Conclusion, interpretation, discussion, implication and recommendation

Chapter 5

Conclusion, Interpretation, Discussion, Implication, and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with conclusion, interpretation, discussion, implication and recommendation. The reason as seen by the researcher to investigate this research is because the researcher realized that the EC students of UPSI tend to be reluctant to talk in the classroom. This has somehow brought negative effects to the process of teaching and learning in EC classroom. So to solve and reduce this problem in the future, the researcher decided to identify the reason of why those EC students are behave in such manner in the classroom.

Then, in order to tackle with this problem, the researcher intents to answer the two research questions posed in chapter 1. The first question is “What are the problems faced by the EC students regarding to talk in the classroom?” The second question is “What are the factors cause students' reluctance to talk in the EC classroom?” The details of the answers will be discussed in conclusion, interpretation and discussion.

5.2 Conclusion and interpretation

By using the analysis and result obtained from chapter 4, the researcher aims to answer the research questions for this research.

5.2.1 Conclusion and interpretation for research question 1

Research question 1: What are the problems faced by the EC students regarding to talk in the classroom?

To answer this question, the researcher would like to refer to the analysis of part A, B, C and D from the questionnaire. In part A, the researcher found that the respondents had strong agreement in item 3 and 4. Item 3 I'll only talk if it is necessary. Item 4 is grammar and tenses are very difficult. For others item, respondents did not show any strong agreement, which also indicates that they do not have much problem as mentioned in those items.

For instance, the researcher able to identify that the respondents are having problem in grammar and tenses, because they think that it is very hard for them to understand and use these two components wisely. In the pie chart, the percentage of strongly agree is 42% out of 100 percentages. This led them to the issue of being reluctant to talk in the EC class. Other than that, the researcher also found that the respondents will only answer or give point of view in the circumstances that they asked by the lecturers or tutors to speak out in the classroom. In the pie chart, the percentage of agree is 48% out of 100 percentages. This is also one of the problems that most of the respondents agree with that happen to them.

In part B, the researcher found that most of the respondents had strong agreement in item 1 and 7. Item 1 is I'm very scared at the lecturer's attitude. Item 7 is my friends always keep quiet, so I keep quiet as well. For other items, the respondents did not show any worries or strong agreement.

In this part, the researcher somehow successfully identified that the respondents are facing problem of being scared at the lecturer's attitude. The pie chart shows that the percentage of agree is 44% out of 100 percentages. This displays the problem that leads to the state of being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom. Next, the researcher also identified that the respondents will just keep quiet when they see the friends are quiet in the classroom. The percentage of agree is 36% out of 100 percentages. This is another problem that faced by the respondents to be reluctant to talk in the classroom.

In part C, the researcher found that most of the respondents had strong agreement in item 1 until 11. Item 1 is I'm scared to speak in the class. Item 2 is I'm very nervous to talk when everyone looks at me. Item 3 is I'm worried that I will make errors and mistakes in my talk. Item 4 is I'm very afraid others will laugh at me when I make mistake in my talk. Item 5 is I'm very afraid others will tease me when I make mistake in my talk. Item 6 is I don't know how to begin to talk in the class. Item 7 is I think I will talk if the lecturer asks me questions. Item 8 is I look weird to talk English in the class. Item 9 is others will make fun of me at the very moment I want to talk. Item 10 is I don't have the strength in me to talk in the classroom. Item 11 is I need more encouragement and support to be motivated to talk in the classroom.

For item 1 until 11, the averages of percentage of strongly agree is from the range of 40% to 57%, out of 100 percentages. Then, the averages of percentage of agree is from the range of 21% to 34%, out of 100 percentages. For undecided, disagree and strongly disagree, the respondents did not show any dominant agreement. In part C, most of the respondents agreed that they are having problem with the circumstances that stated in item until 11. These problems lead them to be in the state of being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom.

In part D, the researcher also able to identify some problems that trouble the respondents in their talk in the EC classroom. The problems stated by the respondents are less confident, shy, less vocabulary, environment, nervous, grammar, no idea to talk, and fluency.

The highest percentage of being less confident is 23%, continues with shy, 19%, less vocabulary, 15%, environment, 9%, nervous, 7%, grammar, 6%, no idea to talk, 5% and fluency, 4%. This shows that respondents are having quite a lot of problems in being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom.

5.2.2 Conclusion and interpretation for research question 2

Research question 1: What are the factors cause students' reluctance to talk in the EC classroom?

After go through research question 1 and presented results in chapter 4, the researcher had identified three major factors that cause the respondents or students to be reluctant to talk in the EC classroom. The first factor is psychological. The second factor is environment and the third factor is emotional.

The researcher concluded that each part in the questionnaire indicate these three factors. For part A, the items refer to the psychological factor. Then, the items in part B refer to the environment factor. Lastly, the items in part C refer to the emotional factor.

For part A, the respondents only depict strong agreement in item 3 and 4. Item 3 I'll only talk if it is necessary. Item 4 is grammar and tenses are very difficult. In the factor of psychological, the researcher explains these two items as the respondents had actually set up their mind to be in the state that mentioned in item 3 and 4. Plus again, the respondents' ego of learning is getting higher as their age increase. This strongly shows that they have such mindset that designate the reason of being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom.

As for part B, the respondents only show strong agreement in item 1 and 7. Item 1 is I'm very scared at the lecturer's attitude. Item 7 is my friends always keep quiet, so I keep quiet as well. In the factor of environment, the researcher elucidates these two items as the environment of the respondents makes them feel to be reluctant to talk in the EC classroom. The people in the surrounding of the EC classroom somehow had influence badly in their talk. For the respondents, most of them feel very scared at the lecturer's attitude and the friends always keep quiet. These two situations had created a negative environment for the respondents to talk in the EC classroom. In fact, the more negative influence in their environment, the more they feel to be reluctant to talk in the classroom.

In part C, the respondents amazingly show high reading in strongly agree and agree. This means that they are having problems in every situation stated in the items. In the factor of emotional, the researcher explains these items as the respondents have highly problems in dealing with their emotional aspect of “talk” in the EC classroom.

Furthermore, the respondents feel scared, nervous, worry, afraid and so on when it comes to talk in the classroom. These elements mentioned in these items deduce to the factor of emotional. For this matter, the higher emotional level the respondents face, the more they feel to be in the state of reluctant to talk in the EC classroom.

5.3 Discussion

The researcher wishes to divide the discussion into four parts namely part A, B, C and D. These parts are referring to the part of the questionnaire. And again refresh back to the topic of this research, which is the factors of students reluctant to talk in the classroom. According to Junko S. (2005), the Americans are willingly to express their idea, unlike the Japanese; they are hesitating to do so even when they must. This situation is actually similar to the situation in these EC students in Malaysia. From the answer of research question 2, part A, B and C refer to the factor of psychological, environment, and emotional. A peculiar feature of Asian students' low participation is that it appears to be confined to classrooms. In contrast, Asians are very talkative outside of lecture times and during consultation hours Massimiliano Tani (2005). For these EC students, the same thing actually do happen, whereby they will be very talkative outside the class, yet being so reluctant to talk in the classroom.

According to table 2 and figure 5 and 6 of part A, the respondents mostly will only talk if there is necessity, and they think grammar and tenses are difficult for them. These two reasons had contributed to the factor of being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom. In depth, these respondents or students' ego of learning is very high and this lead them to have a mindset that thing is hard for them to pick up if their mind take it difficult. Thus, the researcher thinks that the lecturer and tutor should come out with new ideas or approach to tackle these students and change their mindset and lower down their ego level of learning. According to Javaria R., Nazia M., and Sadaf N. (2005), teachers providing less time for enjoyment made students less participant. Time for enjoyment is precisely the idea to decrease the students' ego and give a new view of talk in the classroom is fun and interesting.

By referring to table 3, figure 10 and 16 of part B, the respondents mostly choose item 1 and 7 as the problem they face the most in being reluctant to talk in the classroom. The respondents feel scared towards the lecturer's attitude and they will remain silence if the friends around them are behaving to be quiet. The researcher believes that the lecturer should evaluate this matter and make changes in condition to help the students to feel comfortable with them. This surely will help the students to be less reluctant to talk in the classroom. According to Javaria R., Nazia M., and Sadaf N. (2005), lack of motivation from both parents and teachers was the cause of less participation of students in class.

Based on table 3, figure 19 until 29 of part C, respondents showed big responds to every item positively. They do agree that they face problem as mentioned in each item of part C. The problems of being reluctant to talk are I'm scared to speak in the class, I'm very nervous to talk when everyone looks at me, I'm worried that I will make errors and mistakes in my talk, I'm very afraid others will laugh at me when I make mistake in my talk, I'm very afraid others will tease me when I make mistake in my talk, I don't know how to begin to talk in the class, I think I will talk if the lecturer asks me questions, I look weird to talk English in the class, others will make fun of me at the very moment I want to talk, I don't have the strength in me to talk in the classroom, and I need more encouragement and support to be motivated to talk in the classroom. The researcher thinks that the respondents involved in this research are very sensitive and playing too much with their emotional aspect. They are trying to avoid themselves to get hurt in terms of their feeling. That is also why they are being so protective and cautious about their participation in the classroom, especially when it comes to “talk”. According to Javaria R., Nazia M., and Sadaf N. (2005), lack of confidence also discouraged students to participate in class. The problems they face will somehow decrease their confident level. The lecturers and tutors should take this matter seriously to help them to increase their confident level.

As for part D, the researcher would like to refer to table 4 and figure 30. The respondents are repeating the same problem as mentioned in the earlier three parts. The researcher believes that, the reason they stated the same problem is because they truly concern on the problems stated although it is repetition. If these problems keep arise in their psyche, for sure they will always be reluctant to talk in the classroom or even worse, which is refuse to talk in the classroom. To tackle this issue, the lecturers and tutors should take this seriously and come out with all kinds of approach to get these students out of these negative matter that trouble them towards reluctant to talk in the classroom.

The researcher identifies that these respondents are having more problems in the factor of emotional compared to the factor of psychological and environment. For the factor of psychological and environment, small responds show that the respondents have fewer problems in these factors; instead they are more to the factor of emotional. Then, it proves this factor is dominating them in being reluctant to talk in the classroom. The researcher feels that the most important thing is to guide these EC students to be talkative in the classroom. Content of the language is important, but to help the students to converse in the classroom is also vital. Besides that, the students themselves must be alert and help themselves to be more interested and take the chance to talk as much as possible in the classroom. Lastly, the lecturers and tutors can do many things to help them, but the point is the students themselves must make the decision and co-operate to deal with the issue of this study.

5.4 Implication

From the discussion above, the researcher will continue with implication. In this point, implication can be dissected into implication for practice and future research. Further explanation will be discussed below.

5.4.1 Implication for practice

This research is a big contribution to the lecturers, tutors and educators as well in their teaching process. It is important because these respective people can look deeper into the students' mind and feeling on the reason of being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom. Besides that, they can help the students to learn well and dare to talk in the class without any doubts. This will build up the students' growth in their personality and level up the proficiency level of the students.

Apart from that, the lecturer and tutor can divide the students that are facing problem in “talk” into different group based on the factors that had been identified in this research. By his way, they can help to solve or at least reduce the problem of being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom that faced by the students.

From this importance of this research mentioned by the researcher, there are a few implications for practice. Firstly, the lecturer and tutor can come out or design better lesson plan and also activities to help the EC students to be more dynamic to talk in the classroom. This denotes that lecturers or tutors can integrate more activities that will persuade the students to converse as in give ideas, ask questions, and various again in the classroom. In spite of using the EC work book provided by the lecturers, they can utilize new activities from internet, news papers, magazines and it is all depends on the suitability for the students' level of proficiency.

Secondly, lecturers and tutors need to evaluate their own attitude in teaching. From the research, it seems that the students are quite afraid of the lecturer's attitude. This will be a very big impact to the students to be daring to talk in the classroom. The lecturers or tutors can take some time to sit down together and discuss with each other on this matter, so that they can overcome this problem and aid students to be not reluctant to talk in the classroom.

Thirdly, lecturers and tutors may suggest to the University to increase the credit hour for EC subject. Knowing the fact that students need more time and exposure to English language, it is suppose to add more time for this subject. From two hours in a week, it should be increase to four or five hours. The reason of this matter is to help the students to engage more activity in the form of English language and to help in eliciting the fear in the students to be reluctant to talk in the classroom.

5.4.2 Implication for future research

This research is very beneficial for future researcher, because there are a lot of issues to discuss, study, and also relate to other field of research. Apart from the factors identified by the researcher in this research, future researcher may study the same issue and come out with more factors derive from this research. Then, the future researcher can add more respondents, from 100 to 200 or more; in order to obtain more different or similarities responds from various respondents. This will bring out more discussion and critics on the responds. The more respond the researcher obtains, the more information and ideas to grasp and study.

Furthermore, the future researcher can integrate interview session along with the questionnaire session. It is an idea of getting more vivid ideas and responds from the respondents. This will lead to more issue to be discussed on and induce more factors for the research. Besides that, the future researcher may come out with new research; to look for solution for these factors of students reluctant to talk in the EC classroom. This research is a very strong fundamental for the researcher to carry on with new research such as solution. This will be a solid proof for the future researcher to carry out new researches.

5.5 Recommendation

Based on the discussion above, the researcher would like to suggest some recommendation for this study. Although the scale of the respondents is only 100 people, whereby it is the minimum requirement for research, but the researcher plans to suggest some recommendation for the EC lecturers, tutors, and students. As for lecturers and tutors, the researcher suggests them to be more friendly and motivating. Unlike students in the old days, they will just listen and learn as many as possible, but instead for the now and future students, they have different personality. This means that they need to be pushed to do things, and need to be motivated in their learning. The point is, the lecturers and tutors must approach the students with new method. This surely will help to solve or at least reduce the problem of students that being reluctant to talk in the EC classroom.

Meanwhile, the researcher also gives suggestion to EC students. The researcher thinks that the students must be independent in their learning. They should not take this matter as something light and easy. Student talk in the classroom plays very important role in their personal growth and proficiency level. They somehow need to approach themselves to talk in the classroom in order to learn more things. Live learning such as talk in the classroom manages to aid the students to enhance their English language. Just imagine they talk actively in the classroom, regardless to the grammar aspect; the researcher sure that they can learn many lesson out of this live learning.

Other than that, the students must be alert and take advantage on this research to be more aware of this problem that they face for such a long time since in school time. The awareness of this problem will remind them to be concentrate and do the best to deal with this problem. When students exposed to this research, they can identify their problem and discuss with their lecturers or tutors to solve their problem.

5.6 Summary of chapter five

This chapter depicted the conclusion, interpretation, discussion, implication and recommendation. All of the details in discussion are based on the data in chapter 4 and most importantly the researcher had give clear answers and explanation for the two research questions posed in chapter 1. According to the analysis of the result, the researcher had come out with few implications for practice and future research. Apart from that, the researcher also gave some recommendation for the lecturers, tutors, and students as well in their teaching and learning.

Finally, the researcher talked about matters that the researcher believed were essential in helping the EC students to be become autonomous learner in the classroom through “student talk”.

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