The concept of globalization

Introduction

The concept of Globalization has become the key element of success in the business arena. Globalization can be described as the integration of capital, technology, and information across national borders, in a way Globalization can be viewed as a channel which is used in creating a single global market and a global village [1]. Many companies have started to think and work globally. During the mid-nineteenth century, thousands of British and hundreds of Dutch and other European companies were formed exclusively to operate internationally [2]. Advances in information technology have helped them to distribute their products and services across different locations and different time zones. For example, Dell is a global company operating in 34 countries in three world regions, with about 35,000 employees and $30 billion in sales. Dell is organized along geographic lines into the Americas, Asia-Pacific and Japan, and Europe/Middle East/Africa (EMEA) [3].

Producing quality products and services at lower cost is one of the many key elements of Globalization. Mainly location based costs allow companies to provide high quality goods at lower price. This gives a company good exposure to rest of the world. This also allows the companies to spread its risks among many locations. Some researchers say the purpose of forming Global Organizations are to "quickly address customer problems, develop products, deliver services, and tap more diverse pool of employees across the organization" [4].

It is becoming more visible and hard to deny that Global Organizations are facing many issues in managing their team across different locations. The primary issues include language and cultural differences, distance, time zones, and communication [5]. The derivative issues include lack of visibility on work done by other team members [6], exchanging the information and decision making [7], efficient utilization of resource [8], and managing the cost [9].

In overcoming these issues Project Management Software play a vital role. They provide automated tools to create project plans, monitor the execution of the deliverables, manage the resources, to control issues, cost and time. There are a number of Project Management Software solutions widely available in the market []. And organizations have their own requirements in selecting the appropriate Project Management Software. Mainly considering Global Organizations, one of the common requirements in selecting a Project Management Software is the collaborative feature of the software. In addition to that the companies have other requirements including size [12], scalability [10], collaboration [], user friendliness [15], platform independence [13], cost effectiveness [14], data protection [16], resources [17], vender support, managing complexity, ability to import/ export data [11] and ability to integrate with the existing system [18]. All this software solutions do not fulfill every requirement of all the organizations. And some particular software might well address some specific issues in concern of project management.

Selecting the best software which can address the need of the Organization can be a difficult task [19]. To make an effective selection companies need a vast knowledge about the software solutions available in the market. This knowledge can be gained from past experience and or by researching. Failing to choose the appropriate software will cost the organization time and money or even lead to losing their projects. Global Project Management survey says 36% of projects failed due to lack of investment in support software, by using the wrong software, using software as a reporting tool rather than a management tool, or by constantly changing software which complicates projects in total [20] . The objective of this research is to identify the requirements of the Global Organizations and suggest a suitable Project Management Software to businesses. This report looks at three different Project Management Software solutions. These software solutions are known as Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task. They have the collaborative features to manage specific issues related to Global Organizations across different locations. They allow users to store the information in centralized location and allow access from different locations. The key features of these software solutions include issue tracking, scheduling, resource management, task management, and document management. These software solutions have also been reviewed as top 3 online project management softwares for the year 2010[].

Tenrox project management software provides effective online workflow tools for project planning, time and expense tracking, project cost and billing, and resource scheduling[]. It enables global teams to work from different locations. Also it is designed to help Project Managers and executives in making faster decisions based on real time information. Built in integration with financials enable them to manage and view process and financial impact in real time.

Clarizen offers project management tools including project scheduling, collaborative planning, time tracking, task management, and budget tracking[]. It is a complete web based collaborative project management software. It provides email facility that enable users to update their information to their team members. Also Clarizen can integrate with the existing systems by using its API.

@task includes task management, time tracking, risk management, issue tracking and document management []. @task also has the capacity to plan and add a project to a schedule and forecast completion date. This will enable the management to assess whether the project can be completed within the pre defined time schedule.

This research was executed through reviewing literature, and investigating the software professionals. The literature has been reviewed by using written documents. Mainly global organization's case studies have been reviewed to get the realistic experience about the literature. And questioners have been sent to the employees of Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task in order to get clear information about these project management software solutions.

This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 of this report analyses the methodology used for research. Section 3 of this report looks at a brief introduction to global organizations by analyzing the benefits and summarizing the challenges faced by them. This report also discusses the requirements of Global Organizations and highlights Project Management Software such as Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task. The final section of this report is the analysis of the results along with a brief discussion, evaluation and conclusion.

Research Methodology

This research includes both primary data and secondary data. Primary data has been gathered through questionnaires and the secondary data has been selected through documentary research. Qualitative method has been used for data collection. This refers to all non numeric data or data that have not been quantified []. A short list of responses to open ended questions and information from written documents has been gained through qualitative method. This method has been selected since this research needed to express the information through words not through numeric data. This research does not need any statistical calculations. Also it includes the information on what is being researched. Limited resources did not permit a large data collection which is needed for quantitative analysis. Since the quantitative method requires a large amount of data it was not feasible in this research.

The questionnaire had thirteen questions including open and list questions. The professionals from Tenrox, Clarizen and @task have been focused in order to collect the primary data using this questionnaire. These people are assumed to have complete knowledge and experience about these Project Management Software solutions. Also it was expected that it is easy to get the responses about these software solutions from the employees rather than from outside users. There were number of people randomly selected and the questioners have been sent to them through email and Facebook messages. Before sending the questionnaire they have been approved by the University to avoid any ethical issues. Ethical issues may become apparent because of the way the question were generated, analysed and reported to the participants.

There were many written documents such as books, website, articles, essays, case studies and more which have been reviewed in order to collect the secondary data. Tenrox, @task, and Clarizen website also was used in gathering information and knowledge about the features of these softwares. The problems faced by Global Organizations have been obtained by articles and books. Also the client case studies were used to find out their experience about these software, challenges and requirements in selecting the Project Management Software. There were many advantages in using the secondary data in this research. It saved significant amount of time and resources. Books, essays and articles helped to see the information in different people's point of view about the literature. Also case studies gave real information about the challenges faced by Global Organizations, requirements in selecting the Project Management Software, and the company view about Tenrox, Clarizen and @task from their real life experience.

By analysing these data, meaning full and useful information can be derived. There are many types of analysis and processes available in deriving a solution []. But this research solution has been derived using the summarizing process. The key points of data from the questionnaires and documentary have been noted. A dairy was maintained as the analytical aid for this research. This was used to record ideas and reflections about this project. The data collected from the documentary contained long statement so that was compressed into short statement. The data collected through the questionnaires have been used to double check the result of other data that have been collected through documentary. Finally the result of integration of the data from the two main sources of questionnaire and documentary helped to gain a clear understanding about the issues, and in identifying key points, and to derive at the conclusion from the summarised data.

Global Organization

Globalization accelerates the emergence of global Organizations which share and source their resources from across different location, time zone and cultures. The availability of resources, technology, expertise, and finance facilitate them to diverse their activities around the world. This allows the Organizations to gain many advantages over other firms which don't have the resources to acquire the necessary facilities. One main advantage of moving into global economy is the availability of cheap labor. Every country has its own minimum standard rates and award payments which differ from country to country. For example a monthly pay for a Software Developer is very much cheaper in India compared to the pay for a similar position in United Kingdom or in European countries. Not just the labor, but by moving the business into the world economy, companies can utilize cheap raw materials that are available in different parts of the world. For example the Cocoa needed to make the Cadbury chocolates are purchased from its partnership company in Africa even though Cadbury is an Australian company. It is not a secret that companies make more profit when they have the access to their required labor and raw materials at much cheaper price. For example many businesses in the global market have moved their production lines to China because of the cheap labor that is readily available there. Not just cheap labor but businesses move their activities based on knowledge and skilled labor that may not be available in their own countries. For example many companies from United States of America are moving towards opening their branches in Indian because of the skilled labor available in the IT industry in India. Ultimately a successful business would utilize the resources around the world if the resources can provide them with better products and services which will keep the business competitive in its market.

The Challenges face by global organizations

As Organizations expand their operations across national borders to widen their market and service their products and services, their business become more sensitive to challenges. In reality the benefits cannot produce better value unless the problems associated with them are solved in an efficient manner. However, this research focuses on a limited analysis of these issues which are most common apparent in many of the global Organizations. The most common issues which are identified by many people are the differences in language, time zones, and culture [22, 23, 24]. These issues can be considered as primary issues. However there are other issues which derive from these key barriers are called derivative issues [25]. Brief introductions about these primary and derivative issues are discussed below.

Primary Issues

Language

Most of the global organizations use a common language to exchange the information. But people would rather desire to speak their native language. For example when English is used as a common language for the meetings the non English speakers will limit their communication by their knowledge of English expressions and vocabulary. It leads them to confusion and lack of understanding. On the other hand English speakers should use easy vocabulary and clear sentences to express their ideas to foreign colleagues [26].

Communication

Communication becomes a core issue in global organizations [23]. Low budgets restrain them from travelling to the project locations and suddenly they spend a large portion of their days with a headset, making telephone calls and organising audio conferences. A typical day finishes after hundreds of e-mail exchanges and with at least a handful of unread e-mails for the next morning. The level of frustration increases when e-mail and voice mails are left unanswered and the tasks are not progressing as planned. And the projects may end up with loss of budget, quality and scope.

Culture

People who work in different locations are the back bone of the organizations. They have different attributes and behaviors. These attributes and behaviors only become apparent when they contrast with different cultural norms, assumptions, and values.For example, it is a typically American attitude that if the project is running a week late, project members will forgo or reschedule their vacations. This is not common in European countries [28]. Power distance is one of the cultural dimensions. It reflects how individuals from different cultures handle the fact that people are unequal and how the people are likely to be involved in decision making. Also it creates individual agreeing everything rather than expose their opinions. And other cultural dimensions such as ignorance of gender and religious issues will lead to misunderstanding [27].

Time zone

Differences in time zone make it difficult for employees to have meetings in their common working hours. And it makes it difficult to spreads the feedback among the employees [29]. Also some delays can occur when transmitting important information. For example instead of transmitting in one day it can take one weeks time. Also this make workers lose track of the overall work process [30].

Secondary issues

Visibility of Project

Since the team members in the global organizations work in different locations the visibility of the projects, tasks and resources will deteriorate. Mostly the executive management does not have the access to the project schedules in real-time. This makes delays in redirecting, or closing the projects. As a result the organization needs to face cost and time overrun. Project managers face problems in identifying the tasks and the resources. This hides them from awareness of problems and issues at the time when they could help the team to solve it. For example Nikon a global company for image products development says, lack of visibility in the work being done by other team members, made them it difficult to find out where problems had occurred in order to fix those problems [31]. Also the team members face the problem in identifying their day to day tasks and their priorities.

Decision Making

Decisions are made using the real time data provided by the core workers. Lake of communication creates delays in transmitting the information among team members and project managers. So it will delay the decision making process. Also the differences in language make unclear information which creates complexity and faultiness in the decisions. For example Getronics a Global IT solution provider says " the lack of accessible, complete, and accurate project information made it difficult for company decision makers to identify which projects wereor were notprofitable." [32]

Reporting

Most of the organizations use spreadsheets to enter the data. They collect and verify the data manually. They don't have a standard way to create status reports. This leads more questions and additional searching which could take many days.Also these data need to combine manually to create some additional reports. And it is a very time consuming task. Accessing the data by everyone in different location is another problem. When this information provides access to everyone then the safety of this information comes into problem. Getting the updated view of real time report is another problem. Also integration of reporting tools with the existing system creates problems for some organizations. For example Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated struggles to export the data from the SAP application to Excel. [33].

Resource Allocation

Organizations face difficulties in identifying the staff with appropriate skills to allocate for a specific task or project at the right time. Identifying which specific tasks or projects need resources is another problem. For example Global Pharmaceutical Company says they are facing the challenge to "Determine whether staff are spending their time on the right activities, Optimize the match of resource skills and project needs "[34]. And how long the task consumes the recourse is not apparent for many organizations. There are a number of tasks which may require the same resource at the same time. So to prioritize those tasks and allocate the resources is an issue. Organizations also found difficulties themselves in identifying the work load of each tasks. Some staff are overloaded and some feel themselves at a loose end.

Managing Cost

Setting the budget, monitoring and managing the cost within the budget are the greatest problems faced by many organizations. While the revenue of the organizations goes down with the economic crisis they want to save money as much as possible. But analysing the cost of employees and creating a budget for the future is an issue for them. Also updating the project budget and letting it be known to all the team members is difficult. For example Parsons Brinckerhoff is one of the world's largest engineering consultants, and management organizations say "Our people out there are working on large breakdown structures, which are both complex and ever-changing. It was a lot of work to keep them up to date, often requiring double entry. We were finding that because it was too much of a hassle people either don't do it or invented work around."[35].

The global organizations need to concentrate on both primary and directive issues in order to establish a successful business in a foreign country. Project management software solutions are one of the methods to solve these issues. The use of project management software to global organizations in overcoming issues will be discussed in the following part of this report.

Project Management Software for Global Organizations

Project management software covers many types of features including resource allocation, scheduling, budget management, collaboration, and reporting. These softwares can differentiate as desktop, web based, single user, personal, integrated, and collaborative [1] applications. To manage the projects in global organization the project management software should have the collaborative feature. It provides an effective collaboration between project manager and team members in different locations when defining activities, identifying and analyzing risks, directing and managing project execution, monitoring progress, and controlling project work[].

The main objectives of this collaborative project management software are to centralize the project information (including project plan, schedule, risks, issues and cost) and automated rules for project administration. These rules will trigger the distribution of project reports, remind project team members of due actions and issues, alert the project manager of possible risks and raise the project management awareness of deviations in schedule, cost, or quality.

All project stakeholders must know how to access this software (for example by installing client software), how to obtain access to the application (for example by requesting user identifications passwords or access rights), and how to use the basic functions of different software components. The structure of the documentation might show how the various components are integrated, how the software is integrated with other company tools, how to update the information and how to extract reports and perform consolidations.

Global Organization's requirements in selecting project management software

Organizations look for some key factors when select a new software. Once an Organization has invested in a project management software, it will be a costly to switch to another software. Also this process is very time consuming and complex in nature. These are some of the main reasons why Organizations spend more time and money in setting up and selecting the appropriate project management software in the initial stage of acquisition. Some of these requirements and elements considered in this process are described below.

Size of the Organization

Organizations vary in sizes. Depending on the capital, turnover and asset value Organizations can be classified as small, medium and large companies. When companies look at the options available for them, their sizes and operations become one of many key elements in deciding the appropriate project management software. It is vital that the software acquired and implemented is suitable and has the capacity to cater for the business need. For example the software which is developed for small organizations may not necessarily be compatible for large organizations. Wrong selection of software can lead to poor resource utilization.

Ease of use

Ease of use is one of the desirable requirements of all organization especially when it comes to new applications and systems. User friendliness and simple usage is highly preferable over a complex, hard to use systems. The functionality should be easy to find and simple to use by employees in all levels. For example, just one click to save project data and to open a view of the plan [36]. More often employees are resistant to change because the new systems can be hard to learn. Keeping this in mind the new project management software should overcome this issue by being easy to learn and apply. When the software is hard to learn and complex to operate, employees become lazy to learn and to use the application efficiently.

Platform independent

Most of the software will not operate in all operating environments. It includes the different operating systems the company may choose to use i.e. Windows, Mac, and Linux. There could also be issues with different browsers such as, Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Google Chrome, Safari, etc.). Not all Organizations will have the same operating environment to work with. Which is why it is also important to choose a software that is compatible with the operating system available in the company.

Collaboration

Collaboration becomes more essential for the success of the projects. Helbrough [45] states, poor collaboration is one of the reasons in project failure. And collaboration consumes a large amount of project workers' time. Since the global organizations are working from different locations they require the project management software which can increase the collaboration by centralizing the project information and allowing access to any one from anywhere at the same time.

Cost

Cost is one of the primary requirements which need to be satisfactory to the company when selecting a new software. Organizations will have a budget and it is important that any decision made which has a financial impact on the Organization. Meet the requirements and fit into the budget to be able to cover the initial and ongoing cost if there is any. For example Bank of American Fork have said that they don't want to spend a lot on buying new project management software but rather have different alternatives to get the outcome they require[36]. Mostly small organizations prefer hosting solutions. This is because they are low priced and using these can avoid the ongoing maintenance cost which, need to be included in the company cash flow going forward. Organizations also look for flexible payment contracts and terms which will help them to manage their budgets and cash flows.

Importing and Exporting Data

Organizations require software that allows them to import and export data. For example Whirlpool Corporation required a project management software that could handle thousands of users worldwide and easily import hundreds of projects which are already in process [37]. Some products allow users to import data but not export. Some allows users to import limited data in Comma Separated Variable (CSV) format. Most Organizations prefer to export data which allows them to work from offline mode. This will allow them to use the data while they are travelling or when they are away from the business site. The software must also have the capacity to resubmit the data back to the server easily and quickly without any data loss. Since some small and medium size organizations use Microsoft Project Management software, they expect the new software should also have the ability to import and export data to Microsoft Project Management Software. These requirements should be evaluated and considered when implementing new project management software.

Implementing permission to data access

It is important to note that different people will be required to control the flow of the data at different stages in a project. Therefore Organizations require project management software which has different access levels for different types of users. For example, Management executives may need to see all the data of the project but don't need certain access which are only used by the project managers, however the project managers should have more control on data than rest of the project team. Thus, Organizations need multi role and multi level permission setup on project data. This allows preventing sensitive data and to have read only access and provide visibility to only certain people.

Scalability

Organizations' business demands are constantly changing with time. New products and services are introduced to the market more often than ever before. Organisations have identified that change is the key element to success. This is why it is important for the new project management software to be able to accommodate changes. For example Oxford Computer Group considered introducing a number of new products. Therefore they wanted scalable project management software which can able to adopt the scope and the complexity of their business. [38]. It is difficult for organizations to predict how their project management requirements will change over time. Therefore they require more flexible software with multiple options to accommodate project specific situations that were not expected during the software selection process.

Vender Support

Solving the problem is a critical part in each activity. Organizations mostly consider vendor support while selecting new project management software. They want to establish a mutual supportive relationship between the vendor and themselves. The project manager expects a quick response from the project management software vendor when assistance needed and inquiries forwarded. Management also prefers to acquire the software from a vendor who is willing to help and assist at all times and perform well when supporting the customers.

Integration

In real life companies need more than one software solutions to serve their requirements. Therefore the ability to integrate the software with another software becomes an important aspect in the software selection process. For example, Agility Factor a global business consultancy firm says they want a project management software which can integrate with its Salesforce.com, CRM and QuickBooks accounting systems [39]. Organizations require software which can integrate with other software and systems in place in order to reduce their cost and maintain a consistency of terms and language across different software.

Handling complex projects

Many Organizations are engaged in multiple and complex projects. They want a software which can help them to manage the complexity of the project management activities. More often the projects are interrelated and depend on each other. When a change occurs that will significantly affect all connected projects. Therefore the company require project management software which can help them to manage the conflicts among their multiple complex projects.

Resource requirement

Organizations have limited resources in maintaining and managing their project management software. Some project management software are web based and some are desktop applications. Organizations are willing to go with web based project management software will not incur any additional resources. For example Modea is a full-service interactive agency. They require a web-based tool that would allow them to continue to grow without purchasing any additional hardware [40]. This could be possible because in most cases to use the web based system no additional resources are required.

Security

Data security has become a major concern for organizations in recent years. Internet/Web hackers continue to develop new methods to hack data, disable applications, and perform malicious administrative activities. This creates the need to have software that has high security and inbuilt filtering system. For example Trilliant, a global network and software solution provider says it requires project management software which helps them to protect sensitive information [6].

There are number of Project Management Software available in the current market place []. However this particular research discusses about three widely used Project Management Software. They are Tenrox, Clarizen and @task. These Project Management Softwares manages data in centralized locations and provide access from multi locations. They also have the capacity to cater for most of the requirements needed by the companies and have been reviewed as the top three online project management software for 2010 []. The rest of this chapter is aimed to give an overview of the three Project Management Software mentioned above.

Tenrox

Tenrox is the leading provider of online project management software which is in use in more than 800 companies across the globe [41]. It provides different type of modules which can be used to manage the project management activities in different situations. All these modules simplify the project management by giving a complete feature set for project planning, resource management, time and expenses tracking. It also includes module to manage the cost and revenue related to each projects. All these modules can integrate with each other. With these modules, project managers can develop and publish their project plan. Once they publish the project plan the team members will get notification for assigned tasks through their timesheets. Then project managers can track employees, resources, and cost. It increases the visibility on project information. Michael Hopmere, Professional Practice Manager Carestream Health Inc. said "We had no simple way to compile all the data to get an aggregate view of how all the projects from around the world were doing." [47]. Also they can easily compare the actual cost with the budget which can use to manage the cost of the project. The team members can easily update their status, and issues of tasks to the project manager. This increases the collaboration all among the team members, project managers, and management executives and overcomes the reporting issues. Also they can fill their time sheet, leave requests, and expenses reports, etc. without much trouble.

Tenrox supports all sizes of organizations. And it is a lower cost compared to other project management software with a full set of functionalities makes it more attractive. Tenrox's project workforce management solution [43] is designed to manage projects which are carried out by different resources with various skills in different locations. Therefore this project workforce management solution is suitable to global organizations. It allows them to make quick decisions based on real-time project status, cost and revenue information. Its powerful scheduling, tracking and reporting features help for users to standardise policies, monitor and control the project activities in real time with user configured reports and dash boards. This project workforce management software is more suitable to small organizations.

Tenrox also provides on-demand project management software [44] which is best suited for medium to large enterprise-level organizations [42]. It runs on powerful server farms. These servers are scalable to adapt to organization's changing needs. It includes all functionalities of Tenrox workforce management software. In addition to that it provides an automatic backup data to remote sites tapes on a daily basis. It does not need complex installation or training. There is no upfront cost for hardware or software. All maintenance is looked after by Tenrox itself. Therefore it can reduce the maintenance cost for the organizations. This software fully supports the latest versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox , Netscape Navigator, and Opera.

The most attractive part of Tenrox is its powerful customizability. Reports, dashboards, forums, and searches can be personalised according to the needs of the organizations. Organizations can filter the reports and make it available for view by everyone. This can be done by using the configurable dashboards. It also allows users to create multiple dashboards. Therefore users can use different dashboards for different purposes such as for budget, schedule and change requests.

Another advantage of this software is that it is easy to use. It gives a user friendly interface with pictorial icons to represent process and resources. The workflow can be design and changed by dragging and dropping the icons. It prevents users from using the spread sheets to manage project management activities. Also it provides consulting services to users to help them with technical, process and work practices problems. Mari Skippers, IT Business Analyst of Eaton Corporation said "Part of our IT strategy is not to have to become application experts to use our solutions. Tenrox is simple to use and configure, and I view them as the project management specialists, so I can rely on their expertise."[46]. Also Tenrox's Webinar allows users to get an online seminar by Tenrox professionals. The live chat is one of the best support provides by Tenrox. It allows users to have online chat with Tenrox professionals and get quick response for their quarries. Also it provides Educational Services such as ongoing training which is designed to identify the organization needs and help them to work with Tenrox.

One of the outstanding feature of Tenrox is it's project planning tool. It helps users to quickly create, change and share project plans. Its project plans are interchangeable with Microsoft Project. It allows project managers to work on private project plan as a local file. Once they finish they can save it to the database. These project plans can be shared with other project managers and team members. And they can check in, modify and check out their changes to the plan. Team members will immediately get notification through their time sheets when an update is made on the project plan.

When considering the ability to integrate with other systems Tenrox is one of the best software which is designed to provide full integration with the existing enterprise systems. It provides built in integration for leading financial, ERP, HR, payroll and CRM applications. There is no programming needed to integrate these application. The connecters are already built in with Tenrox. The applications includes accounting (Great Plains, Navision, Solomon, Sage ACCPAC, SAP Business One, QuickBooks), payroll (ADP, Ceridian, Paychex), ERP (SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft), project management (Microsoft Project), CRM (Salesforce.com and Microsoft CRM), HR (Taleo), and much more [].

This project management software also helps the users to protect their data by giving physical as well as network and data security. Considering physical security Tenrox's network operations centre are safeguarded by both technical and security staff. It implemented a firewall to provide network security. Data security provides by encryption, and secure socket layer. And it includes virus and spam protection as additional protections. One of the best features in the security area of Tenrox is it provides a single sign-on (SSO) service that gives integration with other corporate SSO solution such as LDAP and Active Directory. It helps to organizations from using multiple username and passwords for their each and every application.

Clarizen

Clarizen is fully web based project management software that allows companies to manage entire project information in one centralized location. President and CEO of Incredible Technologies Elaine Hodgson said "For many years I have wanted a centralized solution such as Clarizen that easily helps me see the interrelationships between staff, projects and time,"[50].Everyone can access this information and can conduct project meetings by using clarizen as a communication tool. This allows project managers to create project plan, schedule, assign tasks to team members, track budget and time, and produce multiple reports. During the execution of project emails notifications can be sent to team members to ask for their status updates.

Using the Clirizen's online service called SaaS (software as a service) [46] project managers and team members can work on the project at anytime from anywhere in the world. This increases the collaboration among team members in global organizations. It runs online on the website and does not need to download and install in the computer. Having this online solution makes visibility and flexibility on each task. It helps to decision making process by giving all the project information including project plans, status updates, discussions and documents available at any time from any computer.

It is more suitable for small to medium size organizations. "The pricing model and SaaS platform makes this system ideal for small and medium sized businesses and/or those groups that need a project management tool"[47]. It is scalable and can handle complex projects and the projects that have a complex project plan. For example it is flexible enough to manage the projects with 100s of tasks [48]. And it allows users to manage multiple projects at the same time. Users can create the dependencies among projects. Users can track these multiple projects against the dependencies.

Clarizen provides more control over security. The software has been designed to protect the information from security breaches. Data encryption, antivirus and firewalls are used to ensure security. To recover from the disaster Clarizen replicate the real time data back up in two different places. Once an organization starts to work on clarizen it ensures that project data is accessible by only registered users who belong to that organization. It allows users to assign permission to view the project information. Organization can filter the employees according to their roles and enable them to access project information. One drawback in this area of Clarizen is, it does not provide a single sign-on (SSO) [49] service that gives integration with other corporate SSO solution such as LDAP and Active Directory.

When considering the cost Clarizen charges start from $24.95 per user for a month. Once an organization buys any Clarizen pakages it provides unlimited number of email usage. Project managers can use this email facility to send the assigned tasks to team members. And team members can use this to update their task status to project managers.

Clarizen provides customers with built in software best practices for different type of organizations. These best practices are available as built in template and document with Clarizen. It currently offers templates and best practices for Marketing, New Product Introduction, Agile development and IT services. Also Clarizen allows users to import Microsoft Project file or template to create a new project. But it does not allow users to export a Clarizen project back to Project. Also with clarizen the project milestones can be divided into sub milestones, and tasks can be divided into subtasks which help to handle the complex projects.

Clarizen has the built in integration with Microsoft outlook, Google docs, iCalendar and Autodesk's AutoCAD. Outlook integration allows users to get the automatic notification for the changes directly to inbox. Clarizen users can edit, view and upload the documents in Goole application. iCalender integration allows the users to synchronize their task with outlook calendar, Apple ical, and Google calendar. AutoCAD integration allows engineers to review the tasks, and projects from inside their system. Clarizen API Tool Set allows users to integrate any of their existing application.

One of the best things about Clarizen is it puts reality over methodology. Even the full the plan is not complete the projects can start with the parts which are ready to move. At any time, any part of the project can stop, replan and reactivate. Another good thing is that Clarizen allows project updates without logging into application.

It also provides a user friendly interface. Anita Emoff, director of Boost Rewards said "The user-friendly functionality and innovative features of the solution makes company-wide project execution organized and easy to manage, allowing us to focus and allocate our time and energy on activities that will benefit the company in the long-term." [51]. Users can easily create new project templates and reuse them. Online tutorials help users to setup and work with Clarizen software. Clarizen's Online Webinar enables users to have a real-time demonstration of its on-demand Project Management solution. Also the users can request a virtual meeting with the sales person to get the information about Clarizen.

@task

@task is a one of the world leading project management software that can manage projects in all industries such as engineering, accounting, software, construction and more. It has been served to more than 1100 organizations including Google, Johnson & Johnson, and NASA. It has on-demand and on-promise project management software [4]. Both are database, browser, and platform independent solution. They support multiple databases such as Oracle, MSSQL, and MySQL. They can run on Windows, Linux, Solaris and Mac platforms and Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari browsers. Also they support seven languages such as English, French, German, Japanese and Spanish, and Dutch. @task's on-demand solution is labelled as SaaS (software as a service).

Creating projects and assigning tasks are simple in @task. Users can assign priorities to each task. Also emails can configure to send notifications when the task is overdue or any change in it's priority. The dashboards also can customize for user's needs using the pre defined options. @task has low loading time. It helps project managers and executives to make knowledgeable decision by using its Risk/Benefit chart. This chart represents the risk, and budget associated with each project and how the project aligns with the company goals. But this is only available in @task's enterprise edition.

By using @task users can see their project status and predict when the project will be complete. "It takes me less than an hour to plan my next project, and I'm 99% confident of my due date. To have this confidence using Excel or a calendar would be impossible." Says James Merritt, Don Johnston [5]. Also based on the past trend it allows users to forecast the need of the employees for future.

@task has both professional and enterprise edition of project management software. The enterprise edition is scalable with the growth of organization's needs. The problems such as loss and late arrival of data in the global environment can be solved by @task. It allows users to manage all the information related to project (task, schedules, resources, and documents) in a centralized location. This makes it easy for project managers and executives to make real time decisions.

When considering the price it is quite expensive compare to other similar project management softwares. And in order to open an account with @task the organizations should buy a minimum of five user licences. It does not provide any contracts to pay the money as monthly basis. But it allows protecting sensitive information by giving limited user access to needed project information only. @task ensures that their servers 100% available all the time. Also it provides single sign on facility only for the enterprise edition.

@task is designed for small to medium size organizations [2]. It has a user friendly interface. "We liked the interface immediately," say Decker and Larsen. "AtTask has been very well accepted by everyone on our project teams. We achieved 100 percent user adoption of everyone on our project teams."[1]. But users need to spend some time on learning to configure this program. It requires some help since there are multiple ways it can be configured. @task community is the centralised location where customers can get support to fulfil their needs. It includes user forum, idea share, training videos, user manuals, online chat and frequently asked questions. @task provides some educational courses which can help for project managers, system administrators, executives and end users. It provides regional training where users around the world can get the benefit. Also the onsite training eliminates the users from spending the time and cost for travelling.

@task allows users to get the data from other sources such as SharePoint, SAP and Sales force. It allows users to view conflicts between Microsoft project and @task. This helps them to verify the changes occur in any of these two softwares. Also @task and Clarizen allows to import or export data from Microsoft project and Excel.

@task offers SDK which includes sample code and documentation that use to integrate any other application with @task. Also it gives built in integration for salesforce and Microsoft outlook. @task Microsoft Outlook integration allows users to track and update their tasks and issues using Outlook's task pad and appointment calendar. Also @task released an iPhone widget which allows users to work from remote site. "@task is all about helping companies get work done," said AtTask's CEO Scott Johnson, "[3].

Results

Since the rising number of projects depending on global team effort, global organizations must find a way to execute their teams successfully by overcoming the existing common project management issues such as visibility, decision making, reporting, resource allocation, language, and communication. Project management softwares are one of the solution to solve these issues [,,,].And this research found that organizations have their own requirements including size, ease of use, collaboration, scalability, flexibility, platform independent, and more in selecting the project management softwares. All the global organizations are expecting to have the collaborative feature in the project management software. And other requirements are not same to all the organizations in all the time []. Also all these requirements are not available in all the project management softwares. Since there are number of project management software available in the market place organizations are facing problem in selecting the software which is suitable to their requirements.

The availability of these requirements in Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task project management softwares has been found from the documentary research and questioners. Even though all these three softwares's most of the features are common they have some limitations which do not mach some global organizations' requirements. Since all these three softwares has the collaborative feature they can use for the global organizations. Therefore global organizations need to look for the other requirements expect collaboration.

Considering the size, Tenrox is suitable to all size organizations but @task, and Clarizen designed to small to mid size organizations. More over when comparing the cost Tenrox has the lowest and @task has the highest cost. Also @task need minimum of five licences to open an account. But Clarizen provides unlimited free email accounts and unlimited number of tasks, projects and milestones with any packages. The research also found from number of clients case studies that Tenrox and Clarizen are easy to use and @task has some learning curve to its configuration since it has multiple ways of configuration []. Also these three project management softwares provide security for the organization's information including data, network, and application security. Also they allow defining permission to access the project information. But according to the responses to the questioners from the software professions it says that Clarizen does not have the single sing on facility.

Since all these three softwares provide on-demand solutions they don't have any maintainability issues. They are hosted and maintained by the software vendors in their own servers. Also since these are web based applications they do not require any resources. Additionally Tenrox provides more built in integration for leading applications. @task and Clarizen provide few built in integration but all these three softwares include their own API which can use to integrate them with the existing systems.

The research also confirmed that Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task have the capability to solve most of the project management challenges. They manage all the project management data in a centralized location. Also they have the tools for project planning, scheduling, time and budget tracking, resource management and reporting. The centralized data storage and reporting allows global project managers and management executives to make decisions easily based on the real time data. Reporting tools allows team members to report their task status, and issues to the project manager. Budget tracking tool allows to keep the project cost on the budget and avoids cost overrun. Resource management allows to identifying appropriate resource with appropriate skill, assign task, and track them complete the task successfully. One of the outstanding feature of @task is it supports seven languages and different time zones. This helps to global organizations with the language problem.

It is also identified that all these three softwares have high availability and quick implementation. And Tenrox provides scalability in its on-demand project management software which suitable to medium and large size organizations. It does not provide scalability in its project work force management software which is for the small organizations. But @task and Clarizen provides scalability which help with the growth of organizations' needs. Also all three applications are supports to IE, and Firefox web servers. Addition to these Tenrox supports Netscape Navigator, and Opera, Clarizen supports Google Chrome, and @task supports safari.

The majority of reviews about these softwares says Tenrox and @task has a good vender support compare to Clarizen []. Tenrox and @task has the live chat facility which is not in Clarizen allows users to get immediate response from the software professionals for their quires. Also considering the importing and exporting the data @task and Clarizen allows users to import or export data from Microsoft project and Excel. But Tenrox does not provide this functionality.

Discussion

This research found that all three project management software can use for team collaboration. Therefore can use for global organizations which have team in different locations. And Tenrox is designed for all size of organizations but @task and Clarizen designed for small to medium size organizations. Therefore the global organizations which have large team can go with Tenrox and the organizations with small to medium team can go with @task or Clarizen. Also if the global organizations' one of the requirements is the price and they are expecting the project management software with lower price then Tenrox is more suitable than other two. And second option can be Clarizen which is the second lowest in price among these three softwares. Also clarizen offers some free unlimited email accounts and unlimited projects and milestones. The organizations which require a software which is easy to configure and easy to use then Tenrox and Clarizen is more appropriate for them compared with @task.

Some global organizations requires a software which has a low maintenance cost, low resource requirement and easy to integrate with their existing systems. Those organizations can select any of these three softwares since all of them no need any maintenance or any additional resources since they are web based and run in vendor's own server. Also they can easily integrate with other system using their API. If the global organizations require any built in integrations and ability to work with financial packages then Tenrox is more suitable. Also when the organizations looking for the features which need to solve the most common project management issues then all these three softwares can help for them. More over some global organizations want to assign permission to users for accessing data and expecting secure project management softwares. These requirements also can provide by all of these three softwares.

When a small size global organization requires a software which is easy to scale according to the growth of it's needs then it can go with @task or Clarizen. But if it is a large size organization then Tenrox is more suitable. Because Tenrox's project work force management software which is suitable to small organizations does have the scalable facility. Also some organizations are looking for the software which is capable to run in their own platform. Since these three are web based project management software the organizations only needs to consider about the browser support. When organizations only require a software which can run on Internet explorer and Firefox then they can choose any of three. But if they want to run in safari then they should go with Clarizen. Likewise when their requirement is supporting Google chrome then @task is the suitable one or wants to run in Netscape Navigator, and Opera can go with Tenrox.

According to the research global organizations are also expecting the software which enables to import/export the data from Microsoft and Excel file. These requirements can fulfill by Clarizen and @task. Therefore they should choose Clarizen or @task instead of Tenrox since Tenrox does not allow to import or export from Microsoft and Excel files. When the organizations require for good vender support then they should go with Tenrox or @task which is more suitable compare to Clarizen. Also if the global organizations runs multiple complex project and require a software which can handle their situation they can go with any of these three softwares.

Evaluation

The result of this research has number of implications. The first one is, the large size global organizations which require user friendly, integratable, cost effective, vender supportive software without having the need of import/export data from Microsoft/Excel file can go with Tenrox.

The second one is, the small or medium size global organizations which require a integrateble, ability to manage complex projects without the need of scalability and import/ export data from Microsoft/Excel file can go with Tenrox, Clarizen, or @task. If they more concentrate on scalability, and import/export data can go with Clarizen or @task. If they expect cost effective, user friendly project management software then they can go with Tenrox. If their requirements include ability to run in safari then Clarizen is the suitable one. When these organizations's more priority is vendor support then Teenrox or @task is suitable.

This research used both primary and secondary data. The primary data which is collected from the questionnaire helped to compare the research findings and make it more correctly. Since the questionnaires have been sent to software professional who are the employees of Tenrox, @task and Clarizen it gave more accurate and real time answers. Also the unclear things about this software have been clarified by getting the help from the forums, live chat and blogs.

Real life experience gives more truthful information compare to others. This research reviewed number of client case studies(all global organizations) who are using Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task project management softwares []. This gave the real experience about these project management softwares and what are the requirements of the global organizations have been solved by them. In addition to this, the requirements and challenges of global organizations also identified by including some of the case studies. This helped to identify the real problems and requirements from the experience of the organizations.

The research also had some limitation in collecting the primary data. Only a few numbers of responses could get from the questionnaire. This questionnaire only sent to the employees of Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task. And this survey did not conduct among any clients of these project management softwares.

Also this research only concentrates on the organizations which have their own team working from different location []. This research did not take into consideration about the organization which has partnership with other organizations in different location and work together in product development []. Finally this research only considers the most common requirements of the global organizations in concern to project management softwares. It would be interesting to consider more in detail about the organization's requirements in term of features of the project management software. For example what are they require in term of project planning. But unfortunately these are difficult to operationalization. Future research might take these things into consideration.

Conclusion

In this research it has been tried to review about the global organizations. From that the challenges face by these organizations such as different language, time zone, and culture, lack of visibility, decision making, reporting, resource allocation and managing cost have been identified. It helped to find out the project management softwares (Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task) which can use to overcome these challenges. The object of this research was to identify the suitable project management software to global organizations according to their requirements. This research highlights the organizations needs including size, cost, scalability, maintainability, Integrateability, security, resource requirement, platform independent, ability to import/export data, and ability to handle complex projects in concern with selecting the project management softwares. Also this research highlights the availability of these requirements in Tenrox, Clarizen, and @task project management software has been identified. Finally this research suggests that the global organizations which have small team can use Clarizen or @task project management software. And which have large team should go with Tenrox. Also if the global organization requires low cost project management software then Tenrox is the better one. If they require scalability and import/export data then they should go with Clarizen or @task. But when their requirement is vender support then Tenrox or Clarizen is more suitable. And when they require user friendly project management software then can go with Tenrox or Clarizen.

Reference

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