"Understanding and Promoting System Security"
Biometrics is the part of science of establishing an individual's identity based on the attributes like behaviour, physical or chemical of a person. In this modern society the need for identity management system on the large scale which can perform accurate identification of a specific individual identity has taken the priority in various applications like web-services; network shared computers, granting access and financial transactions. The biometrics technologies have given a formidable base for safer web-based transaction and secure personal identification. The biometrics is implemented and integrated in various technologies like smart cards, digital signatures or it can be used alone. With the use of biometrics and its advantages of being accurate has the edge over the conventional use of other technologies like password and pins. The success and the accuracy of this technology of biometrics is high cause it is linked up with the particular individual unique identity, while compared to pins and passwords which can be used by other individual and it's more vulnerable.
The biometrics offers a critical advantage over the token and password such as the negative recognition and non-repudiation. In negative recognition the system determines whether the individual is indeed enrolled, this system can be used in applications like welfare disbursement. Where as in non-repudiation it is the method of determining and guarantying that an individual has accessed certain facility even if the individual denies it. Biometrics methods are referred to various behavioural and physical characteristics of the individual. These characteristics are used in various applications, choosing the biometric characteristics for a particular application is dependent on various factors in a particular scenario where it is being used. About seven factors have been recognized to determine the suitability of a trait to be used in a biometric application; the seven factors are universality, uniqueness, permanence, measurability, performance, acceptability, circumvention. But a single biometric cannot meet all the application requirements. Depending upon the application requirements and nature, the specific biometric characteristic is determined.
The biometric characteristics are classified into two categories physical and behavioural traits. The physical characteristics are associated with the shape of the body, iris recognition, finger prints, facial recognition, hand geometry, palm print; the behaviour characteristics are related to signature recognition, voice print, keystroke and dynamics. The iris recognition technology is most widely used in the present day; this recognition biometric technology (Iris) is the method of verifying the person by pattern recognition technique by analysing the image of the iris of a particular individual. Iris is a region in the eye which is encircled by sclera and pupil. The complex and distinct characteristics of the iris carries very accurate information which is useful for recognition. Working methodology of the iris recognition system is during the enrolment process of the individual the system captures the photo of the iris pattern and it converts the photo into a digital code and stores the information on the database, during a test the iris pattern of an individual captured is compared with the digital code information stored in the database, if it matches then the registration is stated as valid. Present iris recognition systems which are accurate are very promising with high success rate. The iris recognition systems are cost effective, user friendly, fast and secure when compared to other biometric traits. The applications of iris recognition system are used in various fields like computer where it can be used as logins to access, passports, aviation security, airports to limit the access to specified areas, national identity cards and forensic. The Amsterdam Schipol airport has introduces iris-scan smart cards to swiftly process the immigration procedures. 
Technology Justification: Executive Management audience
Biometrics has become very popular in recent years, indentifying the biological characteristics of an individual has become a business reality, which was once a science fiction. In the present work society the process of identifying an individual with the help of biometric techniques is increasingly finding its way into the everyday applications. Biometric technologies such as the voice, facial, finger print and iris recognition systems are being implemented for validation of the individual identity in organisations and applications such as airports, border management, visas, ATMs, law enforcements, military operations and ID systems. Present scenario the organisation and governments are facing a challenge of protecting their physical and logical assets, with the use of the biometric technologies they can over some the security issues and reduce the fraud and protect valuable information in an efficient way. By the each passing day biometrics market is reaching new heights, as more organisations believe and accepting the fact that this technology is the breakthrough in the security products industry. The impact of the biometrics in the global market is impressive with a steep increase in supply and demand of the biometric products year by year as every field from defence security to civil security employment are contributing towards the extension of the biometric security products.
The market of biometric security products which includes manufacturing and utilization will grow in terms of quantity and quality. Countries like North America and South America are the major production centres for biometrics products and are the major contributors to the global market. By 2017 it is estimated that the overall market will shift from USA to Asia which will generate 32% of global revenue in the biometric industry . The biometrics is stated in the class of alternating technology but is subjected to major evolutionary innovation and is reaching the expectation of the past promises with stability. It is forecasted that the growth of the biometrics overall market will be linear rather than exponential, it will replicated the growth curve of the ATMs which adopted a linear growth over the past 20 years.
Iris recognition has become a chosen authentication medium compared to other biometric technologies cause its capture technology operates accurately regardless of environment condition. The iris based surveillance and identity services will be integral to solutions which relates to border control, government ID programs, transaction security, military installations and financial institutions. This type of authentication technology does not require the user to do anything for instance the user does not need to have any physical contact which has proved to be safer and more convenient to the users. According to the forecast by Louisville, CO., iris recognition will reach 16% of the overall market share in future. Iris technology is used in various airports all over the world to reduce invasion of refugees and to ensure only the passengers who are registered are allowed to enter the country. 
Technology Justification: The End-Users and Technological Audience
Biometrics is set of technologies which promise to give us an efficient solution to security problems because personal privacy and security are national priorities. The biometric accurately identify an individual based on the physical and behavioural characteristics of a person. It works by matching the patters of the individual characteristic in real time with the data enrolled in the records. Measurable characteristics of the individual like the physiological which includes hand geometry, iris recognition, finger print, and facial recognition. Out of all the biometric technologies iris recognition is considered to be the most potential and accurate biometric technology, it is highly stable and cost effective when related to user enrolment and implementation. Iris technology captures the unique pattern of iris in humans to identify and verify the individual; the iris in the eye is covered by cornea and every iris is unique. Purpose of the iris is to protect the eye by restricting the light passing through the pupil. Two irises of an individual do not match as each have distinct characteristics, iris patters are usually formed before the birth and they do not change over the period of life time. It is considered to be highly stable recognizable characteristic because it is resistant to injuries and even the medical procedures like cataract surgery or cornea transplants will not affect its characteristics.
A high resolution image of the eye is captured in the infrared range of (700-900nm) to replicate the distinct characteristics of the iris, ophthalmologists have confirmed and proved the exposure of the eye to the infrared in that wavelength will not affect the eye and its safe . To capture a good image of the eye, resolution should be about 80 pixels around the radius of the iris from the boundaries of the pupil and to the white boundary. To achieve this individual should position himself relative to the camera or the camera should have the capabilities of detecting and self rough alignment or positioning of the eye. To capture a good image a system with two cameras should be used, the first camera which is built with a wide angle lens and the second camera with a narrow angle lens. The first camera with wide angle lens will send an orientation instruction to the second camera to capture the image of iris. With this process image of the face and iris can be taken in one single process. Because of the cost of tilt and pan cameras are high; currently systems with manual alignment of the eye are being used. 
The image of the eye which has been captured is processed to locate the iris and recognise it with the help of the software. As the iris has been located with the help of an algorithm a template is generated for comparison. In the present market there are many vendors who hr produce iris recognition system, but the basic principle of algorithms matching and creation of template is common in all the iris recognition system which is produced and licensed to a single company called the Iridian Technologies. The template creation and image processing after the image has been captured takes about half a second. 
Matching of Templates:
The template matching of the iris is based on statistical independence test. There are 244 binomial bots in the template which describes the iris pattern, these bit are stated as degree of freedom as they are responsible for stating the difference between different iris templates and are referred as binomial because they usually have one of two probable values. It is expected that the bits from the iris templates would agree at least 50 percent of the time same as flipping the coin and the probability of getting the same face is considered to be 50 percent.