Human body

My Body

Objective:

Students will gain a greater understanding of their bodies by making a paper model of the human body.

Materials: A transparency of body parts to use on overhead projector, multiple copies of body parts pages, colored pens or crayons, glue, transparency of the human skeleton, pictures of muscles of the human body, cardboard or tagboard.

Review: We have been studying about the human body and have recognized that everyone has similar parts that do the same function. Today we will identify those parts and learn where they are located in the human body.

Activity

1. Now that they have completed their study of their bodies, tell the students they are going to make a paper copy of what they look like inside.

2. Distribute copies of the body parts page to each child. Have them color the body parts as follow: (teacher will model this on overhead)

Brain-gray
Esophagus, stomach, and duodenum-yellow
Heart-red
Lungs-pink
Liver-brown
Gall bladder-green
Small intestine-yellow
Large intestine-pink

3. The students should cut out the body outline and glue it to cardboard.

4. Have students cut out the body parts, and place them on the body outline. Let them check with other students to see if they agree with the placement and then glue these in place.

5. Show the students the skeleton transparency and let them sketch in the bones of the arms, hands, legs, and feet.

6. If available, show pictures of the muscles found in the human body and have students add some of those found in the arms and legs to one side of their body outline.

Closure:

•While modeling on the overhead, have students, label their body parts.

•Cover the finished picture of the body with plastic wrap. Have the students take this home with the assignment of sharing them with family members and explaining some of what they learned from this study.

Week 2 Lesson Plan Skeletal System

Objective:

This lesson is designed to introduce children to the skeletal system and its function in the human body. They will also be able to identify the major bones in the body.

Required Materials: Plastic skeleton model, clay, overhead projector,

Review previous learned material:

Last week you learned that you are the only person exactly like you in the whole world-that makes you very special. But although you are different from everyone else, your body is made of the same things as theirs and it has exactly the same parts doing all the different jobs that keep you alive. One of the parts that we will learn about in this lesson is the skeletal system.

Introduction: Making sure I speak slowing with

Have you ever thought about what keeps a tall building, like a skyscraper, from collapsing? Even on the windiest days, the building keeps standing and does not fall over. What makes these buildings so strong? Buildings are built around a steel framework much the same way our bodies are built around bones. Your body is similar to a skyscraper. A small bug may look up at you and wonder, “I can not imagine what keeps that gigantic object from falling”. The answer to this question is your bones.

The skeletal system of the human body is made up of bones. When you were a very small child, everything about you was tiny including your hands and feet! But as you got older, everything got bigger including your bones. When you were born, you had more than 300 bones. But by the time you finish growing, you will have just over 200! Do the missing bones just fall out or disappear? No, instead, as you get older, some of your smaller bones will join together to make bigger ones. Remember the skyscraper illustration: without bones inside you to give you shape, you'd be like a floppy, squishy bag. Not only do bones give the body shape, they also protect internal delicate body parts (point to the internal organs on the transparency). Your bones are partly made of hard stony stuff called calcium, but unlike stones they are alive. It is very important to keep your bones healthy and strong. This allows them to get bigger as you grow. Now I am going to

Skeletal System 3

introduce to you some of the larger bones in your body. I will write key words on the overhead projector.

The longest, strongest, and largest bone in your body is the one above your knee, called the femur. The femur bone helps us to perform leg movements such as running and walking. I have everyone feel their leg to help them understand the location of the femur bone. Now on an index card, I need for you to write femur on one side and write leg bone on the other side. (I will also write these words on the black board).

The spine is a very important part of the skeletal system and is very easy to locate. Team up with a friend and feel down the center of their back and you will notice small bumps. Not only does the spine help hold you up, it also helps you bend and twist. It also has the job of protecting your spinal cord. Now with another index card, write spine on one side and backbone on the other.

Your ribs are a part of the skeletal system that protects your heart, lungs, and liver. The ribs actually act as a cage surrounding your chest. Now everyone inhale deeply and place your hands right below the chest like you see me doing. It will be very easy for you to feel your ribs right in front of your body. Now what does the ribs protect? On an index card write ribs on one side and below the chest on the other.

When you engage in activities such as typing, swinging from a bar, even when you put on your shoes, you're using the bones in your fingers, hand, wrist, and arm. The bones that help with these tasks are the humerus, radius, and ulna (point to each on the skeletal model and have students write humerus, radius and ulna on one side of their index card and write arm, wrist on the other).

Bone care:

As you have learned today, your bones help you with many important functions. Now we have a responsibility to take care of our bones so that our bones will continue to take care of us. What are ways we can take care of our bones? You can take care of your bones by:

Always wear a helmet on your head while riding a bike or skateboard.
Always wear protective equipment while playing sports.
Take calcium each day by drinking and eating dairy foods such as milk and cheese.
Exercise daily by running, jumping, and dancing

Skeletal System 4

Free practice:

Teacher will divide students in groups of 5. With a skeletal model taken apart, students will converse and identify the bone and discuss help it helps them in their daily life.

Feedback:

Teacher will now have an open discussion asking questions about the information covered. This gets students actively involved and also gives the teacher feedback on the students gained knowledge.

Muscle Power

Overview:

Students will learn the role that muscles play in the human body

Materials:

A chicken leg with the skin and muscles attached (chilled until ready to use)

Single-edged razor blade
Mirror for each student

Teaching:

The human body has more than 600 muscles. Muscles do everything from helping you lift an object to pumping blood throughout your body. There are muscles you control called voluntary and muscles that work in your body that you never have to think about called involuntary. Can you think of a voluntary muscle in which you have complete control of? Yes, using your shoulders and arms to lift an object over your head. Can you give me an example of an involuntary muscle that you do not have think about? Yes, your heart is a muscle that automatically works without you consciously thinking about it

Activity #1

1. Ask all students to “make a muscle”. The teacher will model a bicep pose so students can visually see it in a relaxed state and then in a flexed state. Ask them what happened to their arms when they did this. (The muscle on the upper arm bulged, and the lower arm bent up to touch the upper arm.)

2. Tell them to do this again and use the other hand to feel the muscle on top of the upper arm. Have them tell what the muscle felt like as the lower arm was rising.

3. Have them repeat this but have them feel the muscle just under the upper arm. Again the teacher will model this action to locate the tricep muscle. They should feel the muscle under the upper arm bone relax as the arm rises and stiffen as it stretches out.

4. Explain that muscles beneath the skin of the arm are working in pairs to raise or lower the arm. Top muscles contract (become tight) as the lower arm is raises, while the lower muscle relaxes. The opposite happens when they lower the arm.

5. The teacher will show students the chicken leg. She will then peel off the skin to reveal tendons and muscles. Bend the leg to show how the muscles contract and relax. Compare this to what students just did.

6. Have students open and close a fist, explaining that tendons attached to the finger bones are pulled by the muscles in the palm of the hand. On the chicken leg, show the tendons connected to muscles and the base of the leg. Explain that tendons tie muscles to bone. Carefully cut the tendons at the bone and bend the leg again. Discuss the difference without the muscles being held to the bone. Separate the muscle groups and then count them. Look for the large vessels which supply blood to the muscles.

7. Carefully cut between the thigh and drumstick to show the joint. Show the tough bands of ligaments (white sheets) and cartilage caps. Let students feel how smooth this is. Ask how it would feel if these were rough surfaces (painful and difficult to move the joints). Have them feel a finger joint and keep feeling it as they bend the finger. Can they feel the bone and tendons?

Feedback:

Teacher will now have an open discussion asking questions about the information covered. This gets students actively involved and also gives the teacher feedback on the students gained knowledge.

Lungs

Objective:

Students will be introduced to the structure and function of the lungs and be able to measure lung capacity.

Materials:

bubble solution, drinking straws, rulers, transparency of The Lungs, transparency of Graph of Air Exhaled from the Lungs, large soft sponge, large clear container of water, 3” X 5” index cards.

Teaching:

Review the function and the muscle and explain to the children that muscles also have a function in helping the lungs do their job. What is something you do everyday, all day and really never stop to think about? That's right, breathing. Breathing is something you must do at all times to keep you alive. It is the lungs job to keep you breathing all day long. The lungs have no muscles of their own so the muscles around the chest cavity do the work of breathing.

Modeling:

1. Teacher will point to the wall model of the lungs and ask students what they have learned about the lungs and how much air their lungs will hold.

2. Teacher will use the transparency The Lungs to show students what their lungs look like and learn more about their function.

3. Show students the sponge and explain that lungs look much like a sponge. Pass the sponge around so students can see how light it is. Cut it in half to show that the holes are throughout the sponge. Let students know that these are really air sacs in the sponge, not holes, and that their lings have these as well. Place one half the sponge in the water and let them see that it floats until water enters the air sacs, forces out the air, and makes the sponge so heavy that it begins to sink.

4. Tell students that they are going to see how much air their lungs can hold. Divide students into small groups and give each group a tray of bubble materials. Let each student write his or her name on a file card and then write 1,2, and 3 at the beginning of the first three lines. Have them remove all items from the tray and pour about a tablespoon of bubble solution on the tray. They should spread it around with their hands to make the entire surface wet with the solution.

5. Teacher will show them how to dip one end of a straw into the bubble solution and blow a bubble through it. After they have been successful, show them how to take a very deep breathe and this time blow the biggest bubble they can on the surface of the tray. When the bubble pops, use a ruler to measure its diameter and write it on a file card. Do this until three trials have been completed. Tell all the students to take turns blowing one bubble and then repeat this until three trials have been made.

Closure:

Tell the students to circle the measurement of the largest bubble they blew.

Ask the students to tell you their bubble sizes. Find the largest and smallest bubbles. With the overhead projector, project the transparency of the Graph of Air Exhaled from the Lungs. Write the bubble sizes from smallest to largest.

Teacher now tells the students her largest bubble size and compares it with the size of theirs. (The teacher's bubble should be larger.) Find the bubble measurements for the tallest students in the class and see if they blew larger bubbles than the shortest students.

Explain to the students that our lungs grow as we grow and the bigger we are, the larger our lungs become. Therefore, if their lungs did not hold as much air as someone else's did, they may smaller lungs. Tell them also that we can never squeeze out all the air in our lungs.

Feedback:

Teacher will now have an open discussion asking questions about the information covered. This gets students actively involved and also gives the teacher feedback on the students gained knowledge.

Nutrition and the Human Body

Overview:

Students will learn how to make the correct food choices in order to achieve good health.

Materials:

empty food package and cans, nutritional charts from fast food restaurants, transparency of the Nutritional Facts Chart, copies and transparency of What Your Body Needs To Be Healthy, copies of the Breakfast Chart, enlarged copies of the Daily Food Guide, copies of Healthy You Puzzle reproduced on tag board, copies of My Product Chart.

Lesson Preparation

* Cut out the puzzle piece circles and then cut them into thirds. Place each set in an envelope to be used by student groups.

* Gather nutritional charts from assorted fast food restaurants.

* Post the enlarged copy of the Daily Food Guide on the bulletin board. Invite students to bring in pictures of these foods and place them around the chart.

Activity

Show the transparency of Nutritional Facts to the students and discuss it with them.

Tell them that they will be doing activities that will help them make choices of the best food to eat in order to stay healthy. Divide the students into small groups and distribute the My Product Chart to each student. Provide each group with assorted food packages and cans. Let each student select one of these and then copy the nutritional information on their chart. Discuss the results with the students.

Distribute a copy of the breakfast chart to each student for homework. Tell students to complete this form, using their next breakfast, and bring it back to class the next day.

Divide the students into small groups and distribute an envelope of puzzles pieces to each of them. Provide each group with a copy of the What Your Body Needs To Be Healthy chart. Have the students lay out the A pieces and then begin to match B and C pieces to each of these, using the chart as a guide. Use a transparency of the chart to discuss what they learned in this game.

Divide the students into groups and distribute a copy of the Eating for Good health, Making Healthy Choice chart and the What Your Body Needs To Be Healthy chart. They will also need a copy of one of the completed breakfast charts. Provide each group with different fast food nutritional information on to their chart. Have each group transfer the information from their breakfast and lunch charts to the How Healthy Is Your Diet chart to calculate the total nutrients.

Closure

Discuss what students learned about making healthy choices at fast food restaurants.

Have the students write a brief essay, using COPS strategies, to explain how they may need to change what they eat in order to be healthy.

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