The development of web service

The background Knowledge of Mash-up:

Over the years Mash-up business models was based on running a few Google advertisement and collecting fees for sending buyers to e-commerce sites, reasons being that most web sites do not allow outsider access to data profit usage, but as the traffic has grown companies now cut deals to site that may spur new market, especially site that are map based mash-ups for instance, might attract multilateral to ultra-local businesses to advertise on the web.

Over the years web has enhanced the communication of information between individuals and groups; the web developers' uses different kinds of languages (Extensible mark-up language; XML, Extensible Hypertext mark-up language; HTML, Cascading Style Sheet; CSS, etc.) to result at and support web design development, primarily so that people may design, distribute, and consume information in a standardised manner.

The Web 2.0 technologies resolution enhances more creation of some additional technologies such as Really Simple Syndication (RSS), asynchronous Java script and XML (AJAX) and Resource Description Framework (RDF). Therefore web 2.0 application in general and mash-up in particular exist today because these technologies provide the tools necessary for dynamic and flexible data sharing, organisation, [1] display and reuse.

The Web as operation systems:

Software companies, everyone online and web site have been foreshadowed by impact of mash-up. The web is smoothly transformed as an operating system (OS) sort of globally, whereby everyone is acquiring knowledge to program web 2.0 with an enormous spirit of the early days of computer.

Web developers are taking little bits, different pieces from a number of companies together in some innovative way, "Amazon Chief Executive Jeffrey P. Bezos noted" People will start seeing the real power of web services [3].

The Future of mash-ups:

Mash-ups are inexpensive for one thing the web company giants like Amazon and other are embracing the mash-up growth movement by allowing developers with easy access to their data and services, contributing it's enhancement so that more competent services like maps onscreen display, can be done on user's computer instead of their own great distance configured (far-flung) servers, thereby speeding up user's experience. Example; it makes it easier for outsiders to add their pinch of adjustment.

Remarkably , Business week (2005) noted a popularly use scenario that, combines two services (a Chicago Police Dept. Crime web site and Google Map) and lets you type in an address to see recent crimes nearby. The site alone invites 1.2 million people in just the first two weeks after it begun in May. Adrian Holoyaty Creator, a full time developer from journal-world's online unit, thinks of mash-up as great business in future to venture upon.

Design Patterns and business Models:

O'Reilly, T. (2005) has noted some advancement in characteristic properties between web 1.0 and web 2.0 just to mention but a few below.


O'Reilly, T (2005) discuses user contributed information in web 2.0 as a form of collective intelligence. "Mash-ups acknowledges the role of user by providing ways for user data to be repurposed, combined and reorganized as in (added or edited) features: wikis, blogs, and media repositories such as ( Flickr and YouTube) are excellent sources of users data for use in mash-up applications. Users-generated tagging strategies, known as folksonomy, are found in web 2.0 application such as (the social bookmarking site) and improve the ways in which mash-up developers sort, access, and filter information by providing human-readable ways of describing data [2]".

The characteristics of mash-up is that a specific mash-up is made possibly available to external programmers through API (Application Integrated Interface) these APIs include pieces of programmable computer codes that gives web application permission to query and retrieve data and displays it on their own web application. Many web applications for example Orbit Travel update uses two APIs (a). Yahoo! Web services API to retrieve data from Yahoo, while (b). Google map API from Google, these means that 'A' places information into 'B' and retrieve it. While these APIs are on the web it's makes it possibly useful to display and even combine both data in ways that are more meaningful to Orbit Travel Update and it's targeted users.


The proposed online restaurant mash-up Titled: "THE DEVELOPMENT OF WEB SERVICE (MASHUP) FOR FINDING FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS IN UNITED KINGDOM", which will enable users such as (travellers, tourist, families, student, visitors etc) to locate food restaurant easily. Traditionally, when people were looking for a new restaurant, they would pick up a copy of food guide. I have researched the similarity of this project with many of such mash-ups have already been developed, indeed I found that all of them are owned outside the United Kingdom (UK) with different styles and concepts below;

United States of America (USA) is based on mapping out the Chinese restaurant locations for Chinese immigrants. This mash-up site provides user access to review, menus, locations and other local information. [9]

  • Creator Brain Hui first created this site only in Chinese and focusing on Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Chinese food establishment.
  • However the site has grown nationwide to metro like Houston, Seattle and Atlanta and an English version inevitably popped ups as well.

Menu request is based on mapping which features more than 5,000 links in New York, San Diego, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Napa Valley, Philadelphia, San Francisco and Washington DC.

  • Creator Joshua Lurie - Terrel of Sacramento.
  • Users can visit the restaurant's web site, read reviews, get driving directions and make online reservations through this amazing map.

Boorah Restaurant Search is a service targeting restaurant owners to provide report/feedback of positive and negative trends reviews of food, service and ambiance at their restaurants. For that the service monitors negative and positive trends across hundreds of online review sites. As it grows, restaurant owners can subscribe to receive a PDF of their monthly report for an introductory price charge of $15 and a regular charge of $25 per month.

  • The report may enable those restaurant owners to react and improve their service in the specific field.
  • Service covers 20 top metropolitan areas across United State (east, mid, west) geographical locations.
  • The service helps consumers achieve their ideal dining experience by allowing them to search thousand of restaurant to meet their individual requirements [12]. stands behind a restaurant database the feeds and the most comprehensive restaurant data. "Dinning Info" provides unique wine friendly ratings, illuminate composite ratings, corkage, days open and maps, plus links to restaurant websites and reviews.


Restocan is a complete and efficient guide of restaurants in Canada; you can search restaurant address or category, [1]by selecting a category while starting to use restaurant locator [8].

Australia is the first Google map mash-up developed for an Australian dining website with rich interactive functions implemented. Searching restaurant directly on map is intuitive and easy to use.

  • Ador enable users to book restaurant online in real-time booking.
  • When a reservation is processed online it instantly records in an electronic reservation system [10].

Chapter Two

Literature Review


The development of web service for finding food restaurants in United Kingdom is an integration of web service functionalities and new creativity from different web applications. These integration technologies ( mix-up or mash up) has really made a shift in web service development and has created widely popular and successful web services such as Google Maps and Youtube Data API (Application Programming Interface). However the development is very limited to web site that provide open web services APIs, and currently most web site do not provide web services. For this purpose, I propose a web information development method to generate the virtual web service.


Since the development of internet the web becomes the richest source of information which always not in the form that support end user's requirement though there are tremendous information. There is a trend of enabling users to view diverse data from diverse sources in an integrated manner known as Mix up or Mash up. However the integration is based on the combination of web services and limited to the web site that provide the open web service APIs unfortunately, most existing web site does not provide services as such [5]. The web applications are still the main methods for information distribution, for example KQED Quest [1] offers educator guides, teacher workshops and advance organizers for students. Its content is not only mapped onto satellite image of the bay area but pathways through the content are also suggested. An integrated blog affords users the opportunity to ask questions and give feedbacks. Web applications search for the desired information and extract the partial information to realise the virtual web service functions. All processes of web information searching and extractions are run at client side by end users programming like a real web service.

Motivation and Related Works.

According to a mash up community known as Programmable Web [14] the total number of listed mashup applications is more than 4512, and total of listed Application Programming Interface API is more than 1523 and on average there are more than 3 new systems generated everyday in December 2009. Although many users would like to build mash-up applications, existing web services are not adequate for user's needs and many famous and popular web sites do not provide web service. However it does not appear to be easy to realize the interaction between different web applications, extracting typed data from multiple web pages is more suitable to generate Mash-ups applications. Marmite [15], implemented as a Firefox plug-in using JavaScript and XML user interface mark-up language developed by theMozilla project (XUL) uses a basic screen-scraping operator to extract the content from web pages and integrated it with other data sources [4].

Some approaches are proposed to develop web services based on the web application to obtain the integration. Pollock [15][5] can create a virtual web service from form based query interface of web site. This generate wrappers using XWrap, and WSDL file using web site related information, then proceeds to publishes the details of the virtual web service into UDDI, but this user needs to parse the Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) documents of the form based web pages.

As shown in Fig. 2, [5] all the processes of searching extraction and integration are run at client-side by end users. The end users can explore the different personal web services to support all their needs without depending on the proxy server (server end).

  • Extracting typed data from web pages and the extracted result is structured data.
  • Extracting all kinds of information including text, links, images and object from different layout such as list and tables.
  • Supporting the information extracted from the static web pages and the dynamically generated web pages such as the result pages from based query.
  • The end users can realise the continuous information searching and extract over multiple web pages by end-user programming.

Web Information Extraction

Usually, in real world a real web service response to the requests of users by returning the data in the server-side database. The web service developers design the query commands by an interactive and programming language such as Structured Query language (SQL) to retrieve data in the table of database [5]. Most in time the web application serves as server while the web pages serves as tables, compared with web service the web application are not suitable for integration because they are designed for browsing by users, not for the parsing by computer program. As shown in Tab. 2, realising the function of CNN news search engine. Web services, web feed and web applications from more than one web sites into a single integrated system.

Perspectives on web services (SOAP, WSDL and UDDI) to real world.

The web service makes it possible to connect many different computing platforms. however, a single simple technology is available for very different programming language environments such as Java 2 Enterprise edition (J2EE), Microsoft .Net, C++, SAP ABAP, Lotus Domino, Perl and many more. Different platforms both Hardware and Operating systems that support Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) implementations and XML parser can participate. The following are the technological characteristics of web services [7]:

  • Business process orchestration without programming
  • Reuse and flexibility
  • Interface agreements
  • Automation through application clients
  • Connectivity for heterogeneous world
  • Information and process sharing
  • Dynamic discovery of service interface and implementation

However, the perspectives of web services are as follows:

Business perspective: deals with opportunity identification and analysis.

Today any business must be agile that being responsive to market opportunities. Therefore, companies demands more optimized and efficient development cycle and want be easily integrate application from multiple vendors, possibly running on different platforms.

The ability to reuse and reconfigure an existing business component is the key to being agile.

Training Perspective: provides technical base education.

Understanding SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) [7].

From a web service point of view, the XML instance carrying information turns into the SOAP message. It then transfers service invocation requests and responses.

SOAP is an XML-based protocol for exchanging structured and typed data between applications.

The web service consumer code calls the client side SOAP API, while the SOAP server must execute service provider code upon arrival of a SOAP message.

The SOAP document style is very well suited for non-RPC style communication, such as a document upload scenario. The SOAP runtime does not restrict the structure of the document style SOAP message body in any way. It rather loosely related to the service, because the peer application owns full responsibility for message body processing and service execution [7].

Understanding Web Service Description Language (WSDL) [7].

Web Service Description Language provides the information entities comprising the interface and the implementation part through XML elements.

Web Service Description Language document is an XML instance composed of elements that are declared in a Web Service Description Language schema definition with target namespace

The ordering of elements in a Simple Object Access Protocol message body for an operation must be identical to the ordering of the parts in a Web Service Description Language document message describing the message body.

Understanding Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)

The Universal Description Discovery and Integration service registry provides a web service directory platform. It is, so to speak, a centralized web service search engine helping web service consumer applications to find adequate service offerings.

A consumer needs to certainly select a service based on technical criteria, because if the consumer cannot agree to the service interface contract offered by the service provider, it cannot call the service at all.

Dynamic web service consumers querying a Universal Description Discovery and Integration registry will always find up-to-date web service information if service providers keep their published data accurate.

Linking Web Service Description Language documents to a Universal Description Discovery and Integration registry is made possible when a web service consumer navigating through Universal Description Discovery Integration business entities and business service and finding eventually an appropriate service must discover the service network address and must be delegated to an associated Web Service Description Language document describing the technical condition for calling this service.

  • Architecture perspective: lays the conceptual foundation for solutions
  • Development perspective: is a hands-on chapter implementing web service and client invoking them.
  • Operational perspective: investigates the physical view on web services solutions; it features both conceptual and hands-on sections
  • Engagement perspective: takes a rear view on web services projects
  • Future perspective: gives an outlook to emerging technology.

Challenges of using Mash-ups in Education.

Mash-up technology is still very much at its beginning stage, rendering its educational potential less known and its strength ill defined. Some issues that educators may confront in using mash-ups in the classroom.

Service stability, Data accuracy and Content appropriateness may play significant roles in how mash-ups are used in education. Most mash-ups are dynamic, user generated, utilize editable, issues of content unpredictability emerge. Herein I will mention an example [1].

The Ficlets mash-up support the creative writing process in ways language arts educators may value, its use of the Flickr API that creates the small but very small real possibility that students may be exposed to materials deemed inappropriate for some K-12 classrooms.

Lack of mashup development expertise and or resources within educational circles may hinder widespread mashup use and adoption.

The creation of mashup requires a ready supply of raw data, technical know-how, a spark of creativity [16].


Though mashup might sound like a bit of web service to anyone, this is not too far off. Web services are sometimes involved in mashups, although that setup typically involves a server infrastructure and some server-side code vis-a-vis. It is not really call on web service (Simple Object Access Protocol, Web Service Description Language, Universal Description Discovery and Integration with all other that web service typically denotes.) from a Java script client [16] and almost certainly not from a web browser.

Therefore, this web application will enable users such as travellers, tourist, families, student, visitors etc to locate food restaurant easily around the United Kingdom (UK), With this vast web application information database, Restaurant owners and business as whole will be able to get feedbacks, reviews or reports from other customers that might have visited an outlet. This type of application has existed in the United State, Canada and Australia.


Textbooks/Journals and Websites:

  1. Liu M., Horton L., Olmanson, J. & Wang, P. Y. (2008) An Exploration of Mash-ups and their Potential Education Uses. Computers in the schools, Vol. 25(3-5), 2008.
  2. O'Reilly, T. (2005). What is web 2.0? Retrieved December 02, 2009 From:
  3. Hof, R. D. (2005). Mix, Match, and Mutate. Retrieved November 28, 2009,*ocQ34AvyQMA/magazine/content /05_30/b3944108_mz063.htm
  4. Dickson K. W, Danny k, Alex K. C. Integrated Legacy Sites into web services With Webxcript. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems Vol. 14, No. 1 (2005) 25 - 44. Copyright World Scientific Publishing Company.
  5. Hao H, Takehiro T. A method For Integration of Web Applications Based on Information Extraction. Eight International Conference on Web Engineering. ISBN 0769532615 2008 IEEE.
  6. Munindar P. S, Michael N. H, Service Oriented Computing Semantics, Processes, Agents. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2005 ISBN 0470091487.
  7. Olaf Z, Mark T, Stefan P. Perspectives On Web Services applying SOAP, WSDL And UDDI to Real World Projects. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003 ISBN 3540009140.
  8. Canada restaurant locator:
  9. Chinese food map (
  10. Boorah restaurant search:
  11. Australia Dinning out search:
  12. Las Vegas, NV City Search:
  13. Boorah restaurant search:
  14. ProgrammableWeb:
  15. Lu Y. H, Hong Y, Varia J, and Lee D, Pollock: Automatic generation of virtual Web Services from web sites. In the Proceedings of the 2005 ACM symposium On applied computing, 2005.
  16. FrankW.Z, Practical JavaScript, DOM Scripting, and Ajax Projects Apress inc 2007, ISBN 978-1-4302-0197-7 (Online).

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