Career families

The traditional families show the women only stay at home, do housework and take care of their children meanwhile the men go out for workings and become breadwinner in the families. However , the improvement of life condition, the enlargement of internet, the division of means of media and the economy of the world, which have integrated simultaneously to formulate the new trends for the family constitution. For humanity in present days, there are three main forms of the family unit. They are two-career families, single-parent families and stepfamilies.

TWO - CAREER FAMILIES

Two- career family where both of husband and wife work outside the home. According to the statistics of the labor force in the USA(2007), recently, there are significant increase in the number of married women in offices and companies- from 20000 thousand people in 1960 to nearly 60000 thousand people in 2007(see Figure 1.1).

(The statistics of the labor force, male and female, in the USA from 1960 to 2007.)

Obviously, the gender equality is getting more and universal for the long time being. The married women are not only able to do housework well but also flourished in their works.

There are two schools of thoughts in increase of the employment of married women now. Advocates claim that the families where husbands and wives save for the life, there are advantages over these in which just husbands work outside. First, the wives can understand and share their husbands the nervous tension of work. Besides, when the married women also work, the burden on family finances (children's tuition, insurance, and other daily needs) will decrease considerably. However, some opposition suppose that the family income gain brings lots of conflicts in the family and parents often are full of activity to take care of their children. From my point of view, I totally back the cons of two-career family since many of families where all husbands and their wives have to go out for their work but they still do well in the role to their families. Furthermore, many couples who must live apart from each other with their conditions of work but they still have a happy family life and perfect jobs. By Mark J. Peen (author of the Micro trends), right now, across the USA, there are more than 3.6 billion couples who have to live and work at different places. These people succeed in both their work and family life and the old president Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton's family is a sample for this.

STEPFAMILIES

A family where one of the parents is not the biological parent of at least one of the children in the household. This is one of the popular families in the modern society. There are two factors cause the common in this kind of family: the rapid growth of divorce and remarried. ). According to the statistics of China Civil Administration Department, 341,000 couples get divorced in 1980, 800,000 divorce cases in 1990, 1,210,000 in 2000, and the number is 1,331,000 in 2005. Meanwhile most children live their mothers in divorce cases (source: Juvenile Offenders and Victims- 2006 National report). Therefore, most stepfamilies consist of mothers, their biological children, and stepfathers. Conflicts are one of the consequences of stepfamilies because teenagers do not accept their stepfathers or stepmothers. That is the reason why members in these families have difficulties in getting along well with each other. Most biological children have argument with or shout at their stepfathers or stepmothers. While most families are relatively free of serious problems, conflict with stepchildren is one of the main reasons that second marriages fail at a higher rate than first marriages (Nordmeyer 1990; strong and DeVault 1992).

Single-parent families

In the last 20th century, the proportion of children living in single-parent households increased from 9% in 1960 to 27% in 2002. This indicates there is an upward trend in the rate of single-parent families in this period. What cause the increase of this form of family and what are effects on our society?

Increased divorce causes the huge rise in the rate of single- parent. Women head a large majority (82 percent) of such families. It has been estimated that more than half of all children born today live for some time with only their mothers before they reach age 18( Strong and DeVault 1992; U.S. Census Bureau 1998). When compared with two-parent families, most of these families live below or near the poverty level. Viewed another way, more than half (52%) of all children living below the poverty level in 2002 were living in single-mother families and about one-third (32%) were living in two-parent families (Source: author's adaptation of the US Census Bureau's families and living arrangements, historical time series). As a result, the proportion of juveniles living in the single-parent household also increased. A recent study by McCurley and Snyder explored the relationship between family structure and self-reported problem behaviors. The central finding was that youth ages 12-17 that lived in families with both biological parents were, in general, less likely than youth in other families to report a variety of problem behaviors, such as running away from home, sexual activity, major theft, assault, and arrest.

These single women often are triumphant women and have high condition life but they do not find out the men who go well with them or they are too busy to spend for matrimony. For those reasons, they take on orphans as their genuine children. These women named as ‘the volunteer mothers'.

In conclusion, there is a cause-effect relationship between the configuration of family and the maturity of society. The family is as nuclear of the public. With the movement (progress) of time and the changes of life conditions (state of affairs), the structure of family have been altered itself from the traditional family with severe conventions to modern family with open-mind views. Three forms of families (two-career family, stepfamily and single family) are these extraordinary samples.

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