National innovation system research is technological innovation on a new stage of development, which has been proposed is the relationship between science, technology and economic development, deepening understanding of the results. 50,60 Age, when people are convinced that investment in basic research can be automatically transformed into a country's economic competitiveness. But then it was found that development and design, quality control, education, training and feedback from the market and so the outcome of the commercialization of science and technology have an important impact; same time, many technological innovations can be no formal research and development based on the produce. Therefore developed the concept of technological innovation that must be the beginning of new ideas to its commercialization as a process in which research and development is only one stage of innovation, design, testing, manufacture and marketing of technological innovation to achieve the other phases of chain link . Has triggered a study of technological innovation worldwide trend until today.
From the late seventies, von Hippel, Lendl made in technology innovation, customers, suppliers and so plays an important role in technological innovation, which became the concept of technological innovation is a system prototype. Well-known British scholar Freeman examines Japan in 1987 found that Japan's technological innovation is not primarily come from formal research and development, its innovative progressive innovation-based, innovation were mainly from the production sector engineers, workshop of skilled workers. They led by technological innovation, combined with organizational innovation and system innovation. Japan's MITI is also catching up with technology plays an important role in them from a long-term, dynamic vision starting to find the optimal allocation of resources to promote industrial and technological innovation of enterprises. This makes Japan's only a few decades, then the country's economy has strong momentum and become the major industrialized countries. It is in the analysis of the Japanese study, based on Freeman put forward the concept of national innovation systems. Later, Nelson (in 1993), Ivan Lendl (1993) is the further development of the national innovation system concept.
National system of Innovation by the Government and all sectors of society composed of an organizational and institutional networks, their activities aimed at promoting technological innovation. Enterprises, research institutions and universities as well as the commitment to technology and knowledge transfer intermediary institutions are the main component of innovation systems, in which business is the core of innovation systems. The efficiency of a national innovation system depends on the following two aspects: the elements within the innovation system and constitute a functional orientation in innovation is proper and within the innovation system and the linkages between the various elements of an extensive and close. These two problems are related to China's economic, scientific and technological system-related. In the functional position, the innovation system of internal resource allocation is the key. The linkages between the elements in the innovation, the key is to enhance: 1. Enterprise and innovation and cooperation links between enterprises, enterprises and research institutions and universities of the innovative cooperation ties; 2. Intermediary institutions in the innovation and the important role as a bridge between the main body; 3. government in innovation strategies and policies to guide industry development role, as well as the functions of government departments working on the coherence and integration.
From the national innovation system concept, the innovation by the interaction between the effect on innovation and research and development (R & D) the impact on innovation is equally important. Technical knowledge and information on people, businesses and institutions are highly mobile are the key to the process of technological innovation.
With the knowledge economy era, the national innovation system is an effective way to promote knowledge of the production, dissemination, transfer and application system. From the perspective of knowledge-based economy, technological innovation is also a from of knowledge production, dissemination to the use of the complete process. Knowledge Economy and the relationship between the national innovation system is reflected in: technological innovation in this process will involve a number of departments within the economy, a number of subjects, they each share of knowledge production, dissemination and use. This is the only departments can effectively interact in order to truly improve the efficiency of a national innovation. OECD in the proposed knowledge-based economy, while also building a national innovation system, a view that would like to emphasize the national innovation system in the proliferation of knowledge transfer to the important role, not just the role of knowledge production.
National research institutions and universities the main function is to provide society with new scientific knowledge and providing technical sources to the enterprise.
Enterprises and national scientific research institutions and universities, as also the production of knowledge (mainly technical knowledge), the supply of technology, more is the application of knowledge, and ultimately to achieve technological innovation in the market (new products, new processes and new services).
The education sector and innovation intermediaries, mainly from the role of knowledge dissemination and transfer. Intermediary services include: Productivity Promotion Center, technical advisory bodies, engineering and technology research centers, facilitate technology transfer, support for technological innovation in small and medium enterprises.
The Government in the innovation system functions are: support for knowledge production, in particular, is a strategic research and development (R & D); to the government and plan to lead the technological innovation of enterprises and industrial development; construction of technological infrastructure, including: intellectual property rights, regulations and standards and so on.