As early man started development they felt need of communication. Very beginning they started shouting and hand signs to communicate. Human communication was modernized with speech about 200,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 7,000.
The history of telecommunication, through the transmission of signals over a distance, for the purpose of communication, began hundreds of years ago with the use of drums and smoke signals in Asia and Africa. In the late 1830s the actual electrical telecommunication systems started to appear.
In the 1870s, the telephone was designed by Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, which could transmit speech electrically. Mr. Bell was the first person to get his telephone patented first.
The first regular telephone line was constructed from Boston to Somerville, Massachusetts in the year 1877. There were around 48000 telephones in the United States by the end of the year 1880.
History of Cellular Phones:
Soon after telephone many facilities like ambulances, police and military needed a mobile telephone to stay connected with their main office from filed. In the beginning, two-way radios were used in vehicles such as police, ambulances and taxi, but they were not able to connect the telephone network. Users could not dial phone numbers from their motor vehicles.
First, mobile two-way radios were permanently installed in motor vehicles, but later versions such as the so-called transportable or "bag phones" were equipped with a cigarette lighter plug so that they could also be carried, and thus could be used as either mobile or as portable two-way radios.
In 1910 Lars Magnus Ericsson installed a telephone in his motor car, although this was not like a mobile phone. While travelling across the country, he would stop at any place where telephone lines were available and using a pair of long electric wires he could connect with the telephone network.
Ericsson developed the first automatic mobile which was called as MTA(Mobile Telephone system A) and it was commercially released in Sweden in 1956. The disadvantage of this phone was that it weighed around 40 kg. At the same time this was the first system which did not require any manual control in the base stations.
In the year 1973, on April 3rd, a call was placed by Dr. Martin Cooper (an employee in Motorola) to Dr. Joel S. Engel (Head of research at AT&T's Bell Labs) in New York talking on the first the two-way radios for the taxi cabs and the police cruisers.
Growth in the Cell Phone Industry:
The Growth in the Mobile phone industry can be seen transparently through the generations in the Mobile phone systems. The Mobile phone systems are divided as 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G. The growth in the technology can be stated through each of the generation in the Mobile phone industry. The generations in the Mobile industry started with the Zero generation- 0G.
The Zero generation (0G) of mobile phones was introduced in the year 1945. The 0G mobile telephones were not actually categorized officially ass mobile phones, as they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during the calls. This allows the user to move from one cell to another cell which is a feature called as "handover".
Analog Cellular Telephony (1G):
The first commercially automated cellular network was launched in Japan in the year 1979 by NTT. It was initially launched with a cellular network of 23 base stations which covered the full metropolitan area of Tokyo which has over 20 million inhabitants.
The second launch of 1G networks was the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system (NMT) in the countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway in the year 1981. It was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming. In the early 1980's the 1G network was launched in several countries like UK, Canada and Mexico. The first 1G network launched in the USA was Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the famous first hand-held mobile phone Motorola DynaTAC.
Bell Labs developed a modern commercial cellular technology in the year 1984, which employed multiple and centrally controlled base stations, each providing service to a small area. In a cellular system, a signal only need to be strong enough to reach between a base station(cell site) and a terminal(phone) so that the same channel can be used simultaneously for different conversations in different cells.
The first NMT and the AMPS installations were based on the Ericsson AXE digital exchange nodes.
Digital Mobile Communication (2G):
Following the 1G standard was the second generation wireless telephone technology. 2G technology was divided into TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) based standards. GSM (Global Sysytem for Mobile Communications) is the most well known version of TDMA. The Americas have both TDMA based and CDMA based systems. The second generation systems use digital communications between the handset and the base station. This increases the overall system capacity as data can be compressed and multiplexed. They also emit less radio power from the handsets. This means more cells can be positioned in the same overall space. The more cells you have, the more capacity. The phone batteries also last must longer due to the use of lower power. Noise levels could also be reduced due to the digital encoding system which allowed error checking.
Digital handsets were also uses to transmit and receive digital data. This allows internet access through handsets and also the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service) and emails. Text messaging has begun the late 1980's by a European group who were trying to improve systems for the GSM. It was used by an Engineering student by accident in 1993. But the First commercial usage of text messaging has been implemented by Nokia in the year 1995, in China and Japan.
2G phones were far more secure than the 1G phones but nonetheless were not as secure as they could be, as there was a possibility of hacking.
Wideband Mobile Communication (3G):
3G is a short form for third-generation mobile telephone technology. 3G systems provide the ability to transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging email, and instant messaging). 3G has been standardized in the IMT-2000 standardizing processing. Originally, 3G was supposed to be a single, unified, worldwide standard but it broke down and several different standards have been introduced.
The first commercial of 3G networks was launched by NTT DoCoMo on October 1, 2001, with the use of WCDMA technology. The first 3G networks were launched by SK Telecom and KTF in South Korea, and Monet in the USA, in the year 2002 on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology. Monet has gone bankrupt since then. By the end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone KK(now Softbank). There were 8 commercial launches of 3G in the year 2003, six more on WCDMA and two more on the EV-DO standard.
By the end of 2007, there were 295 Million subscribers worldwide on 3G networks. There were doubts about the success of 3G earlier, but by the end of 2007, 3G was a reality and was on its path of being a successful venture.
Overall Growth of the Industry as per Technology and Innovations in the Industry:
The mobile phone has come a long way from being a wireless radio telephone to the present advanced mobile phone. The first commercial cellular network was launched in the year 1979 in Japan by NTT. The first digital cellular phone call was made in the United States in 1990.
Text messaging has been one the greatest inventions in the Mobile phone industry. The commercial usage of text messaging was implemented by Nokia in the year 1995. It is the most popularly used technology in the Mobile phone.
Motorola StarTAC was introduced in the year 1996 which was said to be "Ahead of its Time". Cell phones were all about function rather than fashion before the introduction of Motorola StarTAC. It was a tiny, lightweight phone which gave in the new concept that style was just as important as the functions of the phone. It was the smallest and the lightest phone of its time. It has created a trend of tiny cell phones.
Introduction of Bluetooth technology was yet another sensation at that time. This technology was introduced in the year 1998 and its basic purpose was to be a wire replacement technology in order to rapidly transfer voice and data. This is a technology which is continuing to make strides and advancements everyday even after so many years.
The BlackBerry was introduced in the 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. It was a wireless handheld device. It was developed by the Canadian company Research in Motion (RIM). It delivers information over the wireless data networks of the Mobile phone services companies. The original BlackBerry device had a monochrome display whereas the present models have color displays.
The Kyocera QCP6035 Smart phone which was introduced in the year 2000 was the first palm based phone which was widely available to the users. Though it included a small 8 MB of memory and sported a monochrome display, it paved a path for the future products.
Later in the year 2001, Handspring Treo 180 was introduced which is a combination of both PDA and phone. It came in two versions: one with a QWERTY keyboard for typing and the other that used Graffiti text input. It also featured a monochrome display but it had 16 MB of memory.
Another invention in the industry was the built-in camera in the cell phone.Today, most of the cell phones come with a built-in camera but a few years back it was very rare. Sanyo and Sprint introduced the Sanyo SCP-5300 PCS phone in the year 2002, which was the first phone available in America with a built-in camera. It captured VGA (640 by 480) images at its highest resolution. But, today's cell phones come with a 5-megapixel camera like Nokia N95.
Music in the cell phone was another unique feature added in the year 2005. The Motorola Rocker, which was released in September 2005, was the first music phone to incorporate Apple's music software. It allowed users to transfer the songs purchased from iTunes to the phone. Though this handset has only limited song transfers and slow rate of transfer, still it has provided the way for today's music phones.
Apple iPhones were very successful and is still. It's hard to think of any other device that's enjoyed the level of exposure and hype that Apple found in the launch of the first iPhone. Everyone got to be a gadget nerd for a day, even those completely disinterested in technology seemed to come down with iPhone fever. But the original device was still far from perfect: its limited capabilities (especially in the 3G department), high price of entry, and the small number of countries in which it was available kept many potential buyers sidelined
These are some of the technologies which were helpful in the growth of the cell phone industry. The growth of the cell phone industry is not limited to these technologies. It is still in the process of many inventions and innovations which gives a great scope for the development of the industry.
Modern Day Inventions and Information of the Mobile Phone Industry:
The growing trends in the Mobile Phone industry are very much visible. The Mobile Phone industry has come a long way from the "brick" model. In the present days, mobile phones are not just to serve the purpose of contacting a person. Consumers demand a very high standard of functionality in their mobile phones.
The research and development in the industry has evolved the phone into a personal organiser, music player, camera and mobile entertainment centre. Consumers want to enjoy games, video clips and music from their phones and the mobile music industry in particular is going strength to strength. As a result, mobile phone giants like Sony Ericsson are exploiting demand with the coming up release of the W800i, an advanced walkman phone with CD ripping software. It will be interesting to see how such phone models will compete against the competitive and fashion-conscious portable MP3 player market. Products such as Apples iPod have taken off significantly and seem to be in everyone's pocket.
Image is very crucial for the mobile phone providers which they should take into consideration. Consumers are concerned about the way a product may reflect their personal identity. Therefore the design of a mobile phone is very important and these days the mobile phones come in all shapes, sizes and colours. Some businesses, who want to attract teens and the young children, have extended their advertising campaigns with brightly coloured mobiles featuring flashing lights.
Consumers would like to upload the latest ringtones and screensavers up-to- date. Many websites now exist to cater to this need.
The mobile industry is certain to evolve continuously. A research suggests that mobile phones will replace credit cards and remote control one day.
The development on mobile phones is just like the computers where the technology grows every day. The various functions on mobile phones are created and updated. The network system of mobile phones is developing further. The 4G (fourth Generation) system in the process of research and development by many companies, though it has only been a few years since the 3G system is launched. The 4G system is expected to release in the second half of 2010.
Mobile phone has become a multi functioned device. Mobile phone incorporation with computing functions will be able to replace other devices such as laptop, PDA and even the entertainment device tools.
The Cell Phone Projector has created a new era of smart and functional cell phones. This concept was introduced by Stefano Casanova. It is a Windows based mobile phone that can project the desktop to any flat surface. The design is extra slim and is equipped with a rotating screen with a built-in projector which is an ideal tool for presentations especially for the business people.
On Feb 2, 2010, Sony Ericsson Announces the Sony Ericsson Aspen Business Model which is the first model running the Windows Mobile 6.5.3 Operating System.
Today's Cell phones are not just for contacting a person it's a multi functional device. Its facilitates some other function like taking pictures, capturing videos, text messaging, browsing the internet, digital signature system etc.
Mobile Industry player around the World are,
- Apple Mobile
- HTC Mobile
- LG Mobile
- NOKIA Mobile
- RIM (Research in Motion)
- Samsung Mobile
- Sony Ericson Mobile
Leaders and pioneers by category:-
Apple (I phone)
I Phone is a combination of three devices in one: arevolutionary mobile phone, awidescreen iPod, and abreakthrough Internet device.
Multi-Touch interface make it easy to call simply by tapping a name or number in yourcontacts or favorites list, your call log. Visual Voicemail helps you select and listen messages in whatever order you want just like email.
I Phone show off TV shows on a beautiful 3.5-inch display. Select your collection by downloading music video wirelessly from the iTunes store
Breakthrough Internet Device:
I Phone uses fast 3G and Wi-Fi wireless connections to deliver rich HTML email, Maps with GPS, and Safari the most advanced web browser on a mobile device. It has Google and Yahoo! search built in.
.HTC's chairwoman isCher Wang, the President of the company is Peter Chou. In addition to being chair of HTC, Cher Wang is also acting chair ofVIA Technologies. HTC's main divisions, including the IA (Information Appliance) engineering division and the WM (Wireless Mobile) engineering division, areISO 9001/ ISO 14001-qualified facilities. HTC's CFO is Hui-Ming Cheng.
The company's growth has accelerated dramatically after being chosen byMicrosoft as a hardware platform development partner for the window mobileoperating system (based onwindow ce) HTC's sales revenue totaled $2.2 billion for 2005, a 102% increase from the previous year. It was listed as the fastest growing tech company in Business Week's Info Tech 100.
HTC CorporationformerlyHigh Tech Computer Corporation is aTaiwan-based manufacturer ofsmart phones. The company initially made smart phones based primarily onMicrosoft'sWindows Mobilesoftware, but in 2009 it began to shift its focus away from Windows Mobile devices, to devices based on theAndroid operating system.
Motorola, Inc. is anAmerican,multinational, telecommunicationscompany based inSchaumburg, Illinois. It is a manufacturer ofwireless telephonehandsets, and also designs and sellswireless networkinfrastructure equipment such as cellular transmissionbase stationsand signal amplifiers. Its business and government customers consist mainly of wireless voice and broadband systems used to build private networks and public safety communications systems likeAstros.
Motorola's handset division is now focusing on smart phones usingGoogle's open-source Androidmobile operating system. The first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 6, 2009 as theMotorola Droid.
Mobile Devices: Headquarters, located inLibertyville, IL, currently the least prosperous arm of the firm, designs wireless handsets, but also licenses much of its intellectual properties. This includes cellular and wireless systems and as well as integrated applications, andBluetoothaccessories
Rim mobile (BlackBerry)
BlackBerryis a line ofwirelessmobile devicesdeveloped byCanadiancompanyResearch In Motion(RIM). The BlackBerry is primarily known for its ability to send and receive e-mail wherever it can access awireless networkof certain cellular phone carriers. It commands a 20.8% share of worldwide Smartphone sales, making it the second most popular platform after Nokia'ssymbian and is the most popular Smartphone among business users.
The first BlackBerry device was introduced in 1999 as a two-waypager. In 2002, the more commonly knownSmartphoneBlackBerry was released, which supportspush e-mail,mobile telephone,text messaging,Internet faxing,Web browsingand other wireless information services. It is an example of aconvergentdevice.
BlackBerry first made headway in themarketplaceby concentrating on e-mail. current BlackBerry models have a built-inQWERTYkeyboard, optimized for "thumbing", the use of only the thumbs to type, and there are also several models that include a standard cell phone keypad for typing, and two models that are full touch-screen devices with no physical keyboard.
Modern GSM-based BlackBerry handhelds incorporate anARM7 or 9 processor, while older BlackBerry 950 and 957 handhelds usedIntel 80386processors. The latest GSM BlackBerry models (8100, 8300 and 8700 series) have an IntelPXA901312MHz processor, 64 MB flash memoryand 16 MBSDRAM.
CDMA AND GSM AND W-CDMA
LG ElectronicsKorean Consumer Electronics & Home Appliance Manufacturer have started mobile appliance business since 1996. Formerly known as LG Information & Communication Co. (LGIC), which formerGold StarTelecommunication Company successor, build the first KoreanmadeCDMAphones for Korean consumer market, and later it merged to Mother Company as department and start GSM division for export based mobile phone business. In 2002, LG UMTS Mobile division demonstrates the World firstWCDMAVideo Telephony atKorean-Japan World CupGame Opening Ceremony, the nominal growth of Mobile Communication have been started. Currently LG MC Company produce CDMA, GSM, WCDMA products and recent success of design based phone concept seriesBlack Label Seriesboosted its revenue since 2005.
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighboring Finland's capital Helsinki. Nokia is engaged in the manufacturing of mobile devices and in converging Internet and communications industries, with over 123,000 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of EUR 41 billion and operating profit of 1.2 billion as of 2009. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones: its global device market share was about 39% in Q4 2009, up from 37% in Q4 2008 and 38% in Q3 2009, and its converged device market share was about 40% in Q4, up from 35% in Q3 2009.
Nokia offers Internet services such as applications, maps, media and messaging through its Ovi platform. Nokia's subsidiary Nokia Siemens Networks produces telecommunications network equipment, solutions and services.
Nokia has sites for research and development, manufacture and sales in many countries throughout the world.. The Nokia Research Center, founded in 1986, is Nokia's industrial research unit consisting of about 500 researchers, engineers and scientists. It has sites in seven countries: Finland, China, India, Kenya, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Nokia operates a total of 15 manufacturing facilities located at Espoo, Oulu and Salo, Finland; Manaus, Brazil; Beijing, Dongguan and Suzhou, China; Farnborough, England; Komrom, Hungary; Chennai, India; Reynosa, Mexico; Jucu, Romania and Masan, South Korea. Nokia's Design Department remains in Salo, Finland.
In 2008, it was the 27th most respected brand among Finns, The Nokia brand, valued at $34.9 billion, is listed as the fifth most valuable global brand in the Inter brand/Business Week Best Global Brands list of 2009 It is the number one brand in Asia and Europe.
Samsung Telecommunicationsis one of five business units withinSamsung Electronics, belonging to theSamsung Group, and consists of the Mobile Communications Division, Telecommunication Systems Division, Computer Division, MP3 Business Team, Mobile Solution Centre and Telecommunication R&D Centre. Telecommunication Business produces a full spectrum of products frommobilesand other mobile devices such asMP3players andlaptopcomputers to telecommunication network infrastructure. Headquarters is located inSuwon,South Korea.
In 2007 Samsung Telecommunication Business reported over 40% growth and became the second largest mobile device manufacturer in the world.Its market share was 14% in Q4 2007, growing up form 11.3% in Q4 2006.In Q1 2008 Samsung strengthened its second position on the market and achieved 15.6% world handset market share
Sony Ericssonis a joint venture established on October 1, 2001 by the Japanese consumer electronics companySony Corporationand the Swedish telecommunications companyEricssonto make mobile phones. The stated reason for this venture is to combine Sony's consumer electronics expertise with Ericsson's technological leadership in the communications sector. Both companies have stopped making their own mobile phones.
The company's global management is based inLondon Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, and it has research & development teams in Sweden, Japan, China, Germany, the United States, India and the United Kingdom. By 2009, it was the fourth-largest mobile phone manufacturer in the world afterNokia,SamsungandLG.
Brief study of forces that regulate cellular industry.
Nokia is the world's biggest mobile handset manufacturing company. This company was founded in 1865 by Fredrik Idestam. Nokia is one of the biggest players in manufacturing handsets followed by South Korean company Samsung and LG.
There will be no wonder if China top using cell phone with 650 million sets. China is a fastest growing economy in this scenario. They have the largest population the world so, need of handset also increases. Due to the cheap labour powers and huge competition between companies Chinese phone user enjoy cheap handset and call rates.
India is in second stair after china. Cell phone user in India is with about 400 million. Again due to the second highest populated country and faster growing economy help them to be in second position. Liberal government policies and tough competition between industry players cuts phone rates. America comes third and Russia comes fourth in this series. However both are rich country but user are so low. Reason is less populated and not many companies are in the market. Landlines are far cheaper than cell phone.
In India and china we will find the large number of section using cheap handset below 60 dollar. This is because of lower level of income. However, calling rates are so cheap that person below 60 dollar can enjoy using cell phone. Vice versa in Canada and US call rates are so high and handsets are comparatively cheap and easily available.
Only limited user is cell phones in Middle East countries. Reason is religions believe. Muslims Religion does not allow keeping phones etc.