landmark tool toward open communication with the consumer. What has come into question, however, is the best way to get solid responses to the quizzes and questions put forth.
Verbal interviews can be completed at a rate of a few dozen per day, which pales in comparison to the thousands of surveys that can be sent out every day in the mail. If only 5% respond out of 10,000 sent out, that's 500 returned per day! When looking for large numbers, there is no question as to which method mentioned so far works best. However, when looking for a large volume of surveys being sent out with a much higher response rate, e-mail takes the cake.
Sending e-mails to customers is the quickest, most successful method of gaining insight into what the client wants. It's also the least intrusive, something many people appreciate. A quick scan over the survey, a few typed responses, and a click of a button sends the survey back from whence it came. The response times and percentages outstrip any other form of surveying available, and customers appreciate the ease and convenience. Knowing what the customer wants is a necessity of business. Getting that information is required in order to fully anticipate where a business should focus its energy. With so many options available, it makes sense to know which methods will give you the best results. Gaining customer feedback enables a business to focus on the quality of their customer service and be more competitive. 
Customer feedback is a very important tool to be used by business. It allows Owners, Managers and staff to know first hand the quality of their service and their product. By collecting feedback from customers business can devise new strategies for improvement and meet the needs of customers by discovering new trends and interests as well as those things customers do not like.
A customer feedback survey isn't just about asking a few simple questions, you need to ensure you focus on the aspects that matter. This includes the underlying purpose of the survey and the best methodology of reaching your customers.
No matter what type of business you run or for that matter what size your business is, you will benefit from the help of a customer feedback survey. It will help you manage your business initiatives and push your business to improve in all areas. Also whether you receive negative or positive feedback it is important that you take the points on board and use them to make any necessary changes.
Quite often the difference between those that simply survive in business and those that thrive is keeping abreast of, and adjusting to, the ever changing attitudes and expectations of the market place.
One such change has been the significant change in attitudes of customers over the last 10 years. There was a time when customers were less critical and vocal if not totally satisfied when dealing with a business. This is not the case today.
Today, customers are becoming increasingly more demanding, less tolerant and very critical when not having their expectations met. There was a time when the choices available on where and who to deal with was limited. The power belonged to the business owner, customers had nowhere else to go and therefore customer satisfaction was not so important.
Today, customers have lots of choice on where and who to deal with. As a result the power has now shifted to the customer. If they feel you cannot satisfy their expectations they will simply vote with their feet and deal with someone who will.
Making customer satisfaction feedbacks work:
Good customer service is the life blood of any business. Although new customers are important, good customer service will help generate customer loyalty and repeat business. With each satisfied customer your business is likely to win many more customers through recommendations and remember, if you are not taking care of your customers, your competition will. 
A Customer Satisfaction survey helps not only identify problem areas but also demonstrate to your customers that you care and are proactive in looking for ways to improve the service that you provide.
Where to start?
Objective - Before you start compiling your survey you should first consider what the objectives of the survey are, in that way you will remain focused and find it easier to decide what questions to ask.
Analysis - In addition to the objective consider also how you will analyse the answers having completed the survey. Keep in mind that 'closed' questions (where the respondent is asked to choose from a limited number of responses) are easier to analyse than 'open' questions (where the respondent can reply in anyway they want). Much will depend on the volume of respondents, the higher the volume the more important it is to have an easy method of analysing the results.
Opportunity - Keep in mind that as well as obtaining valuable market research data customer surveys are also a good way to publicise aspects of your service that your customers may not be aware of. After you have drafted your survey read through the survey from a market research view point and check that you are asking the right questions in the right way and that with the feedback information you will be able to make informed decisions. Then, read through the survey from a marketing viewpoint. The ideal question will perform the following three functions: -
For example: -
Do you find the in-store baby changing facilities useful?
By asking this question not only will the store receive good feedback on the facility they provide but they will also advertise their baby changing facilities and promote themselves as a family friendly store beyond those customers who have a specific need for the facility provided.
Warts and all - to benefit most from a customer survey you need to be prepared to dig deep and accept the worst. A customer satisfaction survey is designed to highlight problems so that they can be addressed; regular customer satisfaction will prevent complacency and will also give early warning on where your competitor's initiatives may be loosing you business.
What to ask?
Although each business is likely to have specific and unique factors that are important in providing good customer services there are common areas that are relevant to all businesses be they a physical store, Internet based or a service industry. The following are some key areas to providing good customer service.
The right quality products - Not only should you measure the quality of the service that you provide but you should check that the products and services that you market are what the customer wants and closely match their expectations. Communication - A good business will make every effort to ensure that whatever the customers query it is resolved by the right person, quickly, politely and fairly. Use a customer satisfaction survey to confirm that all your staff is perceived by your customers as being helpful, courteous and knowledgeable.
Speed and attention - No matter what the business, the majority of customers will want to be dealt with quickly but attentively. Good businesses will try to treat each customer as an individual. Attention is one thing but this has to be hand- in- hand with a quick and satisfactory resolution of the query.
Value for money - Cheap or expensive is not always a good measure, value of money is.
Demographics and Specific issues - Take the opportunity to profile your customers. The more you try to understand your customers the better you will be able to target your business. Within the survey allow customers to highlight specific problems and provide contact details.
Having completed the survey analyse the results.
Training - Are the staff properly trained and do they have sufficient knowledge? Where staff training programmes have been implemented have they had a positive impact on the business?
Trends - Look for common and specific areas where the service is failing. Follow-up -If a customer who has completed a survey has raised a specific issue ensure that they are contacted and their complaint addressed. Don't loose an opportunity to resolve a problem and keep a customer.
Continuously Monitor - Make-changes and then measure by issuing further surveys.
Microsoft Visual Studio 2005:
Microsoft Visual Studio is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It can be used to develop console and graphical user interface applications along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web applications, and web services in both native code together with managed code for all platforms supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, .NET Framework, .NET Compact Framework and Microsoft Silverlight. 
Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It allows plug-ins to be added that enhance the functionality at almost every level - including adding support for source control systems (like Subversion and Visual SourceSafe) to adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer).
Microsoft provides "Express" editions of its Visual Studio 2008 components Visual Basic, Visual C#, Visual C++, and Visual Web Developer at no cost. Visual Studio 2008 and 2005 Professional Editions, along with language-specific versions (Visual Basic, C++, C#, J#) of Visual Studio 2005 are available for free to students as downloads via Microsoft's DreamSpark program. Visual Studio 2010 is currently in beta testing and can be downloaded by the general public at no cost.
The Visual Studio code editor showing IntelliSense suggestions and a docked Task List window. 
The Visual Studio code editor also supports setting bookmarks in code for quick navigation. Other navigational aids include collapsing code blocks and incremental search, in addition to normal text search and regex search. The code editor also includes a multi-item clipboard and a task list. The code editor supports code snippets, which are saved templates for repetitive code and can be inserted into code and customized for the project being worked on. A management tool for code snippets is built in as well. These tools are surfaced as floating windows which can be set to automatically hide when unused or docked to the side of the screen. The Visual Studio code editor also supports code refactoring including parameter reordering, variable and method renaming, interface extraction and encapsulation of class members inside properties, among others.
Visual Studio features background compilation (also called incremental compilation). As code is being written, Visual Studio compiles it in the background with in order to provide feedback about syntax and compilation errors, which are flagged with a red wavy underline. Warnings are marked with a green underline. Background compilation does not generate executable code, since it requires a different compiler than the one used to generate executable code. Background compilation was initially introduced with Microsoft Visual Basic but has now been expanded for all included languages.
Visual Studio includes a debugger that works both as a source-level debugger as well as machine-level debugger. It works with both managed code as well as native code and can be used for debugging applications written in any language supported by Visual Studio. In addition, it can also attach to running processes and monitor and debug those processes. If source code for the running process is available, it displays the code as it is being run. If source code is not available, it can show the disassembly. The Visual Studio debugger can also create memory dumps as well as load them later for debugging. Multi-threaded programs are also supported. The debugger can be configured to be launched when an application running outside the Visual Studio environment crashes.
Data tooltips in Visual Studio
The debugger allows setting breakpoints (which allow execution to be stopped temporarily at a certain position) and watches (which monitor the values of variables as the execution progresses). Breakpoints can be conditional, meaning they get triggered when the condition is met. Code can be stepped over, i.e., run one line (of source code) at a time. It can either step into functions to debug inside it, or step over it, i.e., the execution of the function body isn't available for manual inspection. The debugger supports Edit and Continue, i.e., it allows code to be edited as it is being debugged (32 bit only; not supported in 64 bit). When debugging, if any variable is hovered over by the mouse pointer, its current value is displayed in a tooltip ("data tooltips"), where it can also be modified if desired. During coding, the Visual Studio debugger lets certain functions be invoked manually from the Immediate tool window. The parameters to the method are supplied at the Immediate window.
Visual Studio includes a host of visual designers to aid in the development of applications. These tools include: 
Windows Forms Designer
The Windows Forms designer is used to build GUI applications using Windows Forms.
It includes a palette of UI widgets and controls (including buttons, progress bars, labels, layout containers and other controls) that can be dragged and dropped on a form surface. Layout can be controlled by housing the controls inside other containers or locking them to the side of the form. Controls that display data (like textbox, list box, grid view, etc.) can be data bound to data sources like databases or queries. The UI is linked with code using an event-driven programming model. The designer generates either C# or VB.NET code for the application.
The WPF designer, codenamed Cider, was introduced with Visual Studio 2008. Like the Windows Forms designer it supports uses the drag and drop metaphor. It is used to author user interfaces targeting Windows Presentation Foundation. It supports all WPF functionality including databinding and automatic layout management. It generates XAML code for the UI. The generated XAML file is compatible with Microsoft Expression Design, the designer-oriented product. The XAML code is linked with code using a code-behind model.
The Class Designer is used to author and edit the classes (including its members and their access) using UML modeling. The Class Designer can generate C# and VB.NET code outlines for the classes and methods. It can also generate class diagrams from hand-written classes.
The data designer can be used to graphically edit database schemas, including typed tables, primary and foreign keys and constraints. It can also be used to design queries from the graphical view.
From Visual Studio 2008 onwards, the mapping designer is used by LINQ to SQL to design the mapping between database schemas and classes that encapsulate the data.
SQL Server Management Studio Express
SQL Server Management Studio is a tool included with Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and later versions for configuring, managing, and administering all components within Microsoft SQL Server. The tool includes both script editors and graphical tools which work with objects and features of the server. 
A central feature of SQL Server Management Studio is the Object Explorer, which allows the user to browse, select, and act upon any of the objects within the server.
Microsoft has also introduced a graphical configuration tool called SQL Server Management Studio Express (SSMSE) for SQL Server Express. As with all of Microsoft's "Express" products, this is downloadable at no charge. The tool's limitations lie in the fact that it cannot manage SQL Server Analysis Services, Integration Services, Notification Services, Reporting Services, or SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition.
The SQL language is sub-divided into several language elements, including: 
- Clauses, which are in some cases optional, constituent components of statements and queries.
- Expressions which can produce either scalar values or tables consisting of columns and rows of data.
- Predicates which specify conditions that can be evaluated to SQL three-valued logic (3VL) Boolean truth values and which are used to limit the effects of statements and queries, or to change program flow.
- Queries which retrieve data based on specific criteria.
- Statements which may have a persistent effect on schemas and data, or which may control transactions, program flow, connections, sessions, or diagnostics.
- SQL statements also include the semicolon (";") statement terminator. Though not required on every platform, it is defined as a standard part of the SQL grammar.
- Insignificant whitespace is generally ignored in SQL statements and queries, making it easier to format SQL code for readability.
Normalization is the process of organizing your data and breaking it into smaller tables that are easier to manage. The primary reason we normalize a database is to prevent redundant data. 
Normalization is often over-looked, because we may think understanding and applying the principles of normalization is far too complicated.
In reality, normalization really isn't that complicated and if your database is not normalized it can be inaccurate, slow, inefficient, and it might not produce the data you expect. Not to mention if you have a normalized database, queries, forms, and reports are much easier to design.
Understanding primary keys is crucial to understanding normalization. A primary key is a field or a combination of fields that uniquely identifies a record.
In this day and age unique identifiers are all around us. We have a social security number, telephone number, credit card numbers, checking account numbers, or my favorite; the "savings" card many grocery stores encourage you to obtain.
Each of these values uniquely describes you and would be considered a primary key in a databaseeven that "savings" card from your favorite grocery store has a unique identifier. The above were all examples of a single-field primary key. A table could have a multiple-field primary key, also known as a composite key.
A check has a Bank Routing Number, Account Number, and a Check Number. It takes all three numbers, in combination, to create a unique identifier.
The check number identifies a check in a checking account, the Account Number identifies the checking account at the Bank, and the Bank Routing number uniquely identifies the Bank.
For example, if you write an electronic check over the Internet all of these numbers are required so your payment can be uniquely identified.
The first phase of the normalization is to determine, or if necessary create, your primary key(s). Once that is complete you can begin the normalization process.
Database design theory includes standards and guidelines to help us efficiently design our tables and create a normalized database.
These are referred to as normal forms.
First Normal Form (1NF):
- Break each field down to the smallest meaningful value
- Remove repeating groups of data
- Create a separate table for each set of related data
Second Normal Form (2NF):
- Create new tables for data that applies to more than one record in a table
- Add a related field (foreign key) to the table
Third Normal Form (3NF):
Remove fields that do not relate to, or provide a fact about, the primary key
The normal forms are cumulative and there are actually a total of five normal forms starting with the first normal form (1NF) through the fifth normal form (5NF).
However, the fourth and fifth normal forms are rarely applied. Most databases achieve normalization by the third normal form (3NF) so the first three normal forms will be the focal point of this article.
First Normal Form:
A table is in its 1NF when each field contains the smallest meaningful value and does not contain repeating groups of data.
Take the following table for example:
If we apply the first portion of 1NF, the Name, and Spouse\Children fields do not contain the smallest meaningful value. Instead, the first name, last name, and the children's names should be placed in separate fields:
Once the first step is accomplished then we proceed to the second portion of 1NF: the table should not contain repeating groups. Spouse, Child 1, Child 2, and Child 3 would be considered repeating groups. They are dependants of the employee.
The dependants need to be moved to another table and each dependant should be added as records in the table:
Also consider that Lenny and Carl do not have dependants so there are no related records for them in the Dependants table. However should either add a dependant in the future we simply add a related record. There is no need to modify the database design.
Second Normal Form:
Create new tables for data that applies to more than one record in a table and add a related field (foreign key) to the table:
The Manager fields applies to multiple records in the table. Therefore, it should be moved to another table, duplicate values removed and a field to establish a relationship between the tables should be added.
Third Normal Form:
Remove fields that do not relate to, or provide a fact about, the primary key.
Take the Manager, Dept, and Sector fields for example. The Manager and Sector are facts about the Deptnot the primary key. These fields should be moved to another table and a field to establish a relationship between the tables should be added.
As an additional note, if your table contains a multiple-field primary key then all non-key fields should be a fact about the entire key. If a field describes only a one field in the key then it should be moved to another table.
The following image shows the completed database design:
Additional Notes and Design Considerations:
In this example, technically the Dept Code field does not provide a fact about the primary key and according to the experts it, too, should be moved to another table.
I've also read many articles that suggest an Address field should be broken down into smaller fields and that City and State field are not necessary in a table. The reason behind this is both a city and state could apply to more than one record in a table. Instead a Zip Code field could be used to look up the City and State.
Going to extremes can create too many tables which in turn can make it difficult to manage your data. The key to developing an efficient database is to determine your needs.
Another good example is leaving the Dept Code field in our completed table design. If you also wanted to track information such as pay rate, health insurance, etc., then a new table that contains company related data for the employee would be necessary. If all you need is to track the department an employee belongs to then leaving it in the Employees table is fine.
In summary, let's take another look at the main objectives for normalizing a database:
- Save typing of repetitive data.
- Increase flexibility to query, sort, summarize, and group data.
- Avoid frequent restructuring of tables and other objects to accommodate new data.
If you type data value more than once then consider placing the field in another table.
Consider your sorting and grouping needs. If you need to sort or group on a portion of a field, then the field is not broken down into its smallest meaningful value.
If you have multiple groups of fields, such as several telephone numbers, then consider eliminating those fields and turning them into records in another table.
Microsoft Access 2003:
Microsoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications and is included in the Professional and higher versions for Windows and also sold separately. 
Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other Access databases, Excel, SharePoint lists, text, XML, Outlook, HTML, dBase, Paradox, Lotus 1-2-3, or any ODBC-compliant data container including Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL and PostgreSQL. Software developers and data architects can use it to develop application software and non-programmer "power users" can use it to build simple applications. Like other Office applications Access is supported by Visual Basic for Applications, an object-oriented programming language that can reference a wide variety of objects, including DAO (Data Access Objects) and ActiveX Data Objects, and many other ActiveX components provided by Microsoft or by third parties. Visual objects used in forms and reports expose their methods and properties gracefully in the VBA programming environment, and a huge selection of Windows operating system functions can be declared and called from VBA code modules, making Access a rich programming environment.
Microsoft Excel provides a set of data analysis toolscalled the Analysis ToolPakthat you can use to save steps when you develop complex statistical or engineering analyses. You provide the data and parameters for each analysis; the tool uses the appropriate statistical or engineering macro functions and then displays the results in an output table. Some tools generate charts in addition to output tables. 
Related worksheet functions Excel provides many other statistical, financial, and engineering worksheet functions. Some of the statistical functions are built-in and others become available when you install the Analysis ToolPak.
Accessing the data analysis tools The Analysis ToolPak includes the tools described below:
- Descriptive Statistics
- Expotential Smoothing
- Fourier Analysis
- Rank and Percentile
- F-Test Two-Sample for Variances
- Random Number Generation
- Moving Average
- Moving Average
In this chapter I have given the problem description, which includes the concept diagram, the methodology undertaken.
Also I have talked about the system configuration. Both hardware and software components involved in the application have been explained in detail. I have given a brief description on the various software's used like SQL server, Ms access, Visual studio, Ms excel. Since I used primary and foreign key basics in my application, a small part about normalization of databases is also present.
The design element is the core part of this chapter. Screenshots of the application are also added in this chapter.
This section of the report is probably the most important part of a report, because the purpose of a report is to solve problems or to take advantage of opportunities, and the recommendations section is the part where you make suggestions about how to do this.
In the light of these conclusions, I recommend that the company use a feedback form in all the departments. Since customer feedback is a very important tool to be used by businesses.
Today's competitive marketplace requires every organization to listen to the voice of its customers. A customer service survey can provide management with valuable input on both short-term and long-term decision-making. It can offer critical operational and strategic advantages over the competition.
In addition, a change in the design of the feedback form can also be considered. It can be changed according to the changing tastes of the people in the organization.
Also the code can be changed to favour the likes of the sender.
Lastly I think a feedback form for the in-house projects should also be developed. So that a systematic feedback is given to the developer and he can continue to improve the design and work on optimizing it. Since reusability of the code is also a very major issue, the developer can learn about the success of his code through the feedbacks provided.
Drawing conclusions is the main goal of writing a report. This report deals with the Orientation Programme given at Fugro Maps, GIS basics, Software and Hardware tools required for programming forms in VB and the importance of Customer Feedback.
The orientation introduced me to the world of Global Information System (GIS) and Image Processing. I was briefed about all the various services provided by them. This reports gives an insight into the world of Fugro Maps.
Customer feedback is a very important tool to be used by business. A customer feedback survey isn't just about asking a few simple questions, you need to ensure you focus on the aspects that matter. This includes the underlying purpose of the survey and the best methodology of reaching your customers.
Customers need to be provided with a venue for expressing their needs, concerns and opinions. When a customer has an issue with an experience, they need the proper outlet to provide feedback to be accessible and easy to find. The only way to know if your product or service is satisfactory is to gather accurate and honest feedback from your customers.
Increased competition in the marketplace has deemed customer service one of the most important factors customers look at when deciding which company to use. Often it may be the only thing that separates one company from the next.