Energy in nature.


Carbohydrates are the main source of immediate energy in nature. The basic units of carbohydrates are monosaccharides.

There are grouped monosaccharides that form bigger carbohaydrates:

  • 2 monosaccharides is equivalent to one disaccharide
  • 3 or more monosaccharides grouped together are polysaccharides.

Carbohydrates are the main source of immediate energy in nature, like adrenaline, and storage also, like mitochondrias, that produce energy with those storages.

Carbohydrates can interact with other organic molecules, such as nucleic acid; RNA have ribose (a type of sugar) in their composition. They also make part of the composition of some lipids, like triglycerides, which are partially composed of glycerol.

Many organisms depend on polysaccharides in order to help them to make defenses, like fungi and plants, which have cellulose or quitin in their cell wall.

Some types of carbohydrates are:

  • Monosaccharides: Glucose
  • Disaccharides: Sucrose
  • Polysaccharides: Glycogen, Cellulose, Starch

Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are long chains of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Are polymers made up of nucleotides monomers.

Nucelotides are each monomer of nucleic acid is a nucleotide and consist of 3 portions:

  • A pentose sugar
  • One ore more phosphate groups
  • One of live cyclic nitrogenous bases

Nucleic Acid structure

Nucleotides linked by covalent bonds between phosphate of one nucleotide and sugar of next, and that way they form a phosphate-sugar backbone.

Hydrogen bonds form between specific bases of two nucleic acid chains, forming a stable, double-stranded DNA molecule.

The types of nucleic acids are:

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. The importance of DNA or the main role is the long-term storage of information.
  • DNA is made of four types of nucleotides the pyrimidines cytosine and thymine, and the purines guanine and adenine.

  • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): Is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, there are 3 types of RNA: tRNA(transfer), mRNA(messenger) and rRNA(ribosomal).

The molecules of the nucleic acids carry genetic information or form structures within cells.

The nucleic acids are composed of nucleotide monomers and nucleotide has 3 parts: A nitrogenous base, A five- carbon sugar, a phosphate group.

Allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.

Nucleic acids were discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1871

Where are Nucleic Acids found? You can find nucleic acids in all cells and viruses.


Lipids are a broad group of naturally-occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules. In a summary:

  • They don't have a basic unit.
  • Are classified in: triglycerides, waxes, phospholipids and steroids.
  • Examples: (oil and fat), (lemon wax), (Phosphatidylcholine), (cholesterol).
  • They have many functions like: protecting organs, energy storage and hormonal uses.


Proteins are the most complex organic compounds. The basic unit of proteins is amino acids, this means that are composed of amino acids. These ones are set as chains. Amino acids are polymers that are joined together. A sequence of amino acids bonded together composes a gene, or a genetic code. There are three kinds that are peptides, polypeptides and enzymes. Proteins are very important, proteins are part of important functions in the organism, and they are involved into every process within cells. "Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism". Proteins are also present on cytoskeletons. Help in the process of cell signaling, cell cycle, cell adhesion and immune system. Are also important in the animal's diet, every organism needs amino acids to function, but the body can't stand big quantities of amino acids, so the body handles just the ones that need by the process of digestion, the ones hat stay go directly to help metabolism... These essential amino acids come from food.

Proteins are structured in different ways; the primary structure is the sequence of different amino acids structure. The secondary structure is the repeated structures of amino acids, but stabilized by hydrogen bonds, this secondary structure can be found in molecules of proteins. Tertiary structures is the shape of one protein molecule, these structures are stabilized by nonlocal interaction, and this one forms a hydrophobic core. The tertiary structure is what controls the principal functions of the own protein. Quaternary structures are the structures formed of polypeptide chains.

Protein molecules are not completely strong. To complete their action, they most be between other related structures, or ones of the same kind. Proteins can be divided into three classes, these are globular proteins that are the proteins that can be more or less soluble in aqueous solution, these are enzymes. Fibrous proteins are proteins filaments that make shapes of forms , they also keep proteins, and are also called scleroproteins, some examples of scleroproteins are collagen and keratin. Membrane proteins are the proteins that are attached to the membrane or cell. Most proteins interact or have similar activities with cells. They also work as receptors and provide connection with the cell membrane.

Enzymes usually accelerate only with one or more chemical reactions, proteins and enzymes have similar functions. Enzymes are part of the proteins. They are encharged of most of the reactions connected to the metabolism. They also control DNA experiments or results. Remove chemical groups from other proteins. Enzymes make al least 4000 different kinds of work. Although enzymes can consist of hundreds of amino acids, at the same time.

Proteins were described for the first time by a Dutch chemist called Gerhardus Johannes Mulder. Then proteins were named by the Swedish chemist called Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1838. The first protein to be analized and experimented was insulin at the year 1958, by Frederick Sanger, who won a Nobel Prize. The first protein's structure that was analized and finally solved was hemoglobin and myoglobin in 1958, by the scientist Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew. The three-dimensional structure of the proteins was finally discovered by using x-ray in 1962, also by Perutz and Cowdery, this two won a Nobel Prize in the category of chemistry.

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