The Arabic world is located on the land stretched between the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Arabian Sea in the west and from the Mediterranean Sea and Turkey in the north to the horns of Africa and the Indian sea in the south. The total area of the Arabic world is about 14 million square kilometers (8.6 million square miles) and the total population is about 358 million people most of them are Muslims but there are considerable numbers of Christians and Jaws who are still living in the Arabic countries. The Arabic language is the main language in most of the Arabic countries and other languages such as English and French are wildly understood. The strategic location of the Arabic world and the exploration of many important sources of energy made it the aim of many powerful countries in the world, so it experienced many types of occupations in the modern history, it was occupied by the Ottoman Empire for more than 400 years then the English and French mandates dominated it for considerable periods. The Arabic world is one of the most important regions in the modern era and it has its effective participation to the global problems, it provides the whole world with the majority of its need of energy .so, it has witnessed a real development in the entire levels especially after the rise of the oil prices .On the other hand, there are many social and economic problems that could affect the future of this prosperity. The high rates of fertility, unemployment high percentages and poor industry are the most important social and economic dilemmas in the modern Arab world.
The high rate of fertility in the Arabic world is one of the highest rates in the world with an estimated average rate of growth by about 2.4%, down from about 2.6%during the period 1985-1995.This high rate is seen to be really dangerous because it will result in a great increase in the number of population; The population of the Arab world today is around 358million people and it will be about 400 million in 2020. A top UN official warned the authorities in Arab world of the high growth rate of population as it could lead to a delay in the policies of progress and development and also could lead to social disturbance, pressure on public utility services and environmental problems. Besides, the problem of overpopulation can lead, in most cases, to poverty, and causing problems like traffic jams water shortage which is one of the future challenging in the face of the policies of growth and progress. Now, the possible solutions for this problem are education, improvement, family planning and birth control. Through educating women and poor people, they could know that many children will increase their poverty and worsen their financial situation. So, the better way to decrease the fertility rates is to encourage couples to plan their life more wisely and to put in their minds the fact that more children mean more poverty. Egypt, for example, announced a program to reduce its overpopulation by family planning education and putting women in the workforce. It was announced in June 2008 by the Minister of Health and Population Hatem el-Gabali. The government has set aside 480 million Egyptian pounds (about 90 million U.S. dollars) for the program. (1)
The second problem to talk about here is the high percentages of unemployment in the Arabic world and the bad effects of such a problem on the society and the country as a whole. The Arab Labour Organization (ALO) rates unemployment in the Arab world as the worst worldwide. According to a report published in 2008, the rate of unemployment in Arab countries is about 14 percent, which means that there are more than 17 million people without work around the Arabic world .in addition, the report stated that unemployment among Arab youths is nearly 25 percent most of whom were educated which indicates how serious the problem is. The report also found that unemployment rates were as high as 66 percent in some Arab states which is really dangerous “It is becoming clear that both problems are no longer issues that can be put on hold. Although unemployment is a global problem, it takes a more acute form in the Arab region. Some argue that Arab countries have already taken too long in discussing how to tackle unemployment. They were supposed to be already engaged in the implementation of a plan of action, as these are old and long-known problems “(2). No one can deny that these numbers are really terrifying especially if we take into consideration the dangerous problems related to the unemployment between young people. Unemployment can easily increase the crime, drugs and many other problems that can be obstacles in the way of progress and development. public sector's limited capacity to employ Arab workforce is considered one of the most important reasons that cause such problem, so encouraging the private sector seems to be a good solution .Moreover, the absence of a favourable economic and political environment, and the State's control over the economy represent an obstacle in the face of the efforts made to expand this sector. So, Arabic governments should encourage investment through issuing a number of laws that could help create new job opportunities for unemployed. Another solution would be focusing on the education of the technical aspect which is in high demand in the labour market through spending more money in this field.
Poor industry is also one of the most important problems in the Arabic world. Most Arab countries are open markets to the industries of the other countries of Europe, china and the states. This is simply because of the heavy dependence on the exporting of oil and gas and using the revenues to spend them on the fields of services and luxury. “Lack of industry is one of the major problems in the Arab world." It is very clear that Arabs are not using their vast resources to at least obtain some of the basic knowledge to be players in the international explosion of Technology and commerce. With a very small manufacturing and a very week agricultural base, the Arab world depends nearly completely on foreign imports to maintain an increasingly high-tech urban society and that makes the imported food and chemicals critical to survival. Locally produced capital goods almost not exist. Transport, communications, power, water purification and distribution, and construction equipment must all be imported. Building the essential industry in the Arab countries stayed a dream because of the Excessive dependence of the west advanced industrial economies and Inadequate manpower education and rehabilitation” (3).Arab governments should start thinking of the ways that guarantee the development of the industry such as encouraging and supporting the agriculture sector that form the essential base of any industry .furthermore, the governments have to protect the national industries that suffer from the policy of the open market which opened the door widely to the products of the other countries with lower prices the fact which push customer to by them neglecting the national ones. Supervising the quality of the national products to gain the trust of the consumers who trust the other products produced outside the Arabic world because they are usually better. In addition, encouraging the investment in the field of industry and make it easier to set up a business will surly participates to the transformation of western experiences to the Arabic countries. Arabs also should start thinking about other kinds of industry which are far from the petroleum industries to build the strong base that can be the beginning for any future policies.
In conclusion, the Arabic world has many serious economical and social problems which can affect its process of development in the future .The problems of the high rate of fertility, unemployment and the poor industry are the most important problems and extensive efforts should be there to find solutions for them before it is too late to do that. As illustrated before ,interesting in increasing the level of education and family planning will make people realize that more children means more agony especially for those who are poor. Automatically, the high rate of fertility may result in unemployment which is considered to be the direct reason of many social and economical problems such as crime, poverty and many other serious problems. Here, in this case, encouraging investment through issuing a number of laws that help creating new job opportunities for unemployed and focusing on the education of the technical aspect which is in high demand in the labour market. The last problem was the bad situation of the Arabic industry as it is accused of being backward comparing to the industry of the other countries around the world. So, encouraging the investment in the field of industry will participates to the transformation of technology to the Arabic world and make the Arabic industry get better.