Web intelligence

Web Intelligence


Web intelligence is a new research field. Here mainly we integrate artificial intelligence in web media. WI concept is very popular now in all sector of the society. Now people want AI in every level which is very easy to get in throw web because web is a very fast growing communication system like other media e.g. radio, television telecommunication etc.


As we said web is a very fast growing and popular media. It's now using in every simple problem of real life. If we see around us almost all people all the time some how interact with web. And every time they use advantages of web.

Y.Y.Yao et al, (1999) in one of his research discuss about the using of WI areas which is:

‘The Web has significant impacts on both academic research and ordinary daily life. It revolutionizes the way in which information is gathered, stored, processed, presented, shared, and used. The Web offers new opportunities and challenges for many areas, such as business, commerce, marketing, finance, publishing, education, research and development.' (Y.Y.Yao et al 1999:p.1)

What is Web Intelligence?

WI is nothing but a great combination of AI and Web. Which is AI performing it's task throw web and it s more easy way to reach to end user. Normally AI is a complex system but when it is work with web then its easier manipulate.

Y.Y.Yao et al, (1999) said about what is web intelligence? Which is?:

‘At this very early stage, we are not sure if a formal definition of Web Intelligence is useful or desirable. Nevertheless, we suggest the following definition: “Web Intelligence (WI) exploits Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the Web and Internet.”

This definition has the following implications. The basis of WI is AI and IT. The “I” happens to be shared by both “AI” and “IT”, although with different meanings in them, and “W” defines the platform on which WI research is carried out. The goal of WI is the joint goals of AI and IT on the new platform of the Web. That is, WI applies AI and IT for the design and implementation of Intelligent Web Information Systems (IWIS). An IWIS should be able to perform computer science by coining the term Web Intelligence, into which Web related research can be fitted.' (Y.Y.Yao et al 1999:p.2)

Topics Covered by WI:

If we think little bit and consider our daily life then simply we can feel that We using in all section of our daily life. We can't even think without web now.

So it's difficult to summarize the topic covered by WI.

Y.Y.Yao et al, (1999) make segment of topics cover by WI. So now it is very easy to understand normally which area WI using mostly. Those topics are:

‘Web Information System Environment and Foundations:

• Competitive dynamics of Web sites,

• Emerging Web technology,

• Network community formation and support,

• New Web information description and query languages,

• The semantic Web,

• Theories of small world Web,

• Web information system development tools,

• Web protocols.

Web Human-Media Engineering:

• The art of Web page design,

• Multimedia information representation,

• Multimedia information processing,

• Visualization of Web information,

• Web-based human computer interface.

Web Information Management:

• Data quality management,

• Information transformation,

• Internet and Web-based data management,

• Multi-dimensional Web databases,

• OLAP (on-line analytical processing),

• Multimedia information management,

• New data models for the Web,

• object oriented Web information management,

• personalized information management,

• Semi-structured data management,

• Use and management of metadata,

• Web knowledge management,

• Web page automatic generation and updating,

• Web security, integrity, privacy and trust.

Web Information Retrieval:

• Approximate retrieval,

• Conceptual information extraction,

• Image retrieval,

• Multi-linguistic information retrieval,

• Multimedia retrieval,

• New retrieval models,

• Ontology-based information retrieval,

• Automatic Web content cataloguing and indexing.

Web Agents:

• Dynamics of information sources,

• e-mail filtering,

• e-mail semi-automatic reply,

• Global information collecting,

• Information filtering,

• Navigation guides,

• Recommender systems,

• Remembrance agents,

• Reputation mechanisms,

• Resource intermediary and coordination mechanisms,

• Web-based cooperative problem solving.

Web Mining and Farming:

• Data mining and knowledge discovery,

• Hypertext analysis and transformation,

• learning user profiles,

• Multimedia data mining,

• Regularities in Web surfing and Internet congestion,

• Text mining,

• Web-based ontology engineering,

• Web-based reverse engineering,

• Web farming,

• Web-log mining,

• Web warehousing.

Web-Based Applications:

• Business intelligence,

• Computational societies and markets,

• Conversational systems,

• Customer relationship management (CRM),

• Direct marketing,

• Electronic commerce and electronic business,

• Electronic library,

• Information markets,

• Price dynamics and pricing algorithms,

• measuring and analyzing Web merchandising,

• Web-based decision support systems,

• Web-based distributed information systems,

• Web-based electronic data interchange (EDI),

• Web-based learning systems,

• Web marketing,

• Web publishing.

It should be pointed out that WI researches are not limited to the topics listed above. We expect that new topics will be added and existing topic will be regrouped or redefined.' (Y.Y.Yao et al, 1999:p.7)

From all the areas we can tell web-based applications are using vastly in our real life. Business Intelligence (BI) is one of them.

Business Intelligence:

BI is a combination of business fact and AI which is playing throw WI as a web application.

If we look few years back we can see business user working hard to develop their business using human intelligence in every section. They make survey time n time applying various methods to analyze data and make report and take decision. It's a very long process and high risk.

But throw the BI they can make report and get further decision within in a click of time which is easier, faster, reliable eliminate the risk.

BusinessObjects XI Release 2 (2005) nicely discuss about business and web and how they react with each other which is:

‘Web Intelligence provides business users an easy to use interactive and flexible user interface for building and analyzing reports on corporate data over the web, on secured intranets and extranets. The Web Intelligence software is installed by your administrator on a web server on your corporate network.

To use Web Intelligence from you local computer, you log into the business intelligence portal Info View via your Internet browser. Then, depending on your security profile, you can interact with the reports in corporate documents or edit or build your own documents using a Web Intelligence report panel or query panel.' (BusinessObjects XI Release 2, 2005:p.14)

Feasibility Study of BI:

Why mid size business need business intelligence:

BI helps to make business user life easy to make decision in any sector like strategic or further steps very easy and faster way. BI provide better analysis from previous or historical data from the market or from the own organization. It's also provides statistical and research report with reliable decision.

To using BI Company can faster then any time, less effort, can generate various report from 360 degree angel and can make perfect decision on time.

Michael. A. Schiff (2009) in SAP White Paper – Business Intelligence: Make a Guide for Midsize Companies:

‘Business intelligence allows organizations to better understand, analyze, and even predict what's occurring in the overall environment and in their company. BI helps your organization turn data into useful and meaningful information and then distributes this information to those who need it, when they need it, wherever they need it –so that they can make timely and better informed decisions. It allows organizations to combine data from a wide variety of sources and see an integrated, up-to-date, 360-degree view.

This is especially important for midsize companies, which while not having the vast resources of industry giants are typically able to more quickly implement business decisions. BI provides a win-win solution for IT and business users by allowing the IT department to be more productive in working with its business users to service special requests while permitting those business users to become more self sufficient. Operations and analysis are two sides of the business, and BI allows IT to be a valued partner in both.' (Michael. A. Schiff 2009:p.6)

General use of BI in mid size organization:

* Maintain inventory management and re-order level.

* Find out the best selling product and keep maintain the distribution system

* Find out which level of the customer stop purchasing product and promote something new to get them back.

* Using Dashboard and Scorecard then business user can understand throw it what is the next steps and present performance.

* Can fix a performance metrics and take proper action in right time before the threat touch the danger line.

* Identify the performance department wise and compare between them then point out the moral problems.

* Can retrieve the sell data from whole year in different format like half yearly, quarterly, monthly etc.

* Can make pre-production plan. From the needs for the market then raw material, factory and machine management to shipment.

* Maintain supply chain management

* Top management can perform their own ad hoc analyses.

Benefits of using BI:

Still what ever we discuss we can see BI always beneficial to the user. So if we want to specify them we need to make a segment of benefits that to understand and discuss to the point. In my point of view BI help to reduce cost in all section to a long run, make more profitable then any other time generally, customer satisfaction, increase entire performance.

Mark Ritacco and Astridn carver (2010) they discuss about the business value of BI and summarized the benefits using BI which are:

‘Because of the wide applicability of BI in both enterprise and extranet deployments, the business benefits are numerous. These benefits can be grouped into three main categories: lowering costs, increasing revenue, and improving customer satisfaction. And this list is far from exhaustive, since empowered users continue to find new ways to implement BI.' (Mark Ritacco and Astridn carver 2010:p.9)

I am also agree with them and we can also go bit details of that like if lowering cost how and where:

Lowering cost

Efficiency of the operation level can improve:

If we allow customer to access real time data throw web and customer can ask their own question and answer as a result customer also happy and reduce support cost also we can make a historical data warehouse without ant cost. A simple example is ask.com and yahoo asks.

Reduce human resource:

Throw BI management can make their own quires and report so it's normally reducing human resource and company cost or also we can relocated the human resource which is a benefit of the organization.

Better interrelationship with customer, suppliers and partners:

By using BI all the time we can keep and touch with customer, suppliers and partners without any concern. Like automatic e-mail in specific circumstance, ordering products, damage percentage, shipment time etc.

BI can go to the root and take action:

This we using in reporting section. BI can go till to the end point and can find out the fundamental problems. Which if we want to do manually it ll takes long time, more effort needs, high risk and less reliable. If we see one from Mark Ritacco and Astridn carver (2010)'s report we can get a rough idea about that ‘,

(Mark Ritacco and Astridn carver 2010:p.10)

Wasted and Inventory Report:

We can use costing method for find out the hidden cost, wasted percentage and cost, high margin product which have to push more. From this we can reduce some extra cost and make some more profit.

Increase revenue

Better strategies and better marketing policies:

BI can analyze better strategies and appropriate marketing policies on product, time and customer which normally help increase revenue.

Can Push your Sell Force:

BI can tell the target of sell last year and achieve what also can summarize if any constrain would be solution. In this way we can enforce our sell.

Improve Customer Satisfaction

To using BI fetcher customers are satisfied in both ways. Customer can operate their own data to make quires and report like their won question and answer to help make better decision. Assumption is a major fact here; BI can provide almost actual assumption and minimize risk in all level.

And all these facts increase entire performance of business and operations.

Many UK organization using BI now we will discuss about couple of them of them how they benefited from BI. Here we have tow organization report publish by Business Objectives if we go throw it can get a small clear practical idea of using BI.

Business Objective (2007) publishes one report about their customer and partner that how Lambeth Primary Care Trust (PCT) get benefit from using BI:

‘Based in south London, Lambeth Primary Care Trust (PCT) delivers health care services to 345,000 people registered with local doctors in the borough. The trust employs around 1,000 people and will spend over £500 million on services in 2007/2008. These services are provided by community teams delivering a range of nursing and therapy services; primary care contractors, including dentists, optometrists and pharmacists; and hospital and mental health services from the two main local hospitals: Guy's and St Thomas' and King's, as well as the South London and Maudsely NHS Foundation Trust.

Having made a pledge to senior management that RiO reporting would be available by the beginning of 2008, Lambeth PCT suffered a serious set back and had to re-evaluate the marketplace. “Strong recommendations and the expected adoption of Business Objects technology for the NHS London management information system, convinced the Trust to implement Business Objects Edge™ and Crystal Reports,” Barker confirms.


Improving Patient Services

Daily use of RiO by all Community Health services, around 900 users, is building up an in depth data warehouse holding a range of information from clinical to immunisation data, elderly patient information, assessment forms and the number of missed appointments. This consolidated data source is providing an unprecedented opportunity to streamline statutory reports, meet escalating demands for ad hoc reports and deliver new insight to Community Service managers about the quality, efficiency and relevance of service delivery.

Benefits of the data warehouse include:

Statutory reporting: Lambeth PCT has to provide weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual reports to both the Department of Heath and NHS London covering a range of key targets, including the number of children vaccinated each month, trends in immunisation and number of referrals to each clinic. Using Crystal Reports, the Trust can now replace time consuming, manual data manipulation and consolidation from multiple systems into automated, scheduled report production. Using Business Objects, the analyst team can also now respond rapidly to regular requests for ad hoc reports, such as current performance against a specific NHS target.

Operational reporting: Lambeth PCT can now automate its Key Performance Indicator reporting, including waiting times and number of patients seen at each clinic.

Service Management: For the first time service managers for each Community Service have in depth reports providing information on patient numbers, missed appointments, and trends in referral. This will support strategic planning for the number of clinics required as well as providing an opportunity to target those patients persistently missing appointments. ‘(Business Objective 2007:p1-4)

Business Objective (2007) publishes one report about their customer and partner that how AF Blakemore get benefit from using BI:

‘Privately owned AF Blakemore is one of the country's leading independent food retail and distribution companies. With 206 SPAR stores, Tates is the largest independent convenience store operator in the UK. In addition, Blakemore supplies other SPAR stores across the central region of the UK, as well as a large number of independent retailers. Other parts of the business include cash & carry, food services to a number of organizations including local authorities, Social Services and schools, and a new local produce food distribution service.

For the past 12 years, Blakemore has used Business Objects business intelligence tools to deliver company wide reporting. For the Tates stores this includes basket level analysis across every store on a daily basis.


Platform for innovation

Blakemore attained an immediate return on investment from the migration to Business Objects XI by eliminating the license and maintenance costs of the redundant third party applications. In addition, the company is gaining significant commercial benefit from a number of new developments, including the introduction of a loyalty campaign for its 400 independent retailer customers.

“Business Objects XI allows Blakemore to be far more creative in the way information is presented and distributed both across the company and to customers,” says Jones. “Critically, information is rapidly available to users both at home and at remote offices, ensuring consistent quality and timeliness of business intelligence.”

• Customer loyalty: Using the speed of information retrieval and analysis provided by Business Objects XI, Blakemore is offering its 400 independent retail customers a new loyalty scheme. “Detailed basket level analysis enables Blakemore to offer each store a tailored incentive to buy more products. The discount both encourages customer loyalty and boosts turnover,” Jones says.

• Faster reporting: Leveraging the web based technology has enabled Blakemore to transform the speed of standard reporting; key financial reports that previously took one hour to run are now available within three minutes. This speed is encouraging users to undertake far more ‘what if?' analysis to assess the implications of purchasing decisions, discounts or promotions on sales and revenue. “Timely information is key, enabling Blakemore to respond faster to business opportunities,” he says.

• Performance culture: Business Objects XI also provides the platform for the introduction of dashboards to reflect Blakemore's key performance indicators (KPI). “The retail marketing is challenging and the company recognises that constant monitoring of performance across the group will be key to attaining long term growth and success,” Jones concludes.'

(Business Objective 2007:p.1-2)

Requirements elicitation and analysis of BI:


To elicitation and analysis of any requirements interviewing is the noble policy. We can take interview of different stakeholders to simplify and gather the requirements of the business user for BI.

In this way we can point out some essential BI requirements like business goal, who can make decision, format of question, reporting category, assumption format, standard business process, data source criteria, measure, constrains if any etc.

Now we can discuss little bit deep of those requirements

Business goal

BI business goal should be increase performance in all area of business. Like perfect analysis of data, making report due to user need, take better decision, faster quire, reduce cost and make easy to solve problem etc.

Watermark learning (2010) also summarized the business goals of BI which are:

‘Increase project success by better defining requirements for Business Intelligence (BI) applications that meet business needs

Reduce rework by discovering BI requirements correctly the first time Anticipate client needs by learning the right questions to ask for BI projects

Help business clients articulate their needs and wants for Business Intelligence (BI) applications

Use dimensional modelling to help elicit BI requirements and to analyze and document them

Define business problems and objectives that a BI solution will help address

Communicate BI requirements seamlessly to designers of interfaces, data structures, and applications ‘(Watermark learning, 2010)

Decision Maker:

Good decision leads the company in a good position so the roles of peoples should be significant those who interact with decision making level.

Format of question:

Decision is answer level so BI make report from the question what was ask then give decision in this case format of question should be in a standard level that can maintain the best performance.

Reporting category:

Reporting should be in different category in basis of customer need. So we have to maintain the system that customer can get same report in different way.


This is very important area of BI. Because, if the assumption is not correct then company may miss lead or loss can occur. So we have to handle it very carefully and consider external and internal liabilities and if re investment need then how to solve the problem.

Huw Richards says four principles about Strategic Assumptions Surfacing and Testing (SAST) from here we can get some more idea of handle assumption which are:

‘Adversarial - based on the premise that the best way to test an assumption is to oppose it.

Participative - based on the premise that the knowledge and resources necessary to solve and implement the solution to a complex problem is distributed among a group of individuals.

Integrative - based on the premise that a unified set of assumptions and action plan are needed to guide decision making, and that what comes out of the adversarial and participative elements can be unified.

Managerial mind supporting - based on the premise that exposure to assumption deepens the manager's insight into an organisation and its policy, planning, and strategic problems. ‘(Huw Richards 2010)

Standard business process:

BI play role in whole business process so if we want uses BI n get optimal performance so we need to maintain a standard business process like

Logistics control:

* Order raw material in a certain time

* Maintain a fix re-order level based on the production

* Maintain supplier ranking

* Customer supports like changing or modifying order same as suppliers.

Operational control:

* Human resource administration

· Factory management like production operation

* Quality maintain

* Work load management

* Other support


* Supply chain management due to quality, demand and supply

* Despatch management

Financial factors:

* Pricing management

* Payment management

* External and internal cash flow management

Focus on CRM:

* Fix the credit level of customer and supplier

* Fix the credit level based on order for both customer and supplier

Other services:

* Re-use the materials and fix the life line

* Distribution product based on sale performance

* Changing payroll and personal management

Data source criteria:

Organization better have own data source then BI can perform with core data which is good for better decision making.


We have to also measure the BI system that we using how it lead to the organization. If BI make a sell target and give to solution to achieve the target we have to calculate or make a correlation between them to see it's effective or not. Same way we have to check the actual uses of BI application over the organization.


In real life nothing is fault less and also it impossible to achieve 100 percent goal in practices in operation. To run the BI application organization may face some common constrain like operational, technical, internal, external etc. we have always deal with those constrains to overcome and run in a smooth way.

Watermark learning (2010) summarized BI constrain in detail which are:

‘Constraints on BI

* Common BI mistakes

* Technology Constraints

1. Data source, performance, technology adoption

2. Data quality issues

3. Transformation challenges (e.g., ETL)

4. Architectural maturity and coordination

* Business Constraints

1. Historical data needs

2. Data currency needs

3. Summarization needs

4. Requirements volatility

5. Data sharing culture

6. Regulatory and compliance issues

* Project Management Constraints

1. Budget and resources

2. Change management

3. Expectations management

4. Gaining/maintaining executive support ‘ (Watermark learning 2010)

System Model:

Contaxt Diagram:

BI application pattern:

* Physical data source

* OLAP Support

* ARRAY or cube concept

* Drill drop, Drill down, Drill throw facilities

Requirements specification

User requirements:

Enterprise reporting

It's mainly cover the all area of business. Managers may be want to see monthly, quarterly half yearly report about the sell, target, achieve target, inventory status, commission on sale, distribution etc. they may want to browse it via web or mail it to different network.

Easy advance analysis

Advance analysis process should be very easy and customer friendly then any body can use from different level. Also it should be support in different view of analysis.


Application should perform many types of visualization techniques.


Some time organization need to publish their report to the web and also need to e-mail and some distribution fetcher.

Data warehouse

It's a good parities to have a data warehouse it can help a lot the organization in future.

Can perform with other application

It's common demand that user can import and export data from different file format like MS office.

Multi operating system support

It's also a basic need of good application then customer can use in any OS environment.

Ease of use

It will increase the user and make product competitive in market and also customer's basic requirement.


* Support remote access tools

* Internal operation like e-mail and publish report in internal portal

* External operation like e-mail via internet

* External access, that customer and supplier can check their needs.

Functional Requirements

Data Inquiry:

Ad hoc quire- simple inquire that retrieve and present data in asking format .

Derived column- derived data but not stored.

Predefine inquires- it's for fail management or retrieve same report on different time.

Schedule data execution- automatic executed the quires in predefine schedule.

Share data from external source- some time customer need to share other data source so application need to support different files or database.

Import and export data- application have ability to import and export data from different file format.

Retrieve small amount of data- application have to retrieve small amount of data that customer need.

Retrieve large amount of data- application have to retrieve large amount of data that customer need.

Provide summary information- application must able to provide the summary information.

Provide detail information- application must able to provide the detail information.

Data Manipulation:

Workgroup Databases- workgroup database help to make faster quire.

Custom Form - user can use their customize form format.

Spreadsheet View- this is a basics requirement because normally if we retrieve product unit price and revenue we like to see it in a spreadsheet view.

Interactive Updates- we need it for real time data manipulation.

Batch Updates: it also a common techniques of data manipulation but not every time we need it.

Data Analysis:

Forecasting data- data forecasting is an important part of BI.

Budgeting- application should have some budgeting method to make good budgeting.

Time Series Analysis- The ability to perform different time analysis based on customer need.

Statistical Functions- here customer some time want to make some statistical report so application need some common statistical function.

Financial Functions: here customer some time wants to make some financial report so application needs some common financial function.

Reporting- definitely we need different types of report to present our data.

Aggregation- Sometime we need to aggregate data so need some aggregate function like SUM, AVG etc.

Computed Columns -It's a data which derived from the quire and put in a column.

Complex Calculations- Must have ability to perform complex calculation like certain amount of percentage and total, rolling sum etc.

Drill Up and Drill Down and Drill Throw: it's a important function of BI application that can perform from dashboard.

Text and Graphics- report should support both test and graph together.

Database Publishing- Must has ability to publish their data from the database like raw material details or product details.

Non-functional requirements

Security and Access:

This is the most important non functional requirement. We can segment it in different level like

Privacy– sometime organization need to protect their customer data so they need to database privacy and data privacy it may legislative or may corporative.

Physical– these are the physical protection of the system like special floor fro server cooling, fire protection and other physical threat.

Access– Access control also a important part of security. We can define user group wise, location wise, level wise and can make different access parameter. For that we can use Active Directory, LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NTML (NT LAN Manager it's a authentication protocol) etc.

Logging – We have to maintain one log for security reason and we can trace the access history.


It's measure that the system is in reliable stage when it's in operation.

Hours of operation– Now all the system need to operate in 24/7.

Capacity- it's a very important characteristic of the system. System reliability mainly depends on capacity. So we have to consider that how many con current login may need for the organization. What volume of data to be handles per sec or per transaction? And how frequently the customer can retrieves data.

Data Currency- data currency refer that the data is up to date or not. So we have to consider data processing method here depend on the organization. If it's for a trader then system need real time data processing batch processing is not allowed. If the application use in web internationally then may need different language support. We can give a example that e-bay it is support different currency. When customers ask for the price of the product then its shows local currency that customer logged in.

Data Retention:

Data retention refers the storage life. But it depends on the different data domains (e.g., transactional, consumer, product, complaints, etc...) like for example, products and transactions data may be stored for life, however, consumer records maybe be purify after 4 years. It does also depend on region and organization.

Digester recovery:

It's another expensive part of system. It considers for every application but for BI it's very important part.

To recovery management we have to consider few areas:

System criticality– it's refer how important the system in your organization. If BI, definitely it's an important system to the organization and it's perform real time data.

System recoverability– how quick we can recover the system either full or partial should be noted and also available budget.

Disaster simulation– We need to arrange work shop on disaster simulation and make practise with that then many silly things come out. Like servers not working because Ethernet port is not connected.

Fail over Server: need one fail over server it's work as a standby server.

Error Handling:

It is a very important part of the system because say if you are working on financial system then one mistake can make big impact one the decision. So when we handle error we should vary careful.

Regulations and compliance:

It's for standardize your business delivery. BI needs it for make proper BI environment.

Data Quality:

Poor quality of data leads poor quality of reports. So in BI practise we have to concern about the data quality. For generate high quality report, we consider the following dimensions for data quality:

• Completeness

• Consistency

• Confidence


We have arranged some workshop for end user and all employs those who using BI application for develop their skills.

Domain Requirements

* Advance analysis perform

* control panel and visualization techniques

* Information communications pattern

* Enquiry, Reporting and Analysis of Data

* Advance Search and mapping

Software Requirements:

Operating system – based on your application provider like if you using IBM Cognos then we can use MS-windows.

Web Server- Microsoft IIS

Application- MS-Excel 2002 or later

Web Browser- IE or suitable

User Guide

Login page (o.s.khan, 2010)

Main page (o.s.khan, 2010)

Folder option (o.s.khan, 2010)

Dashboard (o.s.khan, 2010)

List of references:

BusinessObjects XI. (2005) Building Reports Using the Web Intelligence Java Report Panel: Web Intelligence User Guide.2005, (Release 2), pp.14. [online] Available from: http://www.pdf-search-engine.com/webintelligence-user's-guide-html-help.sap.com/businessobject/product_guides/boexir2/en/xir2_wi_jrp_en.html [Accessed 16 February 2010]

BusinessObjects XI. (2007) LAMBETH PCT TRANSFORMS COMMUNITY CARE REPORTING WITH BUSINESS OBJECTS: Case Study.2007, pp.1-4. [online] Available from: http://maven-solutions.co.uk/documents/case/LambethPCTCaseStudy.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2010]

BusinessObjects XI. (2007) SPAR SHOPS WITH BUSINESS OBJECTS: Case Study.2007, pp.1-2. [online] Available from: http://www.uk.businessobjects.com/jump/328/docs/AFBlakemoreapproved.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2010]

Huw Richards. (2010) Strategic Assumptions Surfacing and Testing. [online] Available from: http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/dstools/choosing/sast.html [Accessed 16 February 2010]

Mark Ritacco and Astridn carver. (2010) The Business Value of Business Intelligence: Business Objects.2010, pp.9-18. [Online] Available from: http://www.lifeboatdistribution.com/content/images/Promotions/SAP_BusinessObjects/SAP_Business_Value_Whitepaper.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2010]

Michael A. Schiff. (2010) Business Intelligence: A Guide for Midsize Companies: SAP White Paper.2010,pp.6-9. [Online] Available from: http://www.pdf-search-engine.com/webintelligence-user's-guide-html-help.sap.com/businessobject/product_guides/boexir2/en/xir2_wi_jrp_en.html [Accessed 16 February 2010]

O.S.Khan (2010) RE: Congnos user snap shot. Personal E-mail to: MR I Uddoulla, 19 Feb. 10

Watermark learning. (2010) Business Intelligence Requirements Analysis. 2010. [online] Available from: http://www.watermarklearning.com/courseDetail_BusIntell_qb.php?course_id=101 [Accessed 16 February 2010]

Y.Y.Yao et al,. (1999) Web Intelligence (WI) [Online] Available from: http://www.pdf-search-engine.com/web-intelligence-(wi)-html-www.cs.uregina.ca/~yyao/PAPERS/wi_01.html [Accessed 16 February 2010]

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