Factors Affecting Graduate Career Options
Career selection is an enduring course that can be advanced during learning plans at all stages, however particularly throughout the start of one's university years. It is extremely widespread intended for institution graduate to muse regarding their career options as well as to select a precise career path through the first years at university. Consequently it is tremendously significant intended for universities to offer career leadership intended to assist learners build further updated as well as therefore improved instructive as well as vocation options. Inside this cram will be a reassess of fiction that evaluates as well as gaps learning of issues that sway career doubt at the untimely phases at the university.
For this study the classical economic models that tend to focus more on the pecuniary payoffs is not sufficient enough in determining why students act irrationally when it comes to choosing a career. This suggests that money incentive is not the only factor that influences an individual's career choice. Hence, the Akerlof and Kranton (2000) model which includes identity with career choice is appropriate for this study as it takes into account the individuals behavioural pattern i.e both their social and educational orientation which is said to be necessary for career selection.
Before going any further, I will like to give “credit to who credit is due”. Those who helped make this dissertation possible and those who saw me through the process. This dissertation will not have been complete but for the initial insight from my supervisor, my friends and classmates alike who stared me toward the study topic and most importantly my parents who but for, I would not be here.
I will also like to acknowledge God whom with all things are possible. For the strength to complete this dissertation in times when I wanted to give up I thank my closest friend for encouraging me to keep going.
I strongly believe that this study is one that gives insight to our actions in life.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 The Development of Career
Attending the university is often a student's prospect following college. It is a natural occurrence or the existing trend of prospect university student's to show concerns on what career path to take. There is no doubt that this pressure is being fuelled by our parents, teachers and even friends who encourage us to obtain a university degree especially in todays economy. Several high school and college graduates end up attending the university with no clue as to what career path they are on exactly. As a result for some students this makes their college years a defining time in career-related choice-making. As most students are aware of, there is a need to choose ones discipline and the courses that are relevant in developing ones career goals intended for their career prospect. According to Gaber I as well as Wardle A(2002) Career indecision is said to be a phase of development that students have to go through on their quest for making the right career option. The development of one's career needs start at the early stages for students. Research regarding the various career options at an early stage by students will aid them in grasping sufficient information in relation to the opportunities available for the various jobs they might be interested in exploring. The exploration of one's career options can begin in the early stages of one's formal education through to high school and then college with the hope that this will aid in the narrowing of ones options prior to applying to study at the university. The career choice course is as vast as the individuals who are faced with making a choice. One may ponder on when exactly to start making career plans? Why they are stuck or uncertainty? What in today's economy is influencing students when it comes to choosing a career? Is there anything that our counsellors/advisors can do to assist students in our career exploration as well as provide an understanding to this life-long course? To what extent does our immediate background, educational standing or even our socio-economic status influence our uncertainty? Findings intended for extremely examining these questions can assist students make better career choices. (Gaber I as well as Wardle A(2002))
Although career uncertainty is not a new behaviour seen amidst students it undoubtedly is a challenge that is faced regularly. According to a national survey carried out by a Rosenbaum, he's findings were that almost all high school graduates had the intention of moving on to the university. Other studies have in addition indicated that of the students who attend and complete a four year course at the university around 20% of these students are still undecided. This transition of students from high school to the university is often hard for several, who are then left with questions to be answered as well as feeling helpless with no hope of choosing the right career path. (Gaber I; Wardle A(2002))
It then becomes a case of asking one's self if students are making use of the resources available to them at the university to aid in addressing the career indecision that exist. Several universities do make the effort to offer courses which are aimed at creating a career decision path. Take an example of the University of Hertfordshire which offers a course in employability and entrepreneurship, where students can look into their talents with the prospect of starting ones business and interest which could shape a career path. Nevertheless, areas such as the job market and the opportunities available still need to be looked at in detail in a changing economy and the world at large.
Although it can be said that colleges as well as universities are faced with most of the burden of career decision guidance for students, the researcher is of the opinion that is very significant to examine the factors which influence this career uncertainty amongst university students. It is believed that during this study, the researcher will be able to provide adequate recommendations which will help counsellors and the university at large in addressing these issues and provide a foundation for which students can make an appropriate career choice.
Statement of Problem
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors which influence career option amongst the students at the University of Hertfordshire as well as give recommendations which are directed at assisting the university spot and address the issue at an early stage.
The study objectives are as follows;
1. To examine the career uncertainty demographic antecedents in existences.
2. To assess possible similarities in the behaviour of student educational and career objectives. The research will also look differences in relation to gender.
3. To suggest suitable recommendations which should assist counsellors in the preparation of students intended for their education as well as life-long career choice making.
Thus, the researcher will be looking to clarify the significant effects which identity or behavioural traits affects career choice. Also, the researcher will try and determine if any essential gender difference in how an individual's identity in both their career directions impacts on the career choices. The results will give a better insight to why there in heterogeneity in individual career options than in classic economic models.
The researcher also hopes to show the advantage of including psychological and sociological models with the study of economics with the aim of better explaining models in economics. Hence, this study seeks to suggest that including behaviour can improve the explanation of career choice further that classical economic factors
1.2 Akerlof and Kranton framework
Classic economic models suggest that the utility of an individual depends on the individual's actions and possibly other individual's actions. According to Akerlof and Kranton (2000) when identity is added to an individual's utility function it is shown as
Ui = Ui(ai, a_i, Ii)
i represents the individual and ai represent the individuals actions, a_i represents other individuals actions and Ii represents individual self-image. The individual's identity is said to be founded on the idea that they stick to their social class. The theory ideology is that the inclusion of the individual's identity with utility function can give a clearer understanding of the career choices the individual makes where classic economic theory fails. Akerlof and kranton (2000) represents identity as;
Ii = Ii (ai, a_i; ci, Ei; P)
Where ci is the individual's exogenous characteristics and P is the various social class prescriptions. This equation suggests that identity is a function of the actions of an individual and that of other individuals. Therefore the equation shows that identity is connected with social class, exogenous characteristics. In simpler terms P indicates the ideal behavioural and characteristic traits of a social class. P is essential for understanding how career choices can change when identity is included in the model. The assumption is that an individual is drawn to actions which are identical to that which is prescribed to his class. In summary this framework suggest that a ration economics individual seeks to maximise utility as well as an awareness that utility is affected by actions directly and indirectly via their identity. An application of this model is shown below. Assuming that the individual's utility function remains unchanged (as above) and consideration for the career choice represented by oi affects the individual's self-image or identity. Here, the utility function becomes;
Ui = Ui (w(oi,Ei), oi, Ii(oi, ci. Ei, P))
(w(oi,Ei) represents the individuals income, taking into account their career choice and characteristics. Therefore, the individual's income and self-image are both reliant on characteristics and behaviour. This gives explains why individuals who have high potential end up taking some worth low earning jobs. Take for instance and individual with high potential who happens to be in a social class that prescribes that that individual need take up a career with low earnings. The implication is that the individual will apply less effort in his studies as he or she attains a higher identity from behaving in the manner prescribed by his social class. From the utility function point of view the individual has acted irrationally and this is what the model seeks to address.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The literature reviews the contrasts as well as distinguishes study in influences that sway vocation indecision amid students at the university. It also reviews research which holds the untimely homework of vocation development for graduates. Since career discovery as well as growth has been acknowledged as a vital aspect of the life of an individual, narration concerning the theories of vocation option as well as growth will be evaluated to sustain this lively itinerary.
Profession selection is a topic which has involved intellectual, proficient plus community awareness, since of its versatile temperament. Since career is a consequence of the interaction flanked by persons in executive plus communal arrangements, it yields well to examination as of varied viewpoints scoping as of professional approach to directorial community. Investigate on a profession option is not rare on job-related groups such as business accountant plus fitness mind trained. The aspirations of such learn is regularly to intended forecast career option attitudes based on character in addition to demographic distributive issues. (CIEH(2002))
The study scheme, which is carried out here, deviates as of those usual researches that hunt intended for to offer drawing intended for improved career analysis. This work is altered in the intellect so as to it by no means supply the reasons of intended forecasting profession option performance. It somewhat, aims to inspect the issues that allegedly persuade profession option intended for graduates; (CIEH(2002))
Portraying on equally typical plus profane literature, the document initiates the idea of career option plus discovers how the profession option fiction has developed plus recognizes sole as well as encrusted course of assessing reported pressures on profession ‘option or option'. The courses of the SWOT are available plus the consequences are tamed in the study. The literature covers insinuations plus finale of the crams relying on the review conclusion. The intention of study is to scrutinize detailed pressures on profession alternatives of graduates as of a covered viewpoint, relating the over all present situations as well as structural stages of analysis. (Harvey H(2001))
Profession ‘option' is a compound experience that can be approvingly acceptable by a revise of its input workings that is careering as well as an option. Going few decades in the history influential efforts of Hughes (1937) as well as the Goffman (1968) profession erstwhile the centre of several works; Though, the modern approaches of the idea provided significant realists exemplify a covered beginning that holds biased practices plus purpose constitutions of effort in relationship (Layder 1993). The lexicon meaning of alternative is ‘the intended proceed of choosing or unravelling as of two or added affects which is favoured; plus the willpower of the brain in favouring one object to an added. The meaning includes duo workings: initial is the accessibility of substitutes, which provides a purposeful actuality, plus the following one, the approach of fondness, which engrosses a slanted procedure. If an orientation to profession alternative is ready, accessibility of vocation options plus the basics of selecting a profession have to be observed. Consequently, sequentially intended for profession option to obtain a position there have to be substitute profession options obtainable, plus there have to be an entity partiality flanked by these career alternatives. In the background of facts of in flexibilities of provide in addition to require in profession markets, perseverance of structural plus organized figures of bias in service, as well as course reliance by learning as well as knowledge in several grounds of career thought profession ‘option' a greatly debatable experience. The inhibited plus changeable environment of obtainable career paths in actual life crafts profession ‘option' in its original shape that is a gratis plus unimpeded profession option bottomed on a person will, an uncommon product, an inexperienced anticipation or even a mistaken principle. So, the expression ‘option' is offered in this study in citation marks. (CIEH(2003a))
Conventional premises of profession option are disparaged as compliant argental manly profession manner like normative. A different disapproval to argental profession advance is as of Mignot, disputing that hypothesizes that stress the influence of a person group are inadequate to describe the position of intended formational as well as educational factors in determining person profession option activities in a methodical manner. Mignot feels it is essential to review as well as re-theories how modern careers are built by persons. Moreover, to expand a decisive approval of how these productions narrate to communal systems along by means of structures. Communal arrangement is by no means assumed as an article peripheral to a person, somewhat persons are considered as lively representatives who together build plus are intended forced by their communal humanity. This loom that can be observed as a chief confronts to conventional learn loom as it provides a novel considerate of the circumstance of career that highlights the nervousness flanked by a person plus background, purpose as well as a slanted profession, have at present mainly come as one. Since its stressed by communal cognitive profession hypothesis, one require a beginning that obtains the significance of the individual group plus give details how interior plus outer issues dole out to augment or restrain a group in the profession option building course. (Harvey H(2001))
While, the conclusions of the learning's declared exceeding are matching by the quarrel which person organization cannot be measured in separation as of background factors plus that there is an interaction flanked by the two in determining profession ‘options', yet, the members carry on sketching fundamental associations of unidirectional plus a linear manner flanked by the sway of the group as well as intended formation in determining profession ‘option'. Intended for instance, assessment of the 1991 US National family learning study divulges that usual earning, pregnancy plus education of women has a crash on their vocation ‘options'. Based on the cram a straight association was in addition distinguished flanked by person selection as well as ease of use plus temperament of prospect arrangements. A further part of study that accentuates the position of a group plus disregards structural thoughts might be revise that inspected over a hundred apprentice learners' inspirations intended for deciding career option in UK. The investigation recognizes that though a number of students stressed the overhaul features of option others were stimulated by profession courses by means of results. Furthermore, the authors made a comparison of their results by means of students as of several countries as well as observe that in judgment to their English counterpart, the job constituent was not as much of prominence as an inspirational element flanked by learners as of the rest of the countries. In addition to this one more pattern of study, which joins composition plus society contemplation, is another study work on. Professionals recognizes an entrance motivation scale, which vary as of argental to structural concerns, consisting features like (a) profession on purpose plus concerned access, (b) relations custom, (c) mindest or sane reasons, (d) delay shift, exchange instance to believe, (e) feeble incentive nevertheless hold conclusion, (f) directed by others' guidance, (g) spontaneous, intended fortuitous possibility plus expatriate disorder. Later all these features are combined by the unchanged instigator as person administrative plus peripheral pressures. In the same way, learning over two hundred apprentice learner's profession options in education in some countries applied a 20 aspect degree which comprises of a variety of work features as well as worker much as a substitute intended for elements, which affect profession option. Shortly in learning, inspect a section of under a hundred students' ideas on a profession in the profession of education. Result shows that learner's profession options are notified by the accessibility of profession availabilities plus directions. It was observed that an example under four hundred apprentice learners as of Turkey to spot the reasons effecting manufacturing 'option', plus they pointed out few features: i) awareness in manufacturing, ii) aspiration to grow to be a director iii) marks gained at campus admission test. They established significant variation during gender. Whilst female students have strained their inspiration as of friends plus relations of together sex, it was apparent that their mannish counterparts were chiefly prejudiced by females. One more significant finding was the impact of family on the learners' choice in terms of engineering. This was the same on both male as well as female students. (Harvey H(2001))
As represented, previous workings regarding career ‘selection' have observed it frequently by dualistic investigative contexts like drag plus shove features, or intended forms like profession, facility, influential, group as well as individual directions, or in conditions of worker healthy at personal, middle-managerial plus at large-scale industry promote levels. All that work using arrangement plus society ‘push' plus drag features as an outline intended for exploring profession option concentrates on the option of person-service above any erstwhile type of service. The structure is leading mainly in writing of purposes meant intended for putting up both small as well as medium ventures.
As classified four aspects influencing the selection of trade admission; they are outer drive features like dismissal otherwise enforced relocation; beside them three drag features: person approaches, principal plus widespread emotional intended form; the communal rank; plus the reach to a variety of appropriate resources. (Bates (1999), Borooah as well as Hart (1999))
According to theorist complex mechanisms of ‘ram' in addition to ‘drag' assist in the course of selecting person-service as a profession; further particular investigate on alternative racial service as well agreed upon the framework of the concept. Learning's by other researchers mutually attempted to describe the key grounds intended for the ‘selection' of person-service among alternative persons as of ethnic background by ‘pull' as well as ‘push' features. Nevertheless, the chief worry over this loom is its directness as a logical gadget intended for shimmer the really multifaceted life of such option. Analyzing the exercise of ram as well as drag as a logical structure, competing that ‘communal means is not `subdivisions` that are automatically pressed; Furthermore, dragged by peripheral sources, they are somewhat possessors of assets, plus relying on the route in addition to relying on situation they dwell in the ground by means of asset of their bequest quantity plus intended formation, in principle, they have a tendency to familiarize themselves vigorously. Moreover towards the conservation of the sharing of assets or towards the rebellion of this study, we will now be looking at the external factors that might be affecting graduates to select careers.
2.3 External Factors
• Lack of information
Extremely widespread factor faced by a large number of graduates, as they are not sure which option to select as well as go intended for to make the most out of their educational as well as natural talents. By means of the lack of information, they are found, confused as well as blur not sure what to do as well as what to select as well as what to avoid. Information plays a significant part as well as can make their life easy in choosing a career the best suites their qualifications.
• Too much information
Likewise, lack of information too much information or irrelevant information might in addition not assist the cause as this will make life hard intended for the graduates to select the suitable career. They might not make the right choice as well as might select a wrong career since of the number of options or too several options available.
• Chiefs as well as careers don't seem to relate
This is another significant factor as sometimes its so hard intended for a graduate to select the best option or right option as his qualification or chiefs might not match to what is available this. Divergence might make life confusing as well as depressing intended for these graduates, as well as they might feel in secure in terms of their career as well as better prospect.
2.4 Internal Factors
• Lack of self-confidence
Confidence plays a vital part in an individual's life, sometimes individual face this problem of lack of confidence, as well as they are not that much comfortable by means of the things around them. This result in the lack of confidence as well as then they fail to deal by means of the requirements as well as going intended for the right option is somewhat impossible intended for them, as well as they struggle to select the right option as well as in several cases they go intended for the wrong option. As well as then soon realize that their option was not the correct one resulting in intended forcing them to quit as well as look intended for the right career again. (Harvey H(2001))
Fear as well as anxiety if is on a lower level might just confuse one, however if it's on the elevated side might shatter the confidence badly, as the fear of making mistake as well as not choosing the right career option might push one into a shell where he/she might avoid the dealing as well as social life.
• Conflicting values
Not paid according to the task or not able to find the job, which has got the right pay is another significant factor that might not assist the cause as well as might make life a bit shaky intended for the graduate as he/she might feel to look intended for as well as switch jobs on a frequent basis. This as a result will make them depressed as well as unstable as of their career point of view.
• Conflict by means of significant others
People around one might have different ideas or views regarding one's career, as well as a regular discussion as well as packages full of ideas might lead one to confusion, which might in addition not assist the cause. Everybody has got their own views, as well as way of looking into career as well as life, when they come to share these thought by means of each other they end up by just confusing these graduates who might just be in need of backing up as well as nothing else. (Harvey H(2001))
Several individuals are multi-talented as well as possess natural skills as well as educational expertise, intended for some this might be good luck while several others might tell you that this is just extra trouble created by one intended for him. As this does not always getting him extra pay or rewards as a result their expectations are not fulfilled resulting in a shaky mind by means of blur approached of what went wrong, where as well as how?. These thought upsets the graduates as well as disables them to make a better option intended for selection careers.
2.5 Theories of Career Option as well as Development
“Career development is said to be a complete constellation that includes chance factors along with economic, psychological, educational, sociological, physical and natural elements that jointly affect the importance of work of an individual during his or her lifetime”. It is in addition a complicated course that involves endless theories which can equip us a basic idea with the belief that it will aid close in on certainty level or better still provide guidance. According to Isakson as well as Brown (2000), there are three primary reasons why theories of career option as well as development are essential. These are:
1. Make it easier to understand the forces which influence career option
2. Provide study which would give a clear understanding of career options; as well as
3. Provision of practise guidelines where empirical guidelines are not available.
1909 saw Frank Parsons's book introduce career development and examined making a career choice that examined ones understanding as well as the requirements the career choice and the options founded on true logic. In the United States frank parson was seen as the primary founder of vocation guidance as he founded the career development theory framework with his book highlighting that active involvement was necessary when examining ones options.
According to Brown and Brooks (1990), career guidance according to Parson's view involved three stages;
1. A clear knowledge of one's aptitudes, resources, abilities, ambitions, interests limitations as well as their plans;
2. Understanding of the requirements as well as success conditions, the advantages as well as disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, as well as the progression prospects in various job fields.
3. On the above stated facts, true reasoning should be employed.
Parson's method was used by America and saw them become an industrial nation. The approach gives us a foundation to the roots of the theory on career development as well as practice (Brown & Brooks, 1990). It was this foundation that brought about the terms of career-decided and career-undecided. Another major foundation in regards to the theory of career development is the growth of “the testing movement” which was founded by Sir Francis Galton et al…, and this growth testing movement was influenced majorly as of the work of Alfred Binet, who made plans on developing an instrument that would identify children with mental retardation from those with higher intellect. However, this approach and technology did not come to light for a few years.
As a result of the new theory which was based on the psychological of occupational growth i.e looking into people's thoughts as to why they make act irrationally, it propelled the idea that an individual's career option is a continuously progressing course and so does not happen overnight but takes years. It is also said to be an irreversible course which is defined by balancing ones interest along with aptitudes with the hope of opportunity which are all sacrifices the individual must make. Nevertheless these sacrifices are flanked by the individual's hopes. This theory challenged the factor theory as well as Parsonian theory. The theory is said to have three main periods namely the “Fantasy period” which gives no consideration for one's actual capabilities and interests, the “Tentative period” which examines opportunity in regard to ones interests, values and capability, as well as “Realistic period” which involves exploring the possible occupation and collect necessary information. This theory suggests choosing a career that is reliant on the individual's personal as well as behavioural progression that occurs over the years. In modern times this theory is seen as historical as it places an important role on our feelings concerning the selection of a career.
In 1979 Krumboltz fostered the theory of social learning to be applied when making career choices. He believed that social learning results in the idea that one's interests; self-efficacy affects an individual's career choices. (Isaacson & Brown,(2000)). His theory showed comparison on an individual's hereditary, his interests as well as ability and how they affect the way in which their view the development of their career. Krumboltz theory highlights five factors which affect the individual's career choice. They are; his environment, his ability, interests, heredity and his experiences with learning. (Isaacson & Brown, (2000)). Conclusively, Krumboltz's theory assumes that people are born with genetic traits and as people come in contact with their environment, they become influenced by their surroundings and this influences the decisions they make. (Isaacson & Brown, (2000)).
The Holland (1959) theory is said to assume that from the time an individual makes a career choice, he or she becomes a product of his environment and heredity. (Roth, Herschensohn and Hilliard (1970)). Holland believed that from out experiences in life we build up habitual hierarchy as well as a favoured approach in handling both social and environmental tasks that we consider important to us and it is this hierarchy that pushes us in the direction of a career environment that we find satisfactory. There are six classes of vocational environments as well as six corresponding individual orientations which were formulated by Holland which are also known as “personality types” namely conventional, , social, artistic, enterprising, investigative as well as realistic (Arthur, Hall, & Lawrence, (1989)). Holland's theory on the kinds of individuals can be measured in various ways some of which include the “Vocational Preference Inventory” as well as the “Self-Directed Search”. These have proved useful to students in there career option search and was even adopted by the department of labour in America.
The social identity theory suggests that people belong to a social category which is related to behavioural characteristics. These individuals recognise that they belong to particular social class and other individuals are also associate the person in question to that class and so when the derail from their ideal category they suffer from what economist refer to as dis-utility.
Akerlof and Kranton (2000) applied their framework of career choice to social class and the amount of effort the individual put into studying. Their research involved grouping students into social classes (from the bright to the not so bright). Their findings showed that through human capital students obtain utility via pecuniary returns. On the other hand, they obtained increased non pecuniary image payoff from being in a particular social class. They believed that image payoff depends on social class and the behaviour and characteristics of the individual, while pecuniary payoff was reliant on the student's ability as well as the amount of effort applied. Therefore, in other for the student to maximise utility, they would have to find the right balance between social class and effort. This can give economist insight as to why resources at schools and outcome of students tend to have a weak relationship and why new policy instruments that are reliant on social variables occur from the inclusion of image payoff in the utility function of student. As a recommendation Akerlof and Kranton (2000) state that the amount of effort the student puts in can be influenced by schools through an influence on the social class and the expected behavioural traits of students in that class.
This model is consistent with Bénabou and Tirole (2006) who believe that people invest in image. The general assumption is that by investing in image for the purpose of discipline, an individual's welfare may be increased. However, if used for reasons such as ones esteem it may have a negative effect on welfare. Take a grade ‘A' student who puts more effort into studying, this is an example of investing in ones identity with the likelihood on increases welfare while a reduction in study of burnt out student in the long run is likely to decrease welfare.
The study that has been carried out has exposed that the issues that sway profession option might be scrutinized down a range varying as of a person group to structural circumstances, at any stage of study. Evaluation of the facts on detailed pressures on profession option proposes a junction on the meaning of a micro-person as well as general deliberation in excess of meso-institutional/relational as well as overall pressures. Consequently, the judgment of this learns ropes our innermost theories that the graduates will tale minor influences since additional significant in their profession options than chief or minor pressures. This might be the effect of socialist attitude of our taster in which sum amount of different countries respondents were in great percentage. It is learned that aging propensity seeks profession constancy, which is in addition an attribute of Leninist society. (Harvey H(2001))
Nevertheless, it is significant to scrutinize the fundamental causes intended for these results. Even though bearing in mind the sway of a group as well as intended formation on a range might be practical consecutively to appreciate the indistinct demarcations flanked by the two, we dispute that our ocular symbol of arrangement plus group in a range does not propose that intended formation plus society survives sovereign of each other. On the opposing, we hoped to describe that aging plus building pressures on profession preference survive in a situation of relationship. (Gaber I as well as Wardle A(2002))
One instance might elucidate this dispute: If we suggest that a merely argentic option is potential, we would consider that we create our profession options gratis as of structural circumstances, simply based on our orientations as well as person motivation. Even if the members articulated a burly conviction possessing liberty in their vocation option, one dispute that profession option by no means survive in this unadulterated argentic shape. By theoretical instance, one can recognize various reasons intended for one's intention: The amount of options that we might be conscious of as well as the figure of options that live plus are obtainable intended for us in truth might vary. In addition, there might be options which we are not conscious of, or, which are engaged, owing to building limitations that we might be unsuccessful in distinguish. I need of consciousness of our complete option of options might guide us to build exercise of a restricted series of career options or opening arrangements. Therefore, we quarrelled that configurations are not simply constructs exterior to a person group; though, an essential fraction of the manner is in addition that person group is intended formed. Conversely, it is as well our argument that persons are not ‘intended forced', as well as not' stopped', as well as they do not live in a status of ‘glide' in building their profession options.
Though, in largely stern structural circumstances, they relate person resourcefulness, strategies as well as reveal capability intended for altering the arrangements which restrain them. Consequently, it's not probable to speak regarding arrangements in separation as of a person group, moreover.
The heterogeneity of where arrangements plus group lives in as well as the hermeneutic assortment of their shape pretence a dispute to the unsophisticated as well as frequently polarized intended formulations of issues that sway profession ‘option'. Our gauge has scrutinized the issues that control profession ‘option'. The conclusions propose an augmented principle in the consequence of micro as well as meso-concerning controls on vocation alternatives, as contrasting to universal limitation. The worldwide supremacy of neo-moderate philosophy plus its surging controls in executive settings during its numerous dialogues, such as the self-made person, meritocracy, as well as sensible plus unimpeded option in loose markets might report intended for the meeting of the faith in gratis alternative in this revise. Even though the connections flanked by the overall communal, biased as well as financial circumstance plus vocation option have not been completely tamed in thus study, the occurrence of this global junction, joined by means of different insights of career option controls, proposes that these connections have to be discovered.
The settled difference in addition graduation as of fewer preferred rule has considerable impacts in the history of professions, resulting in a career option difference as well as perseverance of the profession substitute route. This condition might be incidental that profession consequence might not conclude intended for several people in addition they might gaze upon graduates as an option of an exact occupation option.
A lone chief boundary of the learning is its dependence on an appraisal review which does not tolerate intended for thorough study. Consequently, learning merely offers an inert accepting of career selection. These nearby's might be complemented by a qualitative revise so that an accepting of lively environment of a career option can be attained. Though, the learning offers cross-national plus qualified nearby representative the intended force of the confidence in a gratis ‘option' as well as relational pressures on vocation ‘options' in excess of macro-structural circumstances.
Chapter 3 Study Methodology
3.1 Study Methodology
3.1.1 Study Philosophy
Study philosophy looks at how the researcher feels in relation to the growth of knowledge. Positivism as well as phenomenology are the main points in relation to this study. They are diverse; however when it comes to business as well as management study they both have a distinct role to play. (Saunders et al., (2000)
According to Saunders et al., (2000), it is easy to make the mistake of believing a particular study philosophy is better than the other. However, this will neglect the point as each is good at various fields. As with any comparison, determining that which is best will depend on the researcher's choice of questions which they are looking to find an answer to. (Saunders et al., 2000).
The idea of this study is to determine how image can be improved, promote the enhancement of growth as well as well improving the approach of graduates regarding the career choice that will suit them and their liking? How there are diverse ways intended for selecting and managing a career?
3.1.2 Study Approach
Theory will be included in this study which in regard to the design of this study might or might not be clear. As Saunders et al (2000) states the decision by the researcher to use the deductive or inductive method is show in the content that is explicit concerning the theory at the start of the research. The researchers approach is bases on the economic and behaviour model as is drawn from Akerlof and Kranton (2000) who suggested the inclusion of identity. The study sees both sociology and psychology used in conjunction with economics. The idea behind this study is that an individual's social surroundings can determine behavioural differences amongst a group of people with similar economic goals. This was achieved through an addition of utility function.
The researcher does not use hypothesis in the application of the uses of an inductive method in the study philosophy. There is an understanding of the consequences of proper user awareness is and an acceptance of the possibility of technical growth. The results will indicate the opinion of a fraction students' at the University of Hertfordshire and should be noted that the purpose is not to decentralize the study outcome as it reflects a small population of UK student. Research is carried out directly via a questionnaire and despite its relation to both quantitative and deductive method; its relevance is in the inductive method.
3.1.3 Study strategy
The study aim is to obtain knowledge of the issues raised. The researcher chooses this topic as it has the potential of not only studying the issues but examining a relation flanked by varying levels such as the environment and the opportunities available in the changing economy as well as its impacts on their future.
The aim is to achieve this through a survey as this is a well-known strategy used in managing study that allows for an economical way of deriving substantial data. The survey will be in form of a standard questionnaire with the findings showing a just view of what the participants feel and is easily understood.
3.2 Method of Information Collection
3.2.1 Primary Study
As stated in the strategy, the Primary facts are carried out through the use of a survey via a standardized questionnaire to find answers to the study objective. Before distributing the questionnaire the researcher carried out pilot testing which was handed out to five students. The reason the researcher chose to pilot test was so that the questions could be adjusted as well as ensure that the participants understand and are capable of answering the questions adequately.
In this study the researcher chooses to use a non-probability sampling approach which is reliant on the study outcome and possible time constraints. This is because Non probability sampling is less time consuming and is less expensive than probability sampling. For this non probability sampling, judgment sample is used since it gives a representation of the outcome in which the researcher is attempting to conclude.
In participant selection the researcher considers these factors;
1 Approaching students who are not in haste, this is because they are more likely to take part in the survey.
2 Candidates are chosen who appear to be who are taking up and undergraduate degree as they are more likely to be undecided.
3 The research selects approximately the same number of male and females to take part in the survey so as to limit getting a bias result.
On approaching the potential participants, the researcher clearly makes their intention known by stating that it is a questionnaire for research purposes only. Once, the individual agrees to take part in the survey the researcher then hands them a copy of the questionnaire to be filled and handed back. In total fifty five individuals took part in the survey.
3.2.2 Secondary Study
In this study, secondary research was employed to obtain thorough knowledge of the factors that effect graduates in career selection. The study purpose was to examine: the way students make up their mind as well as what are the factors that assist them to go for higher education at the same time what are the factors that disables them or become a hurdle for them when they wish to go for the right career; the family advancements as well as approached that are used in order to convince the students not to go for higher education or their desired careers; as well as the attitude of the public to these facts. The facts have been obtained via different sources namely; textbooks, journals, biography of specialists, journalist's interview, as well as community researches on this issue, independent survey, Newspaper as well as the internet. The information from these sources shows a representation of the existence of these issues. Nevertheless, determining the reliability or the adequacy of these sources is hard as some might be out-dated.
3.3 Limitations of Study
3.3.1 Assumptions as well as Limitations
The assumption is that most students are undecided on a career position due to economic changes. Since the survey relates to the participants influences and certainty levels, the assumption is that it will be answered honestly and thoughtfully. Possible limitations to the study is in regard to the size of the survey as it is conducted in the university of Hertfordshire and only represents a fraction of student and so it does not portray the general public opinion.
Chapter 4 Study Findings
The Questionnaire was designed with the intent of collecting as much information possible from the participants regarding the graduate's feelings towards these hurdle as well as advancements in their approach to tackle these hazards as well as get a chance to go for the right career that really suits them. A copy of the questionnaire can be found in appendix A; the questionnaire is designed as follows;
The first section has two purposes: firstly it seeks to get background information on the participant's family education background and secondly it shows a pattern as to their set childhood thoughts regarding obtaining a degree.
Section two uses a scale base system and is designed to give insight into the participant's certainty levels, greatest influences and how much information they know regarding their chosen career path (if any).
As mentioned earlier questionnaire plays a vital part in the success of any research and is almost play a part of backbone for the work carried out. The questionnaire have to be relevant and have to help enable the reader to understand what the concerned people think regarding the issue which they obviously let the researcher know in response to the questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed to address these questions;
* What is the course you are carrying out at present?
* Have you decided you career choice?
* If yes, how and why you went for this choice? e.g. was there any influential part driving you towards the selected carrier?
* How helpful are the schools and parents according to you when one is regarding to select a career that best suits his/her requirements?
* Do you think that concerned authorities like council and Home Office can play any kind of part related to this issue in order to make career selection easy for the graduates?
* Would like to make any recommendations in this regard?
* What do you think is the biggest factor that plays the part of chief hazard in career planning for the graduates?
The feedback and response was extremely much encouraging and help me a lot in order to complete this study and make it a useful source to read regarding the topic. The respondents were mainly students. The over all results from the responses agreed and discussed the hazards that they do face while selecting the right career choice which might be the best one for them. Majority of the participants mentioned this point that they were not aware of their choice until they came to select one and by that time it was too late. Which resulted in them selecting a career just for the sake of selection by means of no great interest or enthusiasm, this is why most of the graduates quit studies and pursuing their career in the middle due to the lack of interest in the chosen career that they have chose and now don't like or feel to be coping by means of. Which is not a great news and don't help the cause. Most of the participant in addition highlighted the fact that council have to take part in it and introduce such ways like information in school from the early stages and guiding the students in advance so that by the time they are ready to make up their mind to select any career they know that this is the right one for them. Another key finding was that a lot of the students who were decided on their career path stated that money was a key factor in their career selection.
There isn't any individual that can readily choose another career option if the alternative is not in existence. This is why students decided and undecided are encouraged to explore the career options that are available to them. The university should look into encouraging students expand their horizon starting with an acceptance of one's self image and their interests which would narrow the search for an appropriate career option. As an approach which is based on financial incentives alone can be detrimental to an individual's career, as Spez (2002) identifies in his research that a substantial amount of nurses take up the career for non-wage related reasons.
This is why it is highly imperative that students are encouraged to explore their interests at an early stage. Studies show that once a student goes past the point where a career path need to be identified by choosing the right course and is still undecided, chances are they are likely to drop out or this might affect their grades as the interest is not present. This is why Akerlof and Kranton (2000) highlight self-image as being a key factor when examining the reason for an individual's choice. According to Robinson, P. (2001) an individual is likely to change their course about three times before they become decided.
5.2 Discussion of objective one
All the participants of the survey where students at the university of Hertfordshire and included both male and females. The Facts showed that in comparison to females the males were certain on what career option they wanted to embark on. The surveys also showed that majority of the students are undecided on their carrier options although they had an idea of where they would like to be. Both male and females where of the notion that financial incentives was the major driving force for students in terms of career selection. Results also showed that majority of the participants parents had obtained a university degree with just a few having only college degrees. This is consistent with the theory that an individual is influenced by his surroundings. There also seems to be an issue of lack of information. Most students (both male and female) admit to not carrying out enough research into their desired career choice. It is then a question of whether or not they are utilizing the resources the university has readily available to them.
5.3 Discussion of Objective Two
Subsequently, objective two's aim was to assess possible similarities in the behaviour of student educational and career objectives. Consideration for gender was also made to asses possible similarities. According to one of the male participants, they believed despite the career he finds himself in. he believed he would excel.
From the research carried out, most of the findings seemed to highlight the fact that most students are not sure in regard to the career options available to them especially in an economy that sees increased number of unemployed graduates. In other words, they are aware of their interest but are undecided on the appropriate career path to follow.
Akerlof and Kranton 2000 proposed the factors of background and ability and how this affects gender. In his findings women's level of education seemed to be influences by higher career factors with increased social factors reducing it while their male counter parts attitudes did not change. However, according to Robinson, P.(2001) this belief is mainly reliant on the societal outlook on women.
Examining the facts conclusively, one can deduce that students have high uncertainty levels regarding their career options. Although, they seem to have a vague idea in relation to what they would like to do career wise, majority of the uncertainty seems to arrive from the current economic behaviour and the fears of not being hired and having to take on menial jobs. This has increased uncertainty levels amongst student. Most seem to come to the term that they might have to take on jobs with low pay-out earnings. Nevertheless, some have questioned the uncertainty levels saying that they are mostly fuelled by ones experiences, their immediate surroundings, interests and whether or not they are making use of the resources available to them. (Robinson, P.(2001))
5.5 Relationship to Existing Study
Several university students in their first year of study are offered mostly general core modules and usually take up extra-curricular activities to gain knowledge as well as explore possible career options through their interests. As the Holland theory states, from the moment an individual makes a career choice, they become a product of their direct and indirect environment. Furthermore, Robinson, P. (2001) also states that individuals develop a behavioural hierarchy through the experiences we encounter in life and in turn adopt various ways of handling situations. As a result the individual finds themselves drawn to a career choice that they find satisfactory. This is why in Dolton, Makepeace and van der Klaauw (1989) research they state an individual can find satisfaction in less pay rewarding careers such as teaching because career choices are influenced by the careers social status.
The researcher's findings saw that several of the individuals who took part in the survey required extra information in regard to career options. A solution to this according to super involves internships. He believed that this could help in the exploration of ones options and get a taste or insight into a chosen career option. (Gaber I as well as Wardle A(2002))
5.6 Recommendations intended for Counsellors
As of the researcher's emphasis it is important for communication to be made between counsellors and students in regard to their interests, emotions and experience about uncertainty in career options. Fact is communication is important when building a successful student/counsellor relationship especially when trying to achieve a goal. Students can frequently be overwhelmed with the vast of options available to them and as a result might feel pressure from people closest to them who have high expectation levels. Consequently, prior to providing additional resources, it is essential to give students career guidance that aid in boosting their hopes. (Gaber I as well as Wardle A(2002))
5.7 Recommendations intended for Prospect Study
Recommendations intended for prospect study involve a conduction of a wider study at the University of Hertfordshire that embodies a vast student audience and examines the uncertainty levels at the university. In addition it could be insightful to apply the survey on a classroom bases on a particular degree. The study might be collated by means of identifying individuals that are undecided through a career option class and thereby compare certainty levels.
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career choice survey
Please note your participation is strictly voluntary and for research purposes only
Please circle one
1. Gender: male female
2. Highest educational level achieved by father: high school college undergraduate postgraduate
3. Highest educational level achieved by mother: : high school college undergraduate postgraduate
On a scale of one to four please circle one answer that best describes your response
1= strongly disagree 2=mildly disagree 3= agree mildly 4= strongly agree
SD MD AM SA
4. I have definitely made a career choice 1 2 3 4
5. I have no career plans at present 1 2 3 4
6. My parents had/will have the greatest 1 2 3 4
Influence in my career choice
7. My friends are/ have the greatest influence in 1 2 3 4 My career choice
8. Money has been an influence in my chosen career 1 2 3 4
9. The courses I am currently taking have nothing to do
With my chosen career 1 2 3 4
10. I was able to find adequate research into my chosen
Career 1 2 3 4
11. I am fully aware of the requirements and what
My chosen career has to offer 1 2 3 4
Kindly answer to the following questions appropriately
12. Would you say the university has been helpful in
Providing necessary information regarding career choice? Yes or no
13. Do you think that concerned authorities like council and Home Office can play any kind of role related to this issue in order to make career selection easy for the graduates?
Yes or no
14. Would like to make any recommendations in this regard?___________________________________________________________________________
15. What is the course you are carrying out at present?
16. What do you think is the biggest factor that plays the role of major hazard in career planning for the graduates?___________________________________________________________
Thanks for the participation!!