Electric musical equipment and cognitive ergonomics

ELECTRIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS & COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: ARE HUMAN FACTORS CONSIDERED WELL ENOUGH THROUGH THE DESIGN OF ELECTRIC MUSICAL EQUIPMENTS?

Abstract

This project discusses the relationship between elements of electric musical equipment and cognitive ergonomics. Over the course of this discussion, the user (musician) has been taken into account in order to define the necessities. In addition, certain elements of electric musical equipment industry were examined. Whilst inspecting the subjects, not only the cognitive elements they posses, but also their relationship to science and the arts and thus phenomenological theory was addressed.

As the subject elements of this project are electric instruments and equipments, initially a comparison was made. Throughout this comparison, the phenomenological evaluation of a survey was used. Since a survey represents many opinions a general judgement was decided as a consequence of this comparison.

Moreover, different elements of electric instrument industry were inspected and brief human factor's analysis was done upon. These human factors analysis were referenced by specific elements of human cognition.

Through the discussion of cognitive elements, the mind in which a musician works was analysed and referenced.

Finally phenomenological theory was taken into consideration and from this point an idealistic perspective over today's musicianship was achieved.

In conclusion the subjectivity and variability of artistic knowledge, experience and perception was touched upon. This being the case, there would not be an exact answer to this question and yet the rate of improvement in electric musical industry can still be maintained by understanding the mind of a musician.
Introduction

The aim of this project is to understand the electric musical instruments and sound effects units that are used by musicians, from the perspective of cognitive ergonomics.

Fundamentally, there were only acoustic instruments. Acoustic instruments had certain pros and cons of their own and through the time their designs slightly varied. Through the 20th century in addition to design variations over the acoustic instruments, electric instruments have sprouted and another era of musical design has opened up. At first, it was only an electric instrument and an amplifier. Simply, the musician had to connect the electric instrument - i.e. as an electric piano or electric guitar - to an amplifier unit. The sound produced by the instrument would be amplified and/or altered, filtered by an amplifier. This was the very beginning of the electronic instrumentation.

Over the decades, musical technicians and engineers decided to add further electric elements to music in addition to allowing the users vary their own sound by changing configurations and parameters. These elements were first added into the electric instruments and the amplifiers. After a period, engineers decided to produce additional sound effects units for further alterations over the sound.

All these additions to musicians' equipment have gone further and further resulting in an overwhelming variation. Since there were too many options and too many configurations to deal with, there was the necessity to present these parameters via an interface. At this point, the use of human factors analysis became more important.

Through the decades as these technologies progressed, some musicians became left out of the era because of drastic sound alterations and complex interfaces but some gifted artists have shown, even the most ludicrous effects can create an uplifting effect over the course of a song. These musicians found ways to compromise on their musical perspective and so evaluated their findings onto their music. Even though this is the case, yet, the question on how these devices can be further improved to support better human factors elements, still remains.

Acoustic instrumentation versus Electric instrumentation

Since a problem about the electric instruments being mentioned, a comparison is important to be made between electric and acoustic instruments. Thor Magnusson (2007) shows an insight of this matter:

Table 1 - Results of Magnusson's survey [1]

These tables represent an evaluation of a survey with participants related to the subject; from sound engineers, designers to performing musicians of all age groups. Even though they hold a subjective value - in which it represents quite a subjective point of view - it shows certain consensus under the light of all the experiences.

Through a brief interpretation of the table, the subject experiences are focused more onto the acoustic instruments being more organic and natural way of performing music and electric instruments offering more options and freedom allowing for better creativity.

As to quote the table “instrument becomes 2nd nature” under positive things about acoustic elements (Magnusson, 2007) [2]; it is quite an efficient way to summarize the point because, the spiritual, artistic bonding achieved with an acoustic instrument is certainly more difficult to reach with an electric instrument. A reason for such a statement would be that; in acoustic instrumentation it is the musician itself that produces any sound alteration with its own body. The tactile feedback from the instrument allows the musician to alter his/her own actions and thus optimise the desired sound. This can lead the musician to force the users to reach in deeper to the own musicality. In electric instrumentation it is the configurations and parameters of the equipment that the musician has to define. It still remains artistic and unique since there are so many options, but musician remains uninvolved in certain parts.

Moreover, the electric instruments allow for a wide range of possibilities that can encourage the user to be more innovative (Magnusson, 2007). Some instruments incorporate extra features in addition to sound parameters, such as presetting, pre-configured sound combinations…etc. In order to arrange these options, the interface usually tends to become more complex. Because of this, the mind of the artist can be taken off from the music and much attention can be paid to work out the technological complexity and appeal of the unit. In other words, the mind-mapping of the navigation through the instrument's or effects unit's interface, the musician's experience can become more of mind workout rather than pushing the boundaries of creativity. As a result, it holds the risk of being a shallower experience.

Types of Electric Musical Equipments

Almost every instrument has an electric model; electric drum, electric guitar, electric bass, electric keyboard, electric trumpet…etc. The most fundamental electric instrumentation consists of an electric instrument and an amplifier that is connected to the instrument. Other additional devices are either implanted onto the instrument itself or the amplifier or serially connected in between their connection. This also brings a variation over the types of electric equipment in addition to their interface variations.

The electric instruments are more or less the same as their acoustic versions. An example would be an electric guitar being almost as the same as the acoustic guitar or an electric keyboard being almost the same as the piano. The sameness is brought when the act of playing the instrument is concerned. In other words, a guitar player can very well perform electrically and acoustically in the same way. But an electric guitar can have many other controls on it. This is their separation point.

The electric navigation on an instrument can be a few analog control knobs that would change the volume or tone of the standard sound of the instrument or a set of analog/digital effects units implanted to the instrument (Cutchin et al, 2005) [3]. This depends on what instrument it is - i.e. if it's an electric guitar or an electric piano, because electric pianos usually have more controls over them - and the model of the instrument. These extra digital effects are known as built in effects units which can be placed inside the instrument or the amplifier. Since built in effects units are implanted, the instrument or the amplifier has to include a user interface for the user to navigate through.

Apart from the standard sound of the instrument or the amplifier, there are such sound effects as; compressor, delay, reverb, ring modulator, overdrive, distortion, chorus, flanging, phase shifter, wah-wah, pitch shifter, volume, echo, tremolo and fuzz (Cutchin et al, 2005). These are most notable and most popular effects that are used with electric instruments. Each of these effects can be used either in a combination or on its own. As a result, they hold their presence in the market in several different formats.

Single Effect Unit

These types of effects only incorporate one effect. For example a ring modulator single effect unit will only consist of ring modulation effect and nothing more. It will have a few analog configuration knobs and on/off switch button.

Single effect units are sold in two types in two formats; as a tabletop unit or pedal (Cutchin et al, 2005).

* Tabletop units are used as simple as placing on a table and navigating with hands.

* The pedal versions are for placed on the floor for the user to step on it to switch on and off. In addition to this, there are types of pedal single sound effects units that allow the user to change between different phases of the effect by changing the angle of the foot on top of them.

Although these may seem to be the most basic forms of effects modules, if the user wants to use more than one of these, it loses its simplistic appeal, because all the effects are supposed to be serially connected to an amplifier. Thus, if more than two or three of these are connected, it will become messy and hard to navigate through.

Stomp boxes (Also known as “pedal boards”) (Cutchin et al, 2005) [4]

This is not an effects unit. It is a box or a board shaped rack for the musician to place necessary single effects units on it. It has certain connection sockets, links and a structure for the user to arrange a number of single effects units, thus avoid the mass of cables, and hence achieve an easier navigation. They are not intended for tabletop use.

A stomp box is a very convenient product for the musician because it benefits from the simplicity of single effect units and gets rid of the inconvenient mess once a multiple single units are used simultaneously. Therefore it solves the problem and enhances convenient use of single effect units. However, its usage as only pedal-switch units limits its usage and remains as a problem.

Multi-effects units (Cutchin et al, 2005) [5]

These are effects units include a number of the effects processors. To incorporate so many effects in these effectors, digital processors are used and also since there are complex combinations of effects that can be used, these effects units have digital interfaces for the user to navigate. Like the single effects units, these can be sold in pedal versions or tabletop.

The Relationship between Cognitive Ergonomics and Musical Instruments

Mostly, acoustic instruments stand higher than the electric instrument when artistic nature of the performance is being concerned. Electric instruments need to be improved to a point close to this concept. Cognitive ergonomics analysis is the main tool on improving the user interfaces of these musical equipments. The elements of cognitive ergonomics can be used not only to aid the design work but to understand a musician's mind's way of working.

There are certain elements of cognitive ergonomics that are in direct relation with the musical equipment design.

Human information processing

Human information processing is the general name of the complicated processes that the mind goes through while executing a task. Below is a flow chart (from Wickens et al which models these processes.

As it is a general overview of the mind's actions through the execution of a task, this model can be better explained in sub-categories. After the stimulus is received by sensory receptors, it is transmitted to the brain where it reaches - as shown on the table - the short-term sensory storage. At this point, the memory of the stimuli takes its place in the mind for a very short period of time unless any further attention is paid before it decays. After this point, the mind, with the given knowledge of the stimuli, goes through the processes of perception, decision making, response selection and execution respectively.

From the stimulation of the receptors to the response execution, every event takes place within the memory. This being the reason, the repetition of such processes over the same task over and over will bring certain amount of ease in task execution gradually.

Attkinson-Shiffrin (1968) model of multi-store memory describes how this can happen.

If a person pays certain amount of attention to an event or a task, the brain will transfer the information to the banks of the short-term memory. If the task is even rehearsed further several times, the brain will transfer the information to the long-term memory. The information in sensory memory can decay within seconds or minutes e.g. first look at a multi-sound effects unit. The information in short-term memory will last longer, but still the person will eventually forget unless rehearsed e.g. the look at a multi-sound effects unit after reading through its instruction manual. The information in long-term memory will last the longest up to a lifetime depending on the repetition amount and amount of attention being paid e.g. the look at a multi-sound effects unit after playing it through a few songs.

This behaviour of the brain leads the cognitive analysis to the part on how the human's decision making and response activities are carried out depending on the status of the information within the mind.

Human Behaviour Types (Rasmussen, J., 1983) [8]

Although the human behaviour types resemble the human memory types - as in becoming familiar with things - it differs with the consciousness level of human actions. Rasmussen has categorized these behaviour types in three categories.

Rule based behaviour

In this type of behaviour the mind follows certain rules or procedures on executing actions. Most of the time, the mind follows the rules blindly and uninformed on what to do in unexpected situations e.g. going through the features of a multi-sound effects unit from the instruction manual.

Knowledge based behaviour

This is experience based behaviour. In other words, the person, after certain amount of experience with the device, is completely in control and consciously deciding what to do over the task. In addition to the rule based behaviour, which is carrying out the tasks with the control of the rules and procedures, this type of behaviour is knowledgeable and prepared for unexpected situations e.g. using a multi-sound effects unit after thoroughly learning its functions and features.

Skill based behaviour

Skill is the behaviour where the task is carried out unconsciously like a reflex. No decision making is existent, as a result the task is carried out more fluently e.g. using a multi-sound effects unit after years of experience with the device.

This is the ideal type of behaviour for a musician because, being in control and not thinking allows the musician to have more freedom thus more creative.

Situation awareness (Endsley, M., 1995)

Situation awareness can simply be defined as a device's ability of making the user aware of the situation at a specific moment. This is done by certain outputs given by the system auditory and visual. The level of situation awareness is defined by the significance and ease of perception of the outputs.

The above diagram modelled by Endsley(1995) and describes the stages of situation awareness. According to Endsley(1995) it is not only the understandability of the outputs, but their perceptibility, comprehensibility and projectibility that shows the quality of situation awareness. In other words, when a system gives an output of an action, it should be noticeable and sensible at its first level, it should imply an accurate meaning that makes sense so that the user can relate to his/her mind over what might have happened at its second level and finally give ideas over future projections about what can happen at its third level.

It was mentioned previously that; repetition of a task is the way of implanting its knowledge to the long-term memory and the key point in achieving skill based behaviour. What situation awareness does to this process is that it eases the repetition process by making the user aware of everything i.e. it catalyzes the learning process. Musician's way of learning being the repetition of the knowledge and task, it plays an important role during artistic training.

Mental Modelling

Mental modelling is another cognitive element that eases musician's learning process of a device. It is a subjective process in which a hierarchical categorisation of functions and controls are done. Simply speaking a map of the device controls are depicted in to the mind of the user.

Donald Norman (1988)[10] summarizes how the devices help the user build a mental model:

Affordances are subtle cues on the design that leads the user to execute the intended function with the intended fashion.

Constraints are, like affordances, certain constraints implanted in the design that can lead the user to execute the function in the intended way.

Mapping is the way that the functions of a design are linked together and presented to the user.

More in detail on mapping, Gestalt's laws of perception (Interaction-Design.org 2010) [11] are commonly used in interface designs to aid mind-mapping. These rules can be defined as:

Law of proximity states that; objects placed close to each other, are perceived as a group and assumed to be performing similar functions.

Law of similarity states that; objects of similar shapes, are perceived as a group and assumed to be performing similar functions.

Law of symmetry states that; objects symmetrically identical to each other, are perceived as a group and assumed to be performing similar functions.

Law of closure states that; objects closing over a specific area or forming a specific identifiable shape, are perceived as a group and are assumed to be performing similar functions.

Cognitive ergonomics and Musical Practice

Joe Elliot (2008) describes how a musician's mind works as given below:

‘Repetition creates familiarity,

Familiarity builds confidence,

Confidence brings freedom,

Freedom brings creativity.' [12]

This description is based on training on musical level. This training, generally speaking, consists of learning certain patterns of notes and expressions and thus improving the musical vocabulary.

The learning process in which the musician learns to use sound effects is indeed the same procedure. The musician learns certain combinations of effects and thus better defines the sound of his/her own music. The same repetitions, trial-errors as done through musical training, take places through ones definition of the sound.

Yet, the musical knowledge, as to quote jazz saxophonist Charlie Parker “Must be learnt and forgotten” (Mark Levine, 1995) [13] implying that should be taken to a level in which used unconsciously, without thinking. In scientific words, after sufficient efforts, it becomes skill based behaviour. In order to obtain full control of his/her art, the ideal musician has to be fully in control of the performance, musically and tonally. The ideal musician must have the opportunity to have full control over his/her equipment and be in real-time interaction with them to achieve full artistic expression. This is achieved with acoustic instrument and yet, not so often by electric instruments.

Case Analysis (Lerner, Murray, 2004) [14]

The closest encounter of alienation of musicians due to the technological usage within music is; when a group of jazz musicians attempted to incorporate electrical instruments to their music in late 60s. The leader of this attempt was Miles Davis a well known jazz trumpet player who hadn't gone further then acoustic trumpet until then. What he did was to gather young musicians who had mastered their acoustic skills and force them to use electric instruments instead. At the time, only pop and rock musicians were using sound effects. Although the influence was undeniable what Davis tried to achieve was entirely different.

These young musicians that Davis gathered had entirely acoustic backgrounds. They had prejudices and no experiences over electric instruments. As a result, the sounds they produced were experimental, abstract, spontaneous, impulsive and inconsistent. Although the record released as the result of this work is considered as a masterpiece, the reason is as to quote the bass player of the band Dave Holland “The process of development was being recorded”(Dibb, Mike, 2001) [15]. This implies the experimentation level of the whole work in which case it is not hard to imagine that it did get a lot of negative feedback as well as positive at the time.

The point of all this effort was to show prejudiced musicians the potential of electric music. These young musicians eventually adapted themselves to the use of electric within their music. Under the leadership of Davis, together these musicians evolved music history and started a whole new era where electric instruments started playing a more dominant role.

The Knowledge of Sounds

Phenomenology becomes significant when perception of different sound tonalities is considered. This is because; music is a form of art, which makes it a subjective matter. Nevertheless, when a single sound is introduced to an individual, there is no subjectivity existent. One single touch of a sound does not reveal an idea as music does and it would be too shallow to merely describe this single sound within the objective depths of science. At this point, the tonality of sound can only be described by one's experiences.

Phenomenology

First theory that was introduced by Edmund Husserl was that; in between sciences' objectivity and arts' subjectivity, phenomenology remains a split line in which the reality is perceived by the experiences of the mind (Jonathan A. Hale, 2000) [16]. Husserl's idea of the reality in the universe was that it was unknowable, because mind would produce its own version of the reality that was shaped by one's cognitive capacity in result would cloud the true perception of reality.

Husserl's idea of reality and human - introduced as “nature of knowing” was later on disproved by his student Martin Heidegger. Heidegger's idea of human and universe interaction was introduced as “nature of being”. It stated that the knowledge was real and knowable. Nothing could change the reality and no one can disprove the reality. It was the human's body that would experience, perceive and reflect the reality differently. This would be done through one's experiences over the matter in the universe. Therefore, the reality would still remain objective but only one's experience, perception and reflection over the reality would differ and remain subjective. This conflict between the objective still remaining objective and subjective still remaining subjective became the split line between scientific knowledge and artistic knowledge, which was called phenomenological knowledge.

Phenomenology, Musician and Cognition

Musicianship is the process of being constantly influenced and inspired by others' works. It is the momentum that drives the creativity of a musician. For that reason, performing the art of music itself is a phenomenological event because, the reality is what the past musicians have created beforehand and each body experiences and perceives this reality subjectively. As a result, reflect the reality subjectively depending on personal experience.

Nevertheless, the tonality still remains as an objective reality which requires effort to be reflected in a subjective manner. In order to ease this effort, designers implant a feature on today's sound effects units. This feature allows the users the play with the sound tonalities that are used in many famous songs.

Although this seems to be the most effective use of sound arrangements, it lacks the subjectivity in reflection. The fact that one's art, music and sound, is supposed to be genuine and subjective, this feature certainly compromises the uniqueness and thus the value of the artwork. On the other hand, this can contribute to a training musician's inspiration and become an aid in overcoming the alienation of the variety of sounds that the technology has to offer.

Evaluation

Today's music market has become so much over the technology that musicians can prepare their musical layout and additional effects before their performances and simply perform a song the same way in repetition. As a result, improvisational skill, spontaneity and expressiveness have become far more meaningful than ever. Theoretical part of music has very well kept up with this progression, but the sound controls and effects have seldom become as noticeably differentiating and dynamic.

The use of single effects units can become a model usage of technology. A reason for this is that they incorporate such a small number of objects to navigate with and such simple parameters to configure that the musician can easily be in control with these devices. The analog control knobs - in a way resembling the acoustic instrument - are well responsive which give direct feedback as a change in the sound. It is not as effective as tactile feedback from an acoustic instrument but in a certain way it is the one that comes closest to acoustic instrumentation. Also, since they only add one single effect to the sound, musician's adaptation period becomes more convenient.

Conclusion

Despite the fact that the ideas revealed in this paper are based on idealistic approaches using scientific knowledge, it cannot represent the actual picture of today's musical adaptation over technological improvements and variations.

It is a known fact that, art of music is to be genuinely owned by the artist at its full expression. Any instrument can limit the creativity of one musician and can be a great inspiration to another; complex or not.

In conclusion, what can help the manufacturers of musical equipment industry is to better understand and analyse how a musician works. This is obviously being done since there are so many different products in the market. This shows that the design of these products will eventually iterate to perfection. On the other hand, existence of so many different products also shows that there still is much to do to reach a common standard.

Bibliography

* Magnusson, Thor - University of Sussex, Creative Systems Lab, Brighton UK, Hurtado, Enrike Mendieta - University of Huddersfield, Digital Research Unit, Huddersfield UK. Proceedings of “Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression”, New York, NY, USA. 2007. The Acoustic, The Digital and The Body: A Survey on Musical Instruments.

* Cutchin, Rusty et al. The Illustrated Complete Guitar Handbook. First Edition. Crabtree Hall, Crab Tree Lane, Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing 2005.

* Wickens, Christopher et al. An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering. Prentice Hall (1997)

* http://www.stephpalmer.co.uk

* Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968) Human Memmory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. and J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 8. London: Academic Press.

* The University of Nottingham - Institute for Occupational Ergonomics (2007)

* Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968) Human Memmory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. and J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 8. London: Academic Press.

* Rasmussen, J. Skills, rules, knowledge: Signals, signs and symbols and other distinction in human performance models (1983). IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 13 (3)

* Endsley, M. (1995) Towards a theory of situation awareness. Human Factors, Vol. 37(1)

* Norman, D.A. The psychology of Everyday Things, London, The MIT Press (1988)

* Interaction-Design.org (2010).Gestalt principles of form perception. Retrieved 16 March 2010 from Interaction-Design.org: http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/gestalt_principles_of_form_perception.html

* Elliot, Joe. Introduction to Jazz Guitar Soloing: A Comprehensive Improvisation Method. 7777 W. Bliemound Rd. P.O. Box 13819 Milwaukee, WI 553213, US: Hal Leonard Corporation

* Mark Levine (1995) The Jazz Theory Book - USA: Sher Music Publishing

* Lerner, Murray (2004) Miles Electric - A Different Kind of Blue [DVD] USA: PopMatters publishing

* Dibb, Mike (2001) - The Miles Davis Story [DVD] USA: Channel 4 Television Corporation

* Jonathon A. Hale (2000) - Building Ideas: An Introduction to Architectural Theory, Return of the Body: Phenomenology in Architecture. John Wile & Sons Publishing

* Pictures:

o www.music123.com - Music123 4004 Technologoy Dr South Bend, IN 46628 USA

o www.digitech.com - Digitech ® 8760 Sandy Parkway, Sandy, Utah 84070 USA

* Martin Heidegger (1975) Poetry, Language, Thought, Harper & Row Publishers

24

[1] Magnusson, Thor - University of Sussex, Creative Systems Lab, Brighton UK, Hurtado, Enrike Mendieta - University of Huddersfield, Digital Research Unit, Huddersfield UK. Proceedings of “Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression”, New York, NY, USA. 2007. The Acoustic, The Digital and The Body: A Survey on Musical Instruments.

[2] Magnusson, Thor - University of Sussex, Creative Systems Lab, Brighton UK, Hurtado, Enrike Mendieta - University of Huddersfield, Digital Research Unit, Huddersfield UK. Proceedings of “Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression”, New York, NY, USA. 2007. The Acoustic, The Digital and The Body: A Survey on Musical Instruments.

[3] Cutchin, Rusty et al. The Illustrated Complete Guitar Handbook. First Edition. Crabtree Hall, Crab Tree Lane, Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing 2005.

[4] Cutchin, Rusty et al. The Illustrated Complete Guitar Handbook. First Edition. Crabtree Hall, Crab Tree Lane, Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing 2005.

[5] Cutchin, Rusty et al. The Illustrated Complete Guitar Handbook. First Edition. Crabtree Hall, Crab Tree Lane, Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing 2005.

[6] Adapted from Wickens, Christopher et al. An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering. Prentice Hall (1997)

[7] Cited by http://www.stephpalmer.co.uk

Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968) Human Memmory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. and J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 8. London: Academic Press.

[8] Cited by University of Nottingham - Institute for Occupational Ergonomics (2007)

Rasmussen, J. Skills, rules, knowledge: Signals, signs and symbols and other distinction in human performance models (1983). IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 13 (3)

[9] Adapted from Endsley, M. (1995) Towards a theory of situation awareness. Human Factors, Vol. 37(1)

[10] Cited by The University of Nottingham - Institute for Occupational Ergonomics (2007)

Norman, D.A. The psychology of Everyday Things, London, The MIT Press (1988)

[11] Interaction-Design.org (2010).Gestalt principles of form perception. Retrieved 16 March 2010 from Interaction-Design.org: http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/gestalt_principles_of_form_perception.html

[12] Elliot, Joe. Introduction to Jazz Guitar Soloing: A Comprehensive Improvisation Method. 7777 W. Bliemound Rd. P.O. Box 13819 Milwaukee, WI 553213, US: Hal Leonard Corporation

[13] Mark Levine (1995) The Jazz Theory Book - USA: Sher Music Publishing

[14] Lerner, Murray (2004) Miles Electric - A Different Kind of Blue [DVD] USA: PopMatters publishing

[15] Dibb, Mike (2001) - The Miles Davis Story [DVD] USA: Channel 4 Television Corporation

[16] Jonathon A. Hale (2000) - Building Ideas: An Introduction to Architectural Theory, Return of the Body: Phenomenology in Architecture. John Wile & Sons Publishing

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