CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Gender disparity shapes people's life unusual are one that been dull broadly throughout minds of contemporary society in the current decades. The biological differences between men and women compose as one of the core motive on behalf of males having enhanced job opportunities. As a result males were constantly celebrated the breadwinners of the family even as a female's place was at home.
POPULATION OF MALAYSIA
Malaysia population is a great blend of varied multi ethnic, multicultural population comprising Malays, Chinese, Indians and more than 200 ancestral native ethnic groups. Although, Malaysia population encompasses with several cultural, still antique Malay cultural is the most major one followed by Chinese and Indian cultural. Malaysia population comprises of 50% of Malay, 24 % of Chinese and 7% Indian, 11% other bumiputera and 8 % and others.
Based on the estimation the total number of population in Malaysia for year 2009 is 25, 715, 819 (July 2009) with the population growth rate of 1.723 % (2009 est.) which squeeze of 50.3 % of female and 49.7% of male.
EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA
Malaysian government has always been sensitive toward gender issues and women's development and therefore the Malaysian progress plan have positioned better accent on mainstreaming women in national progress throughout confirmatory multi sectoral policies and programs .Malaysian education system is highly centralized particularly in primary and secondary schools with state and local governments having little declared in curriculum or the major accepts of education.
There has been rapid expansion of educational opportunities and openings for women and men to improve their economic participants. Overall, the trend shows an increase in the literacy rate levels of both males and females. The progress made in reducing gender gaps is attributable to remarkable increase in girl's enrolment in schooling.
However the gender disparity issues are vacant and enhancement stemmed from the improved health position of women and the bigger levels of girls in secondary and higher education. Investing in girls education supply them with social and economic opportunities and option throughout their lifetime. As we can see in the table below shows the gender participants in school enrolment based on different year together with the gender gap.
As extra women than yet prior to be working, an unrelenting hole in position, job, safety, pay and education among men and women are still continue living. Although the position of women in the world of employment has enhanced, but gains have been deliberate. While women have to some extent closed the status gap with men, the slow speed of change means that disparities remain significant.
GENDER GAPS IN MALAYSIA
Gender disparity means an unequal difference, as in attitudes and selection preferences between the sexes or can be defined as the purely descriptive observation of different outcomes between males and females. Gender equality and the empowerment of women are the fundamental in order to achieve human development. Besides that they are also essential to achieve the social, economic and political development. As seen in figure 3 shows us that total percentage of Male and Female in Malaysia based on year 2009.
Based on table 6 shows that gender gap sub index of Malaysia in year 2008 .Those indicators are grouped based on female and male participant in economics participation and opportunity, education attainment, political empowerment. According to the labour force participant between gender males are given more opportunity than female although the total female population in Malaysia exist the male population.
In addition when we look at the political empowerment female is given less occasion to involve. Based on the table 6 the number of women participants in parliament level and women in ministerial positions are very few compare to male which show that women are given less opening in decision making level wherelse male are given more prospect.
As we can see only at the primary education enrolment in Malaysia has equal participants among the genders and the numbers of female participants in secondary education enrolment are greater than male. However the number of male participants in tertiary education enrolment is very low compare to the female participant are primarily because of more male drop outs at the secondary education enrolment level. Furthermore based on the table 7 tells us that students who completed their secondary enrolment holds major proportion in labour force in Malaysia compare to other education level.
There are ample of issues been arising regarding gender disparity problem in Malaysian which is not purely on women deliberations but also considering the aspects of man and women participation in education and workforce. Since Malaysia had made further progress towards creating a more equitable society, this problem has raised many questions in the mind of men and women. Certainly Malaysia has achieved remarkable economic growth over the past decades, yet has this growth been ‘with equity'?
Bold initiatives and resolute resolve are necessary to finish individual and institutional gender inequity. Gender inequity is pervasive. While the amount and appearance of inequality may diverge, women and girls are disadvantaged of the same admission to resources, opportunities and political power in each region of the world. Institutional discrimination is harder to identify and put right. Cultural traditions can complete inequality and prejudice from generation to generation, as gender stereotypes stay established and unconcealed.
Malaysia still has a long way to go in achieving full economic integration of women and realizing their unused potential for economic development. A female is likely to take care of the home and look after the children. This is visibly seen in everyday living. Even at an untimely phase in existence girls is liable play with dolls, nursing and looking after them as if they were their children. Society has completed it such that even if a woman required to against the norms and get a job in the work force she would not get very far.
While more women than ever before are working, an unrelenting gap in status, job security, wages and education between men and women are still continue living. Although the status of women in the world of work has improved, but gains have been slow. While women have to some extent closed the status gap with men, the slow speed of change means that disparities remain significant.
Many actions are trying to get rid of gender disparity and these days present is an rising number of women in the army and similar jobs that used to mainly consist of men. But society has exposed us the collapse of such deeds by the increase in rapes, sexual attack and sexual harassments in the work force. This once extra makes women think double prior to imperfect to join these gender sheltered jobs.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study generally aims to examine the gender disparity in Malaysia which primarily hub on education disparity and income disparity.
- To investigate the gender disparity in education enrolment
- To examine gender disparity in Labour market.
- Discuss the consequences of gender disparity and its implications on social development in Malaysia.
ORGANISATION OF RESEARCH PROJECT
Chapter 1: This chapter seeks to build theories from observation and psychology to examine the factors that contributes to gender disparity in Malaysia.
Chapter 2: This chapter provides a review of the literature review related to gender disparity in Malaysia which focuses on education and income. Apart of that, the independent variables are used based on the factors that leads to gender disparity in Malaysia are recognized.
Chapter 3: This study uses various statistics method to do investigation on the research. This analysis is to determine an aspect that contributes to gender disparity in Malaysia. This chapter identifies and describes the methodology used to recognize the research problems
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
HARMONIZING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
In the article literature review, the author observed that there is very little opportunity given for women to participate in genuine decision making at any level and the actuality is that men conquered in government, the party and state enterprises. Although women have been in good position to benefit from economics yet gender discrimination in the work place could be assessed. Besides that, the great educational waste and higher education has not been design to solve the gender disparity which is because women been lock away by the belief and behaviors that delay them to fill in positions in the workplace since the main part of female life is dedicated to reproduction and take care of others and occupational separation among gender explains that there are major gaps among gender on labor market and average of gross salaries which tells women are paid less (Adriana and Manolescu, 2006; Cuetara, 2001)
In additional there are two main prospect been identified by the author which are to participate in and benefit from the society built by them and the society here means values parity to ensure that people have opportunity to make decision in every aspects and equal allocation of decision making is given when low percentage of women involved in the decision making process at the political and administrative level shows us that there is no fair distribution of the decisional burden (Adriana & Manolescu, 2006). The limitation of this journal is that the data provided do not manage to offer a sound explanation of gender disparity in the private sector.
Furthermore in other study for example (Cuetara, 2001), said that the inter and intra gender distances and the final list recovers the role of higher education for social development is important yet the disadvantages for women even in higher educational level in a social order of male high proportion. It has been started that the educational lag affects more women than men and it is becoming more serious as the age of the group increase.
On the other hand, labor policy reforms able to balances growth needs of firms and socio economics imperatives of a developing nation. Labor relations in developing countries is grouped by recent change of market determined such as external environment, economically susceptible surplus labor, low skills, hard employment laws, politicized union with low labor representations and low corporate involvement in governance ( Gurtoo , 2008).There is a require for policy modify that incorporate economic steadiness for labour, employment guideline on behalf of organizational elasticity, union management for proper representations and corporate involvement in labour sanctuary and domination. However there is a significant business need to reform labour policy in several developing countries in order to support overall economic development and growth.
REASONS FOR DIFFERENCE IN EARNINGS
Achieving gender equality in general is now considered a very crucial issue in order to reduce poverty and has become a development objective in its own right. Studies on gender wage gaps and labor market discrimination in different countries have established that women generally get paid at lower rates than men. A study by (Temesgen, 2008) said that gender wage disparity exist when two workers who otherwise are identical in their human capital endowment and other characteristics.
The labor market institutions, unionization and other firm characteristics have significant influences on the level of gender wage inequality at the firm level (Temesyen, 2008; Mano-Negrin, 2000). An attempt to close the gender wage gaps between men and women should be carefully targeted at the appropriate endowment but the existing institutions and other firm characteristics should also be considered. Temesyen (2008) argues that the public enterprises are more gender egalitarian compared to private firms and training plays an important role on gender wage gaps narrowing. In additional a study by (Srinivas, 2007) said that there is an increase in women contribution on labor force in twentieth century but there is some evidence that the gender gap between the pay of men and women has not narrowed homogeneously in the second half of the twentieth century.
Furthermore in the research by (Mano-Negrin, 2000), had observed that the wage differences between genders are due to their differences work sector placement whether in public or private, higher return on working hours and managerial position in the private sector and manhood. Apart from that the author has been identified the similarities and differences between the public and private sector.
The similarly are the structural effects of managerial position on wage levels also different taking into account of demographic and human capital effects and it was shown that the middle level management position is strongly rewarded in the private sector due to stronger link between the middle level management position and organizational performance. The differences are in public sector the middle level management positions are relatively abundant due to large organizational size and high hierarchical structure.
Based on the research article by (Srinivas, 2007) explained that a purely economics explanation does not work well in explaining the gender wage gap instead the strong negative correlation between the traditional social attitudes and women's wage suggests that social attitudes towards gender roles affect's wage independently of women's labor force participants. Besides that there still many people are more traditional in their view, agreeing with the statement that a women's place is in the home. These should include better access to firm level training opportunities for women, as well as better access to employment into higher level occupational categories for which they are Qualifies and better access to within firm career promotion opportunities (Temesyen, 2008).In a nut shell, the gender disparity in pay can be explain in two different broad categories which are gender differences in human capital and labor market structure.
EDUCATIONAL DISPARITIES AGAINST GENDER
Education is a common and crucial element in every human being life yet there are still barriers received by women and girl in education competences and at workplace which is mainly due to “gender traditional”. The main issue that affected their early education and their career path is their early histories and familial support which is essential in shaping their thinking and enabling them to aspire to higher education and role achievement (Cubillo & Brown, 2003).Generally either at higher education or at workplace women is more concentrated in under represented and traditional feminised area rather given equal opportunity as men. Educational progress has been enjoyed by both sexes, even in the poorest countries, yet these advances have failed to eradicate the gender gap (Hill & Elizabeth, 1995).
Although several program been designed to raise female education thus all began ended to channel projects with short term funding, implementation support from donor agencies, and very few were subject to evaluation. In other study by (Gatta, 2006) said that the role state policy plays an important role in provide same opportunities for women and girls as men in educational, economic development and workplace settings .Thus it is important to monitor and evaluated those entire project in order to provide equal opportunity in education and expanding education system is essential for socialization and development of human capital. Apart from that, the state policy role also have crucial role in removing gender barriers in non traditional jobs in order to provide gender equity in labor, education and training. Therefore it is important to consider on how those policies can differentially impact men and women.
In the research article by (McTavish & Miller, 2009), highlight that there is major occupational gender segregation in both sectors between colleges and higher education which show that the job living equilibrium be not a occupation inhibitor for women in higher education other than was for women in colleges. Besides that, there is a clear link between the reform and managerial environment and the privileging of the masculine since the bureaucracy system and organization settings in public sector more to masculinist in nature and thus rarely able to provide for equal gender representation (McTavish & Miller, 2009; Cubillo & Brown, 2003).
MEASURING DISPARITY IN HIRING
Women's holding managerial positions was found to be much lower at senior level but there is increase in women in management at junior and middle management level. There are several obstacles have been considered that relatively have impact towards women's career advancement rather than the actual abilities and qualities women possess. For example (Wood, 2008) found out that Gender stereotyping and preconception of women's roles and abilities is therefore instrumental in creating a barrier to women's career advancement.
Women's natural feminine character to be devoted toward their family has become one of the obstacle that put them lack of competencies besides adverse corporate cultural. For example (Chinchilla et al., 2006) said that lack of support from their superiors who are heartless when a woman has to give main concern to her family duties. Furthermore the author also observed this condition may cause women's loss their self confidence. One the other hand, (Chinchilla et al., 2006) observed that the corporate cultural against women which is lack of flexibility policy has main influences over differences in hiring among male and women.
Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis of stereotypes that unclear the qualities of individuals. Demographic stereotypes usually occur in the form of gender, age and race. For example (Manshor, Jusoh, & Simun, 2003) found out that except the race and religion variables has a significance relationship between the hiring managers race and religion and their preferences to select candidates based on these two demographic characteristics. Diversity factors of hiring managers are the main consideration in influencing the final selection of employees.
Besides that, based on Malaysia context where the Malaysian manager is made up by multi racial may cause different managerial decision making. However the author also observed that both male and female managers show a high preference to select qualified candidate of their own gender when the candidates are equally qualified however they become less preference when the candidates are less qualified. As results, it has been so far discovered that different primary causes of hiring disparity among gender. For instance the hiring disparity among gender was found to be primarily influenced by gender stereotyping and corporate cultural.
STATEMENTS OF HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is careful statements that propose a potential justification to some observable fact or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a look forward to.
To determine if gender disparity does exist in education attainment
Hypothesis statement 1
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in literacy rate.
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in literary rate.
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in Primary enrolment.
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in Primary enrolment.
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in Secondary enrolment.
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in Secondary enrolment.
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in Tertiary enrolment.
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in Tertiary enrolment.
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in Unemployment by educational attainment
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in Unemployment by educational attainment
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in Ratio of literacy women to men
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in Ratio of literacy women to men
Ho1: There is no mean difference between male and female in Percentage of population by school attendance
HA1: There is mean difference between male and female in Percentage of population by school attendance
To determine if gender disparity does exist in career attainment
Hypothesis statement 2
Ho2: There is no mean difference between male and female in Employment to Population ratio.
HA2: There is mean difference between male and female in Employment to Population ratio.
Ho2: There is no mean difference between male and female in Employment Participation by gender
HA2: There is mean difference between male and female in Employment Participation by Gender
Ho2: There is no mean difference between male and female in Employment Participants by Industry.
HA2: There is mean difference between male and female in Employment Participants by Industry.
Ho2: There is no mean difference between male and female in Employment participant by ratio
HA2: There is mean difference between male and female in Employment participant by ratio
Ho2: There is no mean difference between male and female in Unemployment
HA2: There is mean difference between male and female in Unemployment
METHODS OF ESTIMATION
There are three types of analysis will be used in this study to analyze the data collection which are Descriptive Statistics, t-test, and AVONA Test.
Description statistics means a collection of methods for organizing, displaying and presenting data by using table, graphs and summary measures .In order to complete the process raw data is needed and it is recorded in the progression in which they are collected and have not yet be processed. In general, descriptive statistical indices are presented in the text of a manuscript if there are relatively few variables. Basically for this study the Univariate Descriptive Statistics will be used and the main purpose of this to represent exactly and briefly data from a variable.
t-test normally used to measure hypothesis involving a single mean or different between two means. It is also can be practical to address research questions for designs that involve a single sample, related samples, or independent samples. As far for this study the independent sample t-test will be used to appraise the different between the means of two independent groups which are male and female. With an independent sample t-test, each must have a score on two variables.
These procedures measure the relationships of one or more factors with a dependent variable. The factors are either between subjects or within subject's factors. Besides that the one way ANOVA, which allows us to analyze mean different between two or more groups on a between subjects factors. An overall analysis of variance test is conducted to measure whether on dependent variables are considerably different among groups. If the AVONA is noteworthy, then the follow up test commonly involve comparisons between pairs of group means.