BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Gender disparity shapes people's life odds are one that been dull widely through minds of modern society in the recent decades. The biological differences between men and women compose as one of the main reasons for males having better job opportunities. Thus males were always celebrated the breadwinners of the family even as a female's place was at home.
POPULATION OF MALAYSIA
Malaysia population is a great blend of varied multi ethnic, multicultural population comprising Malays, Chinese, Indians and more than 200 ancestral native ethnic groups. Although, Malaysia population encompasses with several cultural, still antique Malay cultural is the most major one followed by Chinese and Indian cultural. Malaysia population comprises of 50% of Malay, 24 % of Chinese and 7% Indian, 11% other bumiputera and 8 % and others.
EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA
Malaysian government has always been sensitive toward gender issues and women's development and therefore the Malaysian development plan have placed greater emphasis on mainstreaming women in national development through affirmative multi sectoral policies and programs. Malaysian education system is highly centralized particularly in primary and secondary schools with state and local governments having little declared in curriculum or the major accepts of education.
There has been rapid expansion of educational opportunities and openings for women and men to improve their economic participants. Overall, the trend shows an increase in the literacy rate levels of both males and females. The progress made in reducing gender gaps is attributable to remarkable increase in girl's enrolment in schooling.
However the gender disparity issues are vacant and improvement stemmed from the improved health status of women and the increased levels of girls in post-secondary and higher education. Investing in girls' education provides them with social and economic opportunities and choices throughout their lifetime. As we can see in the table below shows the gender participants in school enrolment based on different year together with the gender gap.
While more women than ever before are working, an unrelenting gap in status, job, security, wages and education between men and women are still continue living. Although the status of women in the world of work has improved, but gains have been slow. While women have to some extent closed the status gap with men, the slow speed of change means that disparities remain significant.
GENDER GAPS IN MALAYSIA
Gender disparity means an unequal difference, as in attitudes and selection preferences between the sexes or can be defined as the purely descriptive observation of different outcomes between males and females. Gender equality and the empowerment of women are the fundamental in order to achieve human development. Besides that they are also essential to achieve the social, economic and political development. As seen in figure 3 shows us that total percentage of Male and Female in Malaysia based on year 2009.
Based on table 6 shows that gender gap sub index of Malaysia in year 2008 .Those indicators are grouped based on female and male participant in economics participation and opportunity, education attainment, political empowerment. According to the labour force participant between gender males are given more opportunity than female although the total female population in Malaysia exist the male population.
In addition when we look at the political empowerment female is given less occasion to involve. Based on the table 6 the number of women participants in parliament level and women in ministerial positions are very few compare to male which show that women are given less opening in decision making level wherelse male are given more prospect.
As we can see only at the primary education enrolment in Malaysia has equal participants among the genders and the numbers of female participants in secondary education enrolment are greater than male. However the number of male participants in tertiary education enrolment is very low compare to the female participant are primarily because of more male drop outs at the secondary education enrolment level. Furthermore based on the table 7 tells us that students who completed their secondary enrolment holds major proportion in labour force in Malaysia compare to other education level.
There are ample of issues been arising regarding gender disparity problem in Malaysian which is not purely on women deliberations but also considering the aspects of man and women participation in education and workforce. Since Malaysia had made further progress towards creating a more equitable society, this problem has raised many questions in the mind of men and women. Certainly Malaysia has achieved remarkable economic growth over the past decades, yet has this growth been ‘with equity'?
Bold initiatives and resolute determination are required to end individual and institutional gender discrimination. Gender discrimination is enveloping. While the degrees and forms of inequality may vary, women and girls are disadvantaged of equal access to resources, opportunities and political power in every region of the world. Institutional discrimination is harder to identify and put right. Cultural traditions can complete inequality and discrimination from generation to generation, as gender stereotypes remain accepted and unchallenged.
Malaysia still has a long way to go in achieving full economic integration of women and realizing their unused potential for economic development. A female is likely to take care of the household and look after the children. This is visibly seen in everyday life. Even at an early stage in life girls is liable play with dolls, nursing and looking after them as if they were their children. In schools girls are given extra curricular activities like home sciences and cheerleading, where they learn about cooking and household activities.
Society has made it such that even if a woman wanted to against the norms and get a job in the work force she would not get very far. Some jobs are made in such a way that only certain genders are easily able to fill the positions. To be a fireman for instance, you have to be of a certain height and weight, which usually narrows the choices down to most males.
While more women than ever before are working, an unrelenting gap in status, job security, wages and education between men and women are still continue living. Although the status of women in the world of work has improved, but gains have been slow. While women have to some extent closed the status gap with men, the slow speed of change means that disparities remain significant.
Many actions are trying to get rid of gender disparity and today there is an increasing number of women in the army and similar jobs that used to primarily consist of men. But society has shown us the downfall of such deeds by the increase in rapes, sexual attack and sexual harassments in the work force. This once more makes women think twice before wanting to join these gender sheltered jobs.
This clearly is a gender inequality and right throughout life it has been able to speak our life chances. The degree to which it enables us to determine this has however has broadened over the years and given females a wider range of job opportunities and future prospects. Nevertheless such boundaries will always exist, it will only get lighter and further apart as years go on.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study generally aims to examine the gender disparity in Malaysia which primarily hub on education disparity and income disparity.
- To investigate the gender disparity in education enrolment
- To examine gender disparity in Labour market.
- Discuss the consequences of gender disparity and its implications on social development in Malaysia.