Marxism, formalism, hermeneutics


This project contains four topics related to literary movements, those are: Marxism, Formalism, Hermeneutics, Feminism. We have covered several aspects of those literary movements, such as: their definition and history,their main characteristics,their main representatives,and a comparisons between them.In this project is explained thinks about art,the way off speaking,the way off interpretation,etc.Each literary movements explains their particulary things,but most importantly clarifies how things are developing in literature years ago as in:film,music,art.



Marxism has almost the same meaning as Socialism and Communism Marxism is a political and economic philosophy a theory that seeks to eliminate the notion of private property in order to have control from the bourgeois or the wealthy class of population for the benefit of the working class as he called it.


Marxism also affected the literature.

All the Marxist theories about literature have something in common. They approve that we can understand what literature is only if we can understand the social reality. Those who support Marxism think that theories which understand or see the literature as an individual thinking of the author or simply as structure will not be able to explain and to tell us what literature is.(DADO 2004)

The Marxist theory about literature is different from the others because Marxism has the concept and different way of perceiving the real world and according to this way determined a structure for this world.

According to Marxism the social life and its reality are different. And this is the reason why reality and literature should be connected with social reality. (DADO 2004)

Marxism is named by Karl Marx who was born in Germany 5 May 1818 in a rich and Jewish family.

"Marxism" - Wikipedia Encyclopedia Karl Marx was enroll in the University of Bonn to study justice but after a year his father obligates him to leave the University and to get a more serious education in the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin there he started to be more interested in philosophy and he joins a group of young students known as "Young Hegelians".

Marxism was used to deny different critic attitudes and literary theories.

The theory of literature was developed in Medvedev's book according to him literature should be a branch of ideology in general and he thought the concept of ideology makes the Marxists to developed the theory of literature.

The Marxist theory of literature puts its object inside of history process of a Marxist critic for the theory of literature because literature is one of the things that Marx put it on the superstructure.

Representatives of Marxism:

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels worked together and they organized Communist League and they wrote together the Communist Manifesto that is related with ideologies of culture and religion.

Whereas the other representatives worked more on the issues of reality and they thought that books are written according to our consciousness and from our behavior they seek to determine in which way they were connected with society.


The difference between Marxism and Formalism is that the Formalists don't agree with the idea that the theory of literature should be connected or should have something in common or to write about experience or value and its doesn't have to deal with psychology and neuropsychology because this makes the critic of literature to be more scientific.

Formalism allows the writers to be independent in what they write and to give independence also the studies of literature whereas Marxism deals more with reality and it has to do with social life.


  • Retrieved December 2 2009 from: "Marxism" - Wikipedia Encyclopedia
  • Retrieved December 21-23 2009 from the book: "The Theories of Modern Literature". Autors: Ann Jefferson David Robey .Home publishing DADO 2004


Russian formalism represents one of the earliest efforts to give independence literary studies to make the study of literature an autonomous and specific discipline.


The representatives of Russian Formalism were:Victor Shklovsky,Yuri Tynianov,Boris Eichenbaum ,Roman Jakobson ,Mikhail Bakhtin,Yuri Lotman,Osip Briquette,Rene Wellek and Jan Mukarovsky.Than which each contribution in their works for the independent axistence of literary studies.


Russian formalism appeared aiming to make really clear notion of literary study.Theory of Russian formalism was formed by two small groups of students:Opajaz group in Petersburg and linguistic group in Moscow.According to Eikhenbaum formalism was characterized by the attempt to create a science of literature which examines specifically literary theory.And Jakobson says:subject of science that literature is not literature but literary which makes that a work be considered literary.

Formalist definition of literature is diferencues because had influence in art,film, architecture,music,philosophy,photography,ethics,literature,that what distinguishes literature is the change that has from other types.The view formaliste a change in literary from not determined by a changing reality but needs to be updated literary forms .Exclusion of the reality brought a radical change in literature:distinction between form and content where this formalism had great success and later replaced with difference between matrial and tool for example:when a work built in order to display all its assets , form becomes content itself.The main task form formalism literary study are differences between practical and poetic language.The practical language refers reality and communication prosess and is useful than poetic language.The poetic language is opposite reality but tha only emphasiss in the way expression.Poetic language so directed by the laws of his nature.

Poetry , prose and literay hirtory

Poetry and prose are different for tha nature that are built in literature.Difference that exists within his poetry is that between practical language and poetic language.

Beginning of literary theory was poetry formalism.Poetry by Jakobson is power expressed organized of ordinary speech and formalism study.

Poetry includes three main areas:first is the structure of sound which deals with aspects of speech phonetic which is normal communication and is very useful that the second that has to do with the effect of low between different principles in poetry and the third semantic that was not observed in poetry.

The third area of contributin practical of Russian formalism is literary history which presentes a literary contrary for specific the literature.If poetry realizes the difference between common language and poetic language,prose change the literary form and its content rather than literary,and literary history makes the difference between form of automated and that within literature itself.


New criticism and Russian formalism are the types of formalism.Both theories focused on language trying to decide language in the center of attention the fact that literature is nothing but the use of language because that language is what constitutes literature,so language is the biggest matrial of literature where its purpose to create ideas and experience.Defference between Russian formalism and New criticism is Russian formalism have used language to bring something new and to create a reality really.

And New criticism have used language for determining a literary text that as interpreted and valuated.New criticism says:the evaluation of literary text depends on the use of language.

Russian formalism focused an form as innovation and New Critisism focused an form as tradition.


  • Retrieved December 21-23 2009 from dhe book : '' The Theories of Modern Literature '' - Ann Jefferson , David Robey


Definition: Movement literary hermeneutics, is the study of theory interpretation, or the art of interpretation.


The hermeneutics, is a term with Greek origin (hermeneuo) which means 'translate' or 'play'), which has an uncertain origin, and also thanks to the work pervaded the great philosopher Aristotle (Aristotle, On Interpretation, Harold P. Cooke (trans.), in Aristotle, vol.1 (Loeb Classical Library), ). As title of his work (Parry hermeneutics), which means for interpretation, which had an earlier origin, which also had to order the relationship between language and logic. It is thought that the Greek root, are connected with the name of the mythological Greek deity Hermes that showed significance as messenger between gods and God also in MEST gods and people. Hermeneutics grips marks a very controversial story, which in the last two thousand years, has expanded to the investigation explained that speak not only for oral interpretation works, but also textual and artistic .In a word, human behavior in generally as language, speech patterns, etc..

As a word, refers hermeneutic interpretation process and the expensive articles, which are also shown incompatibility, but however necessary apparent incompatibility needed to be understood by a careful study, of a given text mode or context of other texts.

Hermeneutic history is divided into several time periods, which we know with some discussions and achievements. One of them is: the history of Western hermeneutic, which throughout history, scholars and students all have sought wealth of mine, meaning the them, reaching a range of different systems hermeneutics .This part is known for development of expensive article. Expansion history also sends us to some response on the hermeneutic as ancient Rome and Greece. Known philosopher Aristotle, provides a key purpose for many theories of interpretation.

He expressed "Words spoken are symbols or signs or impressions. And the written words are signs of words spoken. And some other ancient Greek philosopher, Plato (Plato, Ion, Paul Woodruff (trans.) in Plato, Complete Works, ed. John M. Cooper. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997) tried to forge especially for someone as a poet and poetry, as harmful nonsense. Plato deny entry of poets in his state, while they may damage their value.

Another critic David Richter( David L. Rennie (2007). "Hermeneutics and Humanistic Psychology". The Humanistic Psychologist 35 (1). out,"For Aristotle". Artists must disregard incidental facts to search for deeper truths universal.Who said that rather than for the dog in essence, the false poems, may be the truly universal.

Hermeneutic of early Christian, shows that during this period, patristic traditions had biblical explanation,which contains several features that together in the beginning, but pretend to unification theory Hermeneutical schools.So the third century of the Christian Hermeneutic,began to split in two primary schools:Alexandria and Antioch. In this school was stressed in the country with accurate historical meaning of the text.

Hermeneutic medieval Christian period of the text, gives an explanation of incorporating a regime that showed fourfold difference between the letter and spirit of the text. Hermeneutics in the Middle Ages explains the spread of interpretation literally, the Bible of a similar fourfold categorization is found in the writings Rabin.Medieval period, without increasing the categories of interpretation Rabin,and also explanation of the Torah,summarizing and writing Maimonides shown.

Hermeneutic in the Middle Ages was presented in the new humanist education of the fifteen century, as historical and critical methodology for analysis of texts.Lorenzo Valla expressed that the donation of Constantine was a forgery of evidence within the text. During protestant reforms put an interest,for the renovation of the Bible.

Frederic Schleiermacher (Forster, Michael. "Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. studying the nature of understanding in relation not only with the problem of textbooks, etc., but with all human texts and ways of communication.He also defined as the art of avoiding Hermeneutics of misunderstandings.

Wilhelm Dilthey ( "Wilhelm Dilthey". Philosophy Professor." understanding of others and their manifestations of life".Dilthey made clear that the move from external to internal, by the expression with what is expressed, is not based on sensitivity.Philosophical Hermeneutics Martin Heideagger (Martin Jan Mulder, ed., Mikra: Text Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990)), relocate the attention of the interest which is treated more directly as a sense of being in the world, rather than simply as a way of knowing.

To get acquainted with representative Hermeneutics Hans Georg Gadamer (Gadamer, HansGeorg (1994). Truth and Method (2nd rev. ed. / translation revised by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall ed.). New York: Continuum).who explains how the feed is against the methodology for the experienced and reflected. Achievements can be realized only by understanding the truth, or our experience.Hermeneutics describes district, way of understanding a text and refers to the idea.

In archeology means interpretation and understanding of materials by exploring possible meanings, provides the knowledge to help understanding the meaning.In security, especially the exploration of human science wrong, where scientists were increasingly interested in Hermeneutic approaches.Representatives of this idea was Donald Taylor( Donald Taylor (1981). "The hermeneutics of accidents and safety". Ergonomics 24 (6): 487 - 495). Ergonomist working to understand the accidents aware of human beings.

In sociology says that Hermeneutics: interpretation and understanding of social events by analyzing their meanings, to human participants and their culture.As a main principle of this field is only to understand what the meaning of an action.


Hermeneutic movement can be compared to many other movements, but this time I make a comparison with which we Marxcism known as political and economic philosophy which aims to eliminate the notion of private property for certain purposes to contrast with the hermeneutic that has made the way of interpretation, grammar rules, different ideas of many philosophers on this theory etc.Si common characteristic is that it was letrare.So are moving everything to the unique characteristics and Hermeneutic.


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Definition:Feminism is a literary movement that deals with women's problems such as: political, cultural, economic, and issues of gender differences.But these issues were not discussed until 1972 where he began to see with a critical eye.Feminist movement is divided into three waves or three periods for this division feminist activists have contributed as Maggie Hum(Humm, Maggie (1990). The dictionary of feminist theory. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. pp.278) and Rebbeca Walker(Walker, Rebecca (1992), "Becoming the Third Wave", Ms January/February, 1992: 39-41)

First-Wave has begun in the 19th century to early 20th century in the USA. The issues which are addressed in this period had to do with the right to vote free of women, and also its protection from violence.

Regarding the topic for the right to vote free should mention that this problem is deeply analyzed in Britain in Suffragettes- campaign for example: women right to vote.

In 1918 was adopted legal act that the woman has the right to vote only on the age of 30 years, then began to be adopted and in other countries as the USA where as representatives were: Lurectia Mott, Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Cady, Simone B. Anthony(de Beauvoir, Simone, English translation 1953 (1989). The Second Sex. Vintage Books. pp.105.)

First wave is thought to have finished with the approval of the amendment to 19 of the Constitution of the United States of America and giving women the right to vote free in all other states.

Second-wave starts from 1960 to the end of 1980.This means that the end of the first wave is the continuation of the second wave, after the first wave of deals with problems of the right of women to vote free , wave Receive problems for equality, and ends off the discrimination. As an activist of second wave feminism is known: Carol Hanisch(Hanisch, Carol 2006-01-01 "Hanisch, New Intro to "The Personal is Political" - Second Wave and Beyond". The Personal Is Political) which speaks of cultural and political inequalities that are linked closely with each other. Third wave-Has began in 1990 since that usually flow as a response to the failures of the second wave. There were many contradictions between the second wave and third wave, as opposed has been known activist Susan Flaudi (Faludi, Susan (1992). Backlash: the undeclared war against women. London: Vintage).


Feminism as literary movement is divided according to types, such as: socialist feminism that has to do with issues about women and submission on that of its society.However radical feminism has also taken the matter which is for women and quoted authority: "Not only men should be at the top of government and until the new reforms will not change nothing will be different".

We also have cultural feminism, which has to do with gender differences: men and women.

As part of feminism we have black feminism.Black feminism is also related to problems of racism, differences between white women and black women. As an activist who is taken with black feminism is that Angela Davis was the first that had work with racial problems and, gender problems too.Feminism since spread around the world have always been objections to the Western feminism.As opponents of Western feminism was activist Chandra Talpaste and Sarojini Sahoo who criticize Western feminism on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and takes into account women's unique provojen made duker differences between white and black.

Femininity was also influential in art, which reflected life in art. Art was feminine for you helped bring more visibility for its history and its practice. This began from 1960 to 1970.

First it was initiative at the University of California in 1970 where 15 students were outstanding and their teacher Judy Chicago, who helped feminist art movement, including cooperation with technologies such as video, and early forms of critical media and then continued in Los Angeles.

Feminist movement for literary criticism were analyzed especially male critics divided.

Writers such as Sappho, Austen and Emily Dickinson quoted that it is difficult to be accepted that women in literature has such high level of writing. But literature is literature and criticism but never had need to become gender differences in literature. Very feminist movement argued that women's writing differs from that of men. Simone de Beauvoir(Cooper 1995, and Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex (1974) says that: "The philosophers and writers and priests are trying to show that the position of women is favored in heaven and earth".Also, and Susan Cornillon in its summary essays says that men have distorted literature, novels, and also poetry written by women and also duplicate them. Then Elanie Showlter(The New Feminist Criticism: Essays of Women, Literature and Theory (1985), Hester Eisenstein's Contemporary Feminist Thought (1984))describes three stages in the history of literature of Feminism and her essay "Toward a Poetics Feminism" it refers to work that women in literature, and for developing new models based on the experience of women. The Female Aesthetic arose-expresing a unique female consciousness and feminine tradition in literature as it celebrate an intuitive female approach in the interpretation of women's texts.

Also "Festival of videos off women" which is held every year since 1970 in New York. During 1965-1980 years became a feminist art activism.

But the likeness with the important art of feminism was to create the project of Feminism, which was called TFAP which had helped women in the arts impact principle arti.TFAP story has 6 regional groups in each county.

Representative of Feminism:

  • Maggie Hum((1990). The dictionary of feminist theory. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. pp.278)
  • Rebbeca Walker(1992, "Becoming the Third Wave", Ms January/February, 1992: 39-41)
  • Simone Beauvoir(Cooper 1995, and Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex 1974)
  • Carol Hanisch (2006-01-01 "Hanisch, New Intro to "The Personal is Political" - Second Wave and Beyond". The Personal Is Political)
  • Susan Flaudi(1992 Backlash: the undeclared war against women. London: Vintage).
  • Elanie Showlter(The New Feminist Criticism: Essays of Women, Literature and Theory (1985), Hester Eisenstein's Contemporary Feminist Thought (1984).


Feminism can be compared to many literary movements, and though at the same time has similarities with them. For example:Hermeneutics and Feminism.

The difference between feminism and hermeneutics is that the movement theory of hermeneutics deals with interpretations, grammatical rules (biblical), includes language, speech patterns, while feminism looks at the problems of women, or work on women in literature, as well as by critical problems men as in: poetry, novels, etc. But things that tie these two are that: these are literary movement, and argue developments in literature, and also help the reader in many areas of literature, including speech, interpretation of art, music, film, etc


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The End:

All these literary movements are described in details. They bring contribution to understanding in depth literary movements (Marxism, Formalism, Hermeneutics, Feminism) and goods, and they help bring us in our work. And a very great help is that now we are clear that the literary movements to which we have spoken before. Having my data to you can select, acts of representatives, or model of understanding on a book, or manner of speech and meaning of art in general.


  • Retrieved December 2 2009 from: "Marxism" - Wikipedia Encyclopedia
  • Retrieved December 21-23 2009 from the book: "The Theories of Modern Literature". Autors: Ann Jefferson David Robey .Home publishing DADO 2004
  • Retrieved December 21-23 2009 from dhe book : ''The Theories of Modern Literature '' - Ann Jefferson , David Robey
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