Culture and Tourism and Civil Aviation

Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation


Nepal, rich in unique cultural and natural heritage, is one of the leading countries in the world from the viewpoint of tourism heritage. Known for the coexistence of different castes and races, religions, languages, literature and culture, Nepal is an example of art, culture and religious harmony. On one hand, by preserving the country's tangible and intangible archeological heritage; dances, music and festive processions; and costumes, languages and culture on the basis of democratic sentiment, and with the promotion of Nepalese culture and civilization in the world there is an immense opportunity of developing tourism sites, and preserving and conserving cultural sites. On the other hand, growth of tourism industry contributes to the earning of foreign currency, increase in employment, and overall economic prosperity. Moreover, through the promotion of tourism industry, global friendship can also be enhanced. By developing and expanding the tourism industry to the rural level with intensive and coordinated community tourism, balanced and inclusive development can be achieved and it is probable that this can contribute immensely in poverty alleviation. Due to the country's geographical structure and inadequate facility of alternate modes of transportation, it is vital to make air transportation affordable, safe, reliable and systematic, and thereby achieving considerable increase in the number of domestic and foreign tourists.

Review of the Current Situation

  • Culture
  • Efforts to make local agencies and users' groups participate in the preservation and conservation of the tangible and intangible cultural heritages within the country have been started. Preliminary reports of cultural heritages of 72 districts have been published in 8 parts. From the list of tangible and intangible heritages of the five municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley, an effort has been initiated to select and preserve 5 heritages in alliance with the concerned municipalities. World heritage sites of the Kathmandu Valley that were listed as endangered have been removed from the list. In order to preserve such heritage sites, particulars of 700 houses located within the Monument Zone have been collected and maps of street faade have been prepared. Development of the Prithivi Museum within the premises of the Gorkha Durbar has reached the final stage. Copyrights Law, 2002 and Regulations, 2004 have been implemented to oversee tasks related to copyrights. In addition, initiatives have been taken to register copyrights by establishing Office of the Registrar of copyrights and to ratify international treaties and conventions on intellectual property. Likewise, for the preservation and promotion of art and music, preparation is going on to establish an academy of fine arts and academy of music and drama. In the course of preserving, conserving and promoting different languages of the country, grammar and dictionary of different languages have been prepared. The Second World Buddhist Conference was concluded in November, 2004, with a 10-point declaration that includes the development of Lumbini as an international peace city. In order to develop the Lumbini and Pashupati areas as per the Master Plan, activities related to infrastructure development are going on. For the overall development of the religious and cultural area of Janakpur, the Greater Janakpur Area Development Council is active.

  • Tourism
  • Focusing on potential markets such as India and China, tourism promotion activities have been carried out also in other countries in the region such as Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Bangladesh. In order to integrate programs by determining tourism centers, tourism hubs have been selected by the Nepal Tourism Board. By organizing international meetings and seminars to publicize tourism and the cultural heritages of Nepal, as well as by conducting awareness programs for diversification of the tourism industry, the Destination Nepal Campaign (2002-2003) has been concluded. In order to place Nepal as a remarkable destination in the international tourism map, the task of branding, through the slogan "Naturally Nepal: Once is Not enough" has been completed. Through these initiatives, and by revealing the unique natural beauty of Nepal in the international market, the task of introducing Nepal as a major destination has been successful. In order to make a significant contribution towards the national goal of poverty alleviation, and to achieve a sustainable development in tourism, the Tourism for Rural Poverty Alleviation Program (TRPAP) has been successfully completed as a pilot project in 6 districts. This program targets the poor and backward castes and women. Construction of an Integrated Tourism Master Plan with the aim of providing directives to the tourism sector, and the task of making timely improvement and modification in the tourism policy, is nearing completion. With the objective of producing human resources of international standard, courses in Bachelors in Hotel Management and Bachelors in Travel and Tourism Management, are being offered by the Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management. Likewise, Mountain Academy Nepal, of international standard, has been established. In order to manage mountaineering tourism, the waste management system has been made mandatory for all mountains that have opened for mountaineering. To make the tourism sector professional and attractive, golden jubilee celebration of the first conquest of Mt. Everest and other mountains of more than 8000 m height, have been concluded. Plans of waiving royalty for peaks in the Far Western Region and other regions, and royalty for other mountains under mountaineering practice, are being reviewed. As per the policy of promoting foreign investment in the tourism sector, this has been opened in the establishment of the tourism industry to conduct activities such as travel, trekking, rafting, pony-trekking, etc. In order to make the travel and trekking business, and adventure and rafting activities regular, safe and organized, efforts of policy and legal improvement are being continued by making timely changes in the current legal system. As per the policy of developing and expanding the tourism industry, there has been a considerable increase in the number of hotels serving tourists, travel agencies, trekking agencies and star hotels. During the Tenth Plan period, the target was to increase tourist arrival at an annual rate of 7.2 percent with the total target of 516,000 tourists. The Plan had set the target to increase foreign currency earning by 8 percent. But the number of tourists continued to decrease during the period of 2000 to 2002. Although there was some improvement in 2003, and the number of tourists increased by 21.5 percent in 2003 and by 14 percent in 2004, the same growth rate could not be sustained in 2005 and the number of tourists dropped by 2.2 percent to 375,000. A slight progress was made in 2006. Accordingly 383,926 tourists visited Nepal and there was an increase of 2.3 percent in the tourist arrival during the Plan period.

  • Civil Aviation
  • In order to fulfill the objective of making air transport affordable, safe, qualitative and reliable, strategies for the construction and operation of airports, and private sector involvement even in the long route flights, have been adopted. For operating domestic and international flight services, Air Operator Certificates have been granted to 42 airline companies, out of which 17 companies are now in operation. In order to attract private investment in the physical infrastructure of airports, the private sector was invited and in some places, construction of airport has begun with the participation of the local people. Out of 51 airports including one international, four regional, 42 domestic and four under construction, 33 airports are now in operation. In order to upgrade the services, facilities and standards in the airports, huge investment is made annually. With the foreign loan assistance, six packages in Tribhuwan International Airport including expansion of the international terminal building, development of hanger site, fire-fighting system, modern air cargo complex, etc., have been completed. With the construction and renovation works of runways, aprons, terminals and the tower building and so on, airports in Pokhara, Biratnagar, Bharatpur, Lukla, Jomsom and Jumla have started operation. With the foreign loan assistance, Bharatpur Airport has been upgraded and now operates round the year. Likewise, tasks of expanding the runway in the religious tourism center of Janakpur, and black topping the runway of Surkhet Airport are under progress. In the course of developing Dhangadhi Airport of the Far Western Development Region as a hub airport with the cooperation of the local bodies, expansion of the runway has been completed in the first stage. In order to implement satellite-based Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management system in Nepal, a ten-year plan (2005- 2015) has been prepared and is in the process of being implemented. In the process of restructuring international air routes for the optimal utilization of Nepal's airspace, there has been coordination with China, India, and concerned organizations including International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Likewise, for the strengthening and development of the entire air sector, Civil Aviation Policy 2006 has been brought into execution and regulation measures have been updated.

Problems and Challenges and Opportunities

Problems and Challenges

  • Due to the lack of integrated data on cultural heritage, the lack of adequate resources, etc., preservation of cultural heritage, and implementation of Pashupati and Lumbini Development Master Plan have not been satisfactory. Likewise, due to the lack of official code, encroachment of scattered heritages, world heritage and listed monuments could not be prevented
  • In the context of Nepal's pledge for the preservation of intellectual property in the international arena, expressed through the Copyrights Law and the Berne Convention, there has not been required capacity increase and progress in the protection of copyrights
  • Institutional and managerial improvement, as well as development of professionalism in the national flag carrier Nepal Airlines Corporation, has remained a big challenge
  • Due to the lack of inventory of tourism sites and lack of master plan appropriate in the present time, the possibility of integrated and coordinated development of the tourism sector has not yet been transformed to an opportunity
  • Protection of the achievements of Tourism for the Rural Poverty Alleviation Program has been a challenge
  • For the development and growth of the tourism sector, effective utilization of sub-regional, regional and international organizations and platforms has not been achieved. Apart from conventional tourism, development and growth of other innovative tourism, such as adventure tourism and eco-tourism, has not been encouraging
  • Government and non-government agencies and the private sector related to the tourism sector, are apparently attracted more towards publicity and promotional activities rather than towards infrastructure development
  • Participation of the private sector and local agencies in the infrastructure development of air services could not be increased, and due to mobilization of nominal resources at the local level, implementation of partnership strategy has been difficult
  • Since many airports had been constructed and operated without prioritization on the basis of commercial feasibility, priority of the local public, and privilege of access, only 10 out of 33 airports are running in profit, and the government has thus been bearing high annual expenses in such airports in the remote and social areas. Along with the reconstruction of airports damaged in course of the political conflict, and rehabilitation of aviation communication equipments, physical infrastructure development, expansion and modernization of various airports, and construction of new airports could not be carried out at the same time due to the lack of adequate resources.
  • As the acquisition of land and building for the expansion of various airports including Tribhuwan International Airport could not be carried out promptly, the compensation amount has risen up sharply with the increase in the amount of property valuation.

Opportunities and Strengths

  • Local agencies and the people have become more conscious in updating data and preparing an inventory of tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the country, and, in their preservation and conservation.
  • As a supporter of global protection of copyrights, Nepal has a good image in the international area, in the protection of intellectual property.
  • With the objective of achieving effective development in the areas of literature, art and performing art, the task of establishing separate academies for these is nearing completion.
  • Increase in the possibilities of inclusive development of the culture and tourism sector in the changed context has led to its emergence as a major economic sector. This is expected to make an important contribution in diversification of tourism business.
  • Through the expansion and development of national and regional museums and the resulting exhibition of archeological objects of national interest, it is expected that the campaign of introducing national history would increase, endangered local culture would be protected, and local skill and handicraft industry would receive support, which would contribute to the development of tourism.
  • The natural scenery, high mountains, incomparable cultural heritage and various specialties have made Nepal a well-known place in the world tourism map with a distinct image of her own. There is a possibility of further growth in the number of tourists with the opening up of new mountains and restricted areas.
  • Recent political developments in Nepal have led to a peaceful settlement of the decade long conflict. As a result, the image of the country is improving at the global level, and possibility of growth in the tourism sector is getting stronger.
  • Fueled by rapid economic growth, neighboring countries, especially China and India, are emerging as major origins of tourists. This has led to the possibility of bringing tourists from these countries to Nepal and increasing the overall number of tourists.
  • There exists satisfactory level of infrastructure and capable private sector in the conventional tourist places. With small investment and effort, the activity of the private sector could be increased in some new feasible places, leading to the growth in tourist activities.
  • If important heritage sites such as, Lumbini, Pashupati and Muktinath are developed, a large number of Buddhist and Hindu pilgrims would be attracted, with the possibility of making Nepal a ideal place of religious tourism.
  • With the level of awareness rising among the rural people, there is a willingness to do something among the underprivileged groups and castes, Adibasi Janjatis, women and Dalits. This has increased the possibility of development of rural and internal tourism.
  • There is an immense possibility of developing adventure tourism in the mountains and rivers of Nepal.
  • With the end of a decade long political conflict, the incidents of damage to the airports have ceased, and the huge expenses otherwise spent on airport security are expected to decrease.
  • In the context of completion of the study on the institutional strengthening of the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN), which has been working as the service provider in civil aviation, airport operator, and regulator; implementation of doable recommendations suggested by the report are being considered. As a consequence of progress made in this direction, the operational efficiency of CAAN is expected to increase.

Long Term Vision

By preserving and conserving the existing natural heritages, tangible and intangible intellectual and cultural heritages, and by developing accessible and safe air services, Nepal will be established as a major tourist destination in the international level, so as to enable the tourism sector to develop as an important segment of the national economy, which could contribute significantly in economic growth, employment generation and poverty alleviation.


The objectives of the Three-Year Interim Plan related to culture, tourism and civil aviation are as follows:

  1. To preserve, conserve and promote intellectual, cultural and archeological heritages.
  2. To develop the tourism sector as a major segment of the national economy by developing Nepal as a major tourist destination of the world through development of tourism related infrastructures as well as promotion, diversification and expansion of tourism, in order to make it contribute to employment and improvement in the living standard of the people.
  3. To develop healthy and competitive air service through the expansion of the domestic and international air service by involving the private sector in construction, development, expansion and operation of infrastructures related to the air transport sector, with a view to contribute to tourism and economic development; and to make regulation of civil aviation effective for safe, organized, reliable and quality air service.

Quantitative Targets of the Three-Year Plan

S.No.   Particulars                                                       As of FY            FY 2009/10
                                                                          July 2006
1       Tourist arrival (in '000)                                         375                 700
2       Tourist staying period (in days)                                  9.1                 13
3       Convertible foreign currency revenue (in million US$)             148                 300
4       Expense per tourist per day (in US$)                              58.5                63
5       Proportional percentage in Gross Domestic Product                 2                   3
6       Direct employment (in '000)                                       83                  100
7       International airlines on regular flight to Nepal(in numbers)     17                  25
8       One-way air seat capacity in international sector (in '000)       2850                3250
9       Tourist arrival via international flights (in '000)               1383,000            1500,000				 


In order to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, the following strategies will be adopted:

  • Local bodies will be involved in the preservation, conservation and promotion of tangible and intangible cultural heritages.
  • Through specialization in the field of language and literature, art, music, and drama, copyrights will be protected and safeguarded.
  • In addition to suitably preserving and conserving World Heritage Sites, and publicizing the importance of such sites at the international level, efforts will be made to add other possible places in the list of World Heritage Sites.
  • Through tourism promotion in feasible tourism markets, the image of Nepal will be re-established.
  • By giving high priority, the tourism sector will be developed as the foundation of the economy.
  • By considering regional balance as well, diversification and expansion of the tourism sector will be carried out.
  • Through rural tourism, the tourism sector will be developed, so as to contribute in raising the living standard of the people.
  • In order to develop capable and professional human resources in the sectors of culture, tourism and civil aviation, institutional strengthening of the concerned training institutes will be carried out.
  • Through policy and institutional improvement of the culture, tourism and civil aviation sectors, services provided by these sectors will be made effective.
  • The Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal will be strengthened to increase its institutional capability. Private airline companies will be encouraged to contribute to tourism and economic development through the expansion of domestic and international air services.
  • By utilizing advanced technology of international standard in the civil aviation sector, Safety Management System (SMS) will be implemented to ensure flight safety.
  • By expanding the domestic and international air network, tourism development will be carried out, and the opportunity of economic activities will be increased. For this, infrastructure development of the second international airport will be carried out with priority. In the operation of air service, construction, operation and management of airports, and development, expansion and operation of services and facilities related to air transport, national and foreign investors will be attracted. Emphasis will be given to the development of a healthy, safe and competitive air service.
  • On the basis of the growing international relations of Nepal, its extraordinary geography, means of access, and growing professionalism, emphasis will be given to the improvement of the communication system in the Tribhuwan International Airport, infrastructure development of second international airport in Nijgadh of Bara, level improvement of international hub airports in Bhairahawa and Pokhara, and improvement and enhancement of other airports, on the basis of priority.
  • Reconstruction of damaged airports and physical structures, and restoration of communication equipments will be carried out gradually on the basis of available resources.

Policy and Working Policies

  • By updating the records of nation-wide tangible and intangible heritages, an integrated inventory will be prepared.
  • Master plan of important heritage and heritage sites will be prepared and gradually implemented.
  • National Archives and museums will be strengthened, and museums will gradually be made self-dependent.
  • Public awareness on copyrights will be increased on a broad scale, agencies involved in the implementation of law on copyrights will be made capable, and Office of Registrar of Copyrights will be developed as the information center of intellectual property.
  • According to the commitment expressed in the context of joining the World Trade Organization, Nepal, as a supporter of the international system of copyrights protection, will approve requisite international treaty and convention.
  • A process will be developed for the creators to receive royalty and benefits through categorized institutions for the use of their creations.
  • In order to preserve, conserve and professionalize intellectual creations by Dalits, Adibasi Janjatis, Madhesis, Muslims, and women, and traditional knowledge and skills, special programs will be launched.
  • By establishing a separate academy in the sectors of language and literature, art, and music and drama, the entire culture including various languages, literature, art and music will be preserved and developed in a special way.
  • For the preservation and conservation of World Heritage Sites, coordinated programs will be launched with the participation of local agencies and communities.
  • The importance and worth of the heritage sites of Nepal, listed or unlisted as World Heritage Sites, will be publicized at the international level through UNESCO and other means.
  • Based on the notion of international, regional and sub-regional cooperation through organizations such as the World Tourism Organization, BIMSTEC, SASEC, SAARC, and COSCAP, common programs in the sectors of culture, tourism and civil aviation will be launched in a coordinated manner.
  • Special tourism promotion programs will be launched, targeting neighboring countries, India and China. Programs based on the feedback from experienced tourists will be launched.
  • Twelve airports, including machinery and equipments, and four historical palaces and other culturally important structures damaged during insurgency, will be reconstructed, restored and operated as sites of tourist attraction.
  • In order to develop a democratic culture by replacing the conservative culture, awareness programs will be launched.
  • In order to develop infrastructure in probable tourist sites, by coordinating with the concerned ministries, an integrated tourism infrastructure development program will be launched.
  • Necessary initiatives will be taken to involve the Nepal Tourism Board, Development Committees and various organizations, in the development of tourism infrastructure and in addition to publicity works.
  • Using modern information technology and equipments, tourist services will be further enhanced.
  • Youth, backward groups, castes or region, the poor and women will be encouraged with priority to get involved in tourism related awareness and employment generation programs and training and skill development programs.
  • In order to rehabilitate the hotels that went to be sick due to the unavoidable circumstances, rehabilitation programs will be launched and subsidy, discount or other support will be provided in coordination with the concerned ministries.
  • In order to develop the tourism sector as the foundation of the economy, easement, simplicity, and excellence will be maintained in tourist service delivery, by taking into consideration the experience of national tourism entrepreneurs and foreign tourists who have visited Nepal.
  • The tourism sector will be diversified by developing education tourism, health tourism, wildlife tourism, and agro eco-tourism, sports, mountaineering and trekking tourism, adventure and entertainment tourism, cultural tourism, seminar tourism, movie tourism, and religious tourism in addition to mountain tourism.
  • Environment-friendly tourism activities will be promoted, and while searching for new possibilities in eco-tourism and sustainable tourism, programs will be launched in coordination with local bodies, the private sector and NGOs.
  • In order to contribute towards poverty alleviation through tourism in rural areas in particular, programs will be launched through cooperatives in coordination with NGOs and the private sector, to assist in quality improvement and marketing of products and services produced locally by backward groups and communities in the society.
  • In order to produce skilled human resources for the tourism industry, initiatives will be taken to move the Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management towards self-dependence. High-level educational programs and trainings will be conducted by the Academy. It will be developed as the major agency to coordinate, regulate and monitor HRD programs related to tourism. Moreover, necessary coordination will be ensured in strengthening educational and training programs run by the private sector related to this sector.
  • With the involvement of the private sector, requisite physical and institutional improvement of the Mountain Academy Nepal will be carried out to activate and develop it as a model academy at par with international standards.
  • Implementation of tasks incorporated in the Master Plan, policy and strategy related to culture, tourism and civil aviation will be carried out with priority.
  • In addition to the effective implementation of the Civil Aviation Policy 2006, approved by Government of Nepal, a new tourism policy with long-term vision, and new culture policy that incorporates multicultural and multi-racial characteristics will be formulated.
  • Procedures of working together with various organizations, committees and agencies will be improved periodically and a system will be developed to handover tasks being performed by these bodies to the local agencies.
  • In order to enhance tourist services, and maintain quality and uniformity in services such as accommodation, transfer and entertainment, a code of conduct will be prepared and implemented with the involvement of the private sector.
  • Acts rules and regulation related to culture, tourism and civil aviation will be periodically modified, and the institutional structure will be improved to achieve coordination, working uniformity and harmony among the Ministry and its agencies.
  • Through organizational reassessment, necessary improvement will be made in the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal, Nepal Tourism Board, Nepal Academy, and Sanskritik Sansthan (Cultural Corporation).
  • In order to reflect direct and indirect revenue from the tourism sector and their, effects on different groups and communities in the national account, Satellite Accounting system will be brought into implementation.
  • Through the reassessment of Development Committees established by the government under the Ministry, tasks that could be handed over to other organizations or local agencies will be gradually done so.
  • Under the guidance and assistance of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), necessary improvements will be made in the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal, through reassessment of its organizational structure, and by involving airline companies in domestic and international air service operation and expansion, tourism development and economic development will be strengthened.
  • In order to enhance air flight safety, modern technology including communication equipments will be used in various airports, and Safety Management System will be implemented through qualified human resources. By implementing the recommendations of the audit programs of the International Civil Aviation Organization on global flight safety and air safety, flight safety will be enhanced, and regulation and monitoring will be made effective.
  • By taking the Master Plan of the Tribhuwan International Airport into consideration, physical capacity and facilities will be expanded. Communication and flight equipments will be improved through the use of modern technology and radar equipments will be maintained in a robust form. In addition, efforts will be made towards implementation of ultramodern technology.
  • In order to enhance the air safety level at par with international standards, requisite safety equipments and system will be developed in airports.
  • Domestic airports, that are important from the regional and tourism perspectives, will be developed as service centers by upgrading them with the expansion of capacity.
  • By upgrading airports in remote areas, an ideal condition for the expansion of flight services will be created, which would contribute to local development.
  • Requisite infrastructure development works will be carried out in Nijgadh, Bara for the construction of the second international airport.
  • Infrastructure development and expansion works will be initiated to develop the Pokhara and Gautam Buddha Airports as regional international hub airports.
  • Communication and flight equipments and airfield lighting equipment will be installed in Dhangadhi Airport. Airfield lighting equipment will be installed in Simara Airport, thereby making night flight operation feasible.
  • In order to attract private sector investment in air transport, and to identify possibilities of sustainable development of this sector, necessary amendment will be made in the policy, legal and structural system, as well as in the modality of investment.
  • By transforming the national flag carrier, Nepal Airlines Corporation, into a public limited company under the notion of public private partnership, improvement in management will be carried out for institutional strengthening and professional capability growth, and initiative will be taken to purchase new aircraft.

Expected Outcomes

The Three-Year Interim Plan of the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation includes programs to bring backward groups, ethnic groups, religions, and sections into the national mainstream. Through programs in the cultural sector, cultural inclusion will be maintained. Preservation, reconstruction and renovation of archeological and historical heritage will be carried out for the development of religious and cultural tourism. With the preservation and publicity of different traditional languages and religions, cultural heritage and traditions and art and literature, the image of the country will be brightened. Through the protection of intellectual property rights, the prestige of Nepal will increase at the international level. With the successful implementation of the Three-Year Interim Plan brought forth for the development of tourism, the tourism sector will recover from the past sluggishness, and get rejuvenated. Through the infrastructure development of tourist sites, tourism activities will grow in new places; market of local skill and products will grow; employment opportunities for skilled and semiskilled human resources will increase, and in total, the living standard in the concerned rural areas will improve. By means of programs conducted with the direct involvement of local agencies and communities, tourism awareness will increase in local people including women, Dalits, and disadvantaged groups. In addition, affinity towards the tourism sector will increase, thereby contributing to a sustainable tourism development. Physical structures damaged during the insurgency will be reconstructed and reestablished. This will contribute to the development of the air sector. Air transport, which is the only mode of transport in remote and rural areas, will provide facilities not only to the local people but also to tourists. Through the expansion of international contacts, increase in flight seats, and growth in air service operation, arrival to Nepal will be convenient and easy for tourists planning to visit Nepal. Programs on strengthening of airports and aviation safety will make the air service of Nepal more reliable and trustworthy. In summary, the tourism sector will emerge as a major segment of the economy.

Assumptions and Risks

  • Law and order situation will improve.
  • Seat availability in international flights will increase.
  • Private sector will be attracted to the construction of infrastructure.
  • Involvement of local bodies and communities in the preservation of cultural heritage will continue.
  • Necessary policy and legal reforms for institutional strengthening will continue.

Programs and Estimation of Resources


(at constant prices of FY 2006/07)

S.N.         Programs and Projects                                                                   Total Budget
1            World Heritage Site preservation program                                                        65
2            Pashupati Area Development Fund project                                                        471
3            Implementation of Lumbini Development Master Plan                                              471
4            Archeological sites preservation and improvement project                                       101
5            Preservation of vibrant culture and cultural inclusion program                                  31
6            Implementation of Greater Janakpur Area Development Master Plan                                 90
7            Cultural promotion program                                                                      80
8            Development of language, literature, arts, crafts and culture                                  224
9            Strengthening of agencies and sectors related to copyrights, and public awareness program       30
10           Renovation and reconstruction of cultural monuments damaged during conflict                     67*
                                                                                                     Total 1563
* to be carried out by Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction


(at constant prices of FY 2006/07)

S.No.        Programs and Projects                                                                  Total Budget
1            Sustainable tourism development program                                                        131
2            Tourism promotion program                                                                      539#
3            Tourism industry management and mountain tourism program                                        49
4            Tourism human resource development program                                                      97
5            Religious and spiritual tourism development program                                             29
6            Tourism investment expansion program                                                             5
7            Tourist, religious, cultural heritage preservation program                                      38
8            Policy, legal and institutional improvement and international relations extension program       58
                                                                                                     Total  407
# to be borne by internal source of Tourism Board                                                                                                  

Civil Aviation

(at constant prices of FY 2006/07)

S.No.        Programs and Projects                                                                   Total Budget
1            Construction and improvement of airports                                                     1,087
2            Construction of regional hub airport of international standard in Chhinnedanda, Pokhara         50
3            Development and expansion of Gautam Buddha Airport in Bhairahawa as regional hub airport
             of international standard                                                                       50
4            Aviation safety program (CNS/ATM)                                                               19
5            Program on air safety enhancement                                                              143
6            Create infrastructure for the construction of second international airport in Nijgadh, Bara    479
7            Strengthening of important airports from regional and tourism perspective                      268
8            Improvement of Tribhuwan International Airport                                               4,875
9            Life rescue and fire prevention service                                                        478
10           Air transport management                                                                        28
                                                                                                    Total 7,477

Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation

For the effective implementation of development programs and projects carried out by the Ministry and different agencies under it, following institutional and procedural arrangements will be made:

  • System of implementing every program by preparing a detailed working plan will be established.
  • Mechanism will be established to involve consumers, as far as possible, in the implementation of programs and projects.
  • In the program/project level, an effective system will be established to make program/project head responsible for implementation, according to the prescribed work schedule, monitoring on a monthly basis, and sending the monitoring report in the prescribed form to the higher authority.
  • Progress review of program/project will be made mandatory.
  • A system will be established for quarterly on-site monitoring and supervision of concerned programs/projects from the Ministry.
  • A system of relating performance evaluation of program/project head with the progress of program/project will be set up.
  • Strengthening the planning and monitoring units of the Ministry and Department in terms of resource, knowledge and skill, the monitoring and evaluation system will be made effective.

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