Sustainability issues are the one which provide a capacity to endure a business. It generally deals with environment, community, society and economy of a business. And it tried to reduce the negative effect of a business. In the environmental perspective sustainability issues provide environmental friendly services and eliminate the non-green services which effect the environment. It makes a business to hold out the commitment to environmental principles in a normal business. It also ensures that all process, product and the manufacturing process maintain healthy profits while following the environmental principles. Sustainability issues help the community by providing employment opportunities by donating to the charitable organisation and also encouraging the activities like providing education in employee communities and offering internships to the young members of the community. These kinds of activities undertaken by sustainability which helps the quality of the education and life in a community. Moreover sustainability issues help the community by improving the quality of products, by reducing raw material waste and improving the tax policy of the business.
In spite of these issues, there is another issue of the sustainability which needs to deal with participation of the stake holders in the development of the project. It becomes necessary in the case of large and complicated project. Such projects in which there is involvement of the public opinion and other non government investors, the development of the project must meets the needs of the present required needs and must have ability to expand further such that it reduces the obligations which arise. It should be based on the long term vision which prepares project for further development for short and medium tasks that would be supported by the stake holders. Large scale advertising should be done in order to attract the stake holder which will increase probability to get more stake holders.
Sustainability issues are those which have to be avoided to minimise the negative effects on an engineering project enhancing the efficiency. The sustainability issues that come under an engineering project are social, economic and environmental. By avoiding these kinds of issues the project will become a meaningful, healthy and productive for all the present and future community residents.
In the above figure the three issues are shown as different and unrelated to each other
This figure shows how they are related to each other the economic sustainability comes under the social sustainability which is nothing but the community and the community comes under the economic sustainability.
Principles of sustainable development:
A sustainable development of an engineering project includes two issues
- Integration of social, economic and environmental principles.
- Participation of the stake holders in the process of development.
The integration principle checks for an equalised importance for social, economic and environmental issues that arise in an engineering project. This involves both the positive and negative impacts of social, economic and environmental issues and in implementation the negative impacts are eradicated to a maximum extent.
The social, economic and environmental are interlinked to each other as shown earlier, the economic issues deal with the investment in private project but when comes to national project depends on the national economic strategy. The social issues deals with the public issues. The environmental issues will deal with the pollution regarding sound and air and the recycle methods. The effective sustainable methods should be taken to minimize the level of environmental disorder.
Participation of stake holders:
This principle is for large and complex projects in which there will be involvement of public opinion and other non government investors. The development should reach the need of the present need and should have the ability to future expansion and minimise the future obligations that may arise. There should be long term vision of the project to which future development and the short and medium term tasks should be supported by government and the stake holders. Required advertising should be done to get local awareness which will increase the ability to get the stake holders.
The planning process includes the use of existing resources to the maximum extent and implement according to the present regulations and policies. In the planning process a certain target will be assigned and the task will be completed according to the target.
Principles of planning process:
The planning process follows a cycle of formulation, implementation, evaluation and monitoring but this cycle of process is rarely followed. This process of fixed plan has now changed to an adaptive process which involves change in management depending upon conditions constraints and resources. The new evolution in the planning works with a target and the means to complete it. It also involves the importance of various stake holders and procedure through which the integration of all the available resources and to build according to the existing regulations and policies.
The planning process can be derived in three principles
- Ownership and commitment.
- Principle of co-ordination.
- Target, resource and monitor
Ownership and commitment principle says that the project must be completed according to the owner's requirement and must be planed according to the state strategy of sustainability development depending on the ownership whether a private project or a public project. There should be a commitment in all levels of government which influence the project. There should be a high level commitment in formulation and implementation process which builds up the stake holder's interest.
The principle of co-ordination relies on the information gathered on various valid analyses is reliable for the chosen outcome. The information should be gathered on different analysis to the present and the future in the planning process and it should be reliable. The planning process should adapt some responsibilities and the way to work out them to the body or level to which it is more appropriate to get an effective out come.
The principle target, resource and monitor deals with measurement analysis and monitoring the require outcome to be achieved effectively. Here it checks the plans that are sustainable with regards budget, social and environment objectives which are analysed monitored and the feed backs should be taken to get an effective outcome
While designing an engineering project environmental effects play a major part.
"A sustainable design is nothing but eliminating all the environment effects through skilful and sensitive design" The design should include all the environmental issues starting very usual objects in public daily life.
Principles of sustainable design
- The design should low energy emission design by reusing the recycled materials and other simple materials which doesn't use much energy
- Reduce the use of materials that concentrated which might be harmful for staff and the surroundings should be cleared time to time.
- The material used must be long lasting durable and should maintain quality which reduces the need of re manufacturing the products
- The design must provide a section of recycle where it shows how to re use the products.
- The design must provide proper ventilation to the project by ensuring the people who occupy must get sufficient air according to the earth estimates.
- Design should meet the present regulation of the of the design standards.
- Design should be provided with a renewability option so that the project can be altered according to the safety rules
- The design said to be a sustainable design if provides a healthy living for the occupier, the interiors of the project must be designed with non-toxic materials and maintain the air quality.
- Limitations of the design should be analysed and redesign the project eliminating them.
Examples of sustainable design:
The achievement of sustainable development or sustainable cities is from the urban planners which show the interest for using various design techniques and principles. These are for designing cities and their infrastructure. These planning will include smart growth theory, sustainable urban infrastructure and new urbanism. Smart growth is one type of urban planning that which provides transportation theory that growth in existing infrastructure of the city to avoid sprawl and produces transit-oriented development, walking, cycle friendly which includes the mixed use development for choosing a house. Transit-oriented development provides sufficient access to public transport and therefore reduces the need for using the private vehicles. Public transport is a design approach for sustainable urban infrastructure which provides protected areas, energy efficient building and wild life corridors. The constructions at present based on the urbanisation consider only social and economical issues but doesn't cares anything about the environmental issues. It does encourage about usage of the land based on population in the area. Sustainability provides benefits for both urban and rural planning as central criteria for layouts of roads, streets, building and all other components of the builder environment. By applying the scientific modelling method the planned projects can alert to the problems before the construction begins and which helps to reduces the damage to the natural environment
Sustainable buildings are designed by the sustainable architecture. Sustainable architecture is one type of design which helps to reduce the pack of environmental effects during the production of the building, construction and life cycle of the building which includes heating, electricity use and carpet cleaning.
Implementation of sustainability issues:
The implementation of the sustainability issues which we are discussing about is the sustainable relief housing. In Africa the urbanisation results to the urban poverty and the homelessness, to implement these a project was designed named sustainable relief housing prototype. Mainly this project helps to sheltering the homeless people until they return to their normal ways of life. And in this project they discuss about the repeating errors of the developed nations in the urban development. The sustainable relief housing prototype considers the present economical, environmental and social issues in Africa. And the design must work under traditional construction material and the methods used are to satisfy the people and the planet in a sustainable way.
This project works under" cradle to cradle" design model to the earthbag construction technique which develops the sustainable relief housing. According to the human health and the environment all the material used for the construction is available naturally which will return back to the same place after use. The energy used for the construction is the natural energy that means solar energy and the furniture choosing will consider local culture of Africa. and with the locally available material and the cheap construction ,provide perfect shelter for the African people. The material used for the construction and the interior design are get from naturally and return back to the nature after use, making sure the most effective use of material sources like no synthetic ,toxin deposition and provides best air conditioned quality for the human health.
According to my view of the report what I think is sustainability issues can have the positive effects that shows on any engineering or the construction projects. And the project is not perfect if it not works under the sustainability issues such as social, economical and environmental. So by planning, designing and implementing the sustainable issues will results to get the ecological imbalances of the project.
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