Information system analysis and design

What is a Methodology?

Methodology is not having any universal definition. In general it is defined as the series of steps and procedures that are to be followed while developing a system.

One of the most useful definitions that is provided by the British Computer Society (BCS) Information System Analysis and Design Working Group in 1983. They defined methodology as a recommended collection of philosophies, phases, procedures, rules, techniques, tools, documentation, management and training for development of information systems.

What is RAPID Methodology?

This is the methodology that is used to get the results of the project better and in time, to manage the budget and all. The basic definition of Rapid is ?Results can be Accelerated through Proven Implementation and Development?. This means that the results of a system are improved by implementing different types of aggregation methods to the system.

The basic procedure of methodology includes six phases and they are the following:

  • Phase 1: Strategy and Analysis
  • Phase 2: System Design
  • Phase 3: Proof of Concept
  • Phase 4: Build
  • Phase 5: Transition
  • Phase 6: Operation
  • It is very important to every phase effectively and perfectly to get the desired and best results in the end.

    Strategy and Analysis:

    Strategy and Analysis include basic steps of a project that is planning, strategy and analysis. Here the vision of the system is defined that is the purpose of making the system. This also includes the objectives the project, technologies that are going to be used, the estimated cost and time are discussed in this phase. Here the goals that are to be achieved are mentioned, the technical and functional arrangements for the project are also discussed in this phase. This also includes the taking the requirements from the user, analysing them and categorizing as functional and non functional and gathering of the requirements.

    System Design:

    The requirements that are required in the first phase are send to this phase. This includes the total planning of the tasks in the project and their assignment to different groups. System architecture, schedule, data models and functional specifications are also included in it. In this phase the plan for remaining phases also that is transition and building are prepared.

    Proof of Concept:

    This phase is checkpoint to the development cycle and takes the final decission from the enduser. This includes the working prototype system with base functionality and test data, legacy data, drawing conversion sample provided and approved, data drawing process are tested, made ready, data exchange engine and updated project plan.


    In this phase the building of the system is done by basing on the final development life cycle that is taken from the previuos life cycle. This the documentation of the system, development of the system and final training on the process, system acceptance training.


    The planning for this phase is finalized in the second phase that is system design phase. This includes the traunung for users, managers and system administrators. The postponed data and drawings are completed in this phase and user acceptance test is also conducted in this phase.


    Like the previous phase for this also the planning is done in the second phase. This includes the user, system support of the project and and finalizes the support aggrement.

    There are different types of RAPID methodologies which are used to improve the results of the project. Some of them are following:

    • RAD ( Rapid Application Development)
    • XP ( Extream Programming )
    • DSDM ( Dynamic Systems Development Model )
    • WISM ( )

    RAD ( Rapid Application Development):

    This is the method that decreases the time taken to taken to complete the particular system. Thia also known as JMRAD or Rapid prototyping. This is developed by James Martin in the year 1991, he involved iterative developmernt cycles in the process to get the better results. According to Whitten (2004), it is a merger of various structured techniques, especially data-driven Information Engineering, with prototyping techniques to accelerate software systems development.[1]

    To main problems that are solved in RAD:

    • In the conventional methods the customer gets a chance to check the results after the completion of the total project but in here developers consider acknowledgements from the end user after the completion of each iteration in the phase.
    • In the conventional methods, development of the system takes so long time so that the end user business has fundamentally changed by the time of delivering the system. This overcomes in RAD by developing the system in short time.


    • Money
    • Time
    • Quality
    • Flexible
    • User friendly


    • Large projects
    • High technical staff
    • Interaction between team

    This is the reason, why Rapid Application Development methodology is not used for complex and high-risk applications where requirements are uncertain & critical. Although it is best suitable for well defined & low-risk applications.

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