Master thesis in electrical engineering


Ad hoc networks are key to the evolution of wireless networks. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) consist of autonomously operating portable devices communicating over a wireless interface. The field of mobile ad hoc networking spring up of packet radio networks, which rised several decades ago. Generally accepted properties of MANETs are that nodes are self-organizing, they are free to move and join or leave the network at will with or without central controlling entity, such as base station. Furthermore, a fundamental assumption in MANETs is that, security issues notwithstanding, nodes are agreed to cooperate in forwarding each other's data packets to their respective destination nodes in exchange for their own packets being forwarded. MANETs have been envisioned to provide a ubiquitous, spontaneous and robust communications framework where the provision of, or access to infrastructure is limited or lacking. Although a gateway node may provide Internet access, MANETs nodes typically represent collaborators sharing content with each other. MANETs can be deployed in disaster operations, military operation etc.

Due to mobility of nodes, limited resources of mobile nodes and errror prone wireless channel makes the provision of Quality of Service(QoS) in these netorks very challenging. Better solutions to the basic communication challenges in MANETs are still being researched including the design of protocols for mobility management, data transport, ioning. Existing proposal are largely adequate for the provision of commueffective routing, power management, security and quality-of-service (QoS) provisnications services on a best effort basis. With the emerging use of MANETs, the multimedia communication is in demand which requires different types of QoS provision from the network. The Admission Control(AC) and QoS-aware routing(QAR) have improve the provision of QoS up to some extent.

The AC protocol is either to reject or accept the newly requested session on the basis of available resources. The session is granted admission when available resources are more than the requested resources; otherwise is rejected. The AC protocol has to make sure that the newly admitted session must not affect the previously serving data session.

It is very challenging to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) due to the nodes mobility, and unavailability of centralized control wireless channel. To provide QoS we have to full fill all these requirements including admission control (AC), QoS-aware routing (QAR), traffic policing, traffic scheduling, Resource Reservation, and possibly QoS aware MAC protocol.

Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDVR), Optimised link State Routing, Dynamic Source Routing protocol and Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing are the most common routing protocols which form the basis for most of the AC and QAR protocols. All these protocols have different methods for gathering and propagating topology information. Advance method of routing in MANETs is Reactive routing protocol due to unpredictable and frequent changes in topology of network. Proactive routing is not efficient due to large number of overheads and false routes information in case of high mobility. False route is expensive in terms of throughput and delay constraints for the applications. Most of QAR and AC protocols are building upon DSR protocol, due to use of cache and source routing and less number of overheads. DSR nodes learn the routes for the different destination in promiscuous mode. Better use of this quality of DSR protocol helps for better AC and QAR protocol which can fulfil the requirements of the applications.

Our thesis will contain a brief history and list of challenges in MANETs. A basic review to the back ground study of the best effort network layer routing protocol and those protocols which are the basis for most of the QAR and AC protocols. Different QAR and AC protocols which are designed to improve the provision of QoS and will analyse different characteristics of these protocols. Simulation design and different QoS metrics on the basis of which we will analyse the protocols. Simulation results for verification of performance of the DSR and AODV protocol which are new and advance protocols.

Aims and objectives

We will measure the performance of MANETs by changing the traffic load and mobility.

  • Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF)
  • Average End-to-End dealy
  • Routing Overheads
  • Normalized Routing load
  • Throughput

Research questions

What are the current issues in MANETs?

What are the different AC and QAR protocols which are designed to improve the provision of QoS?

How traffic load and mobility affect the performance of MANETs?

How to improve the performance of DSR and AODV protocols?

How AC and QAR improve QoS in MANETs?

Expected outcomes

Expected outcomes will be Simulation results in form of Graphs and more description about the MANETs protocols which may lead design new protocol.

Research Methodology

The thesis work will be in form of qualitative study and will be divided into different parts. First part will contain the basic introduction to the MANETs and will be followed by Routing protocols. Third part will contain main topic and explanation to the main theme and it will be more descriptive. The fourth part will contain our simulation results of different metrics for AODV and DSR, and we will use NS-2 simulator for achieving our aim.


For completion of this thesis we have to undergo intense literature study. Besides literature study we may have some risks in simulating results and programming part, being of aware of that we already working on that part so that it may not take more time during our thesis. With our own hard work and the guidance of our supervisor we will achieve our aim.

Time plan

Scheduled Milestones and Meetings:

  • 2010-02-10: Start writing the proposal
  • 2010-02-11: First draft of proposal to supervisor
  • 2010-02-14: Final draft of proposal to supervisor
  • 2010-02-17: Meeting with supervisor regarding guidlines.
  • 2010-02-24: Part 1 Introduction
  • 2010-03-10: Part 2 Routing protocols.
  • 2010-03-24: Part 3 Admission Control and QoS-Aware Routing protocols.
  • 2010-04-15: Part 4 Simulation Results.
  • 2010-04-23: First thesis draft
  • 2010-04-30: Final thesis report
  • According to schadule: Presentation and oponents answers.


  1. Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing edited by Ivan Stojmenovic.
  2. R.Kahn, "The Organization of Computer Resources into a Packet Radio Network", IEEE Transaction Communications, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 169-178, 1977.
  3. R. Ramanathan, J.Redi, and B.Technologies, "A Brief Overview of Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Directions", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no.5, pp.20-22, 2002.
  4. L.Hanzo (II) and R.Tafazolli, "Throughput Assurances through Admission control Protocol for Multi-hop Networks ", in proc. 18th Annual IEEE Int. symposium. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communication (PIMRC)", pp. 1-5, Sep. 2007
  5. A.Lindgren and Elizabeth M.Belding-Royer, "Multi-path Admission Control for Mobile Ad hoc Networks" in proc. 2nd Ann. Int. Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services (MobiQuitous), pp.407-417, July 2005.
  6. L.Hanzo (II.) and R.Tafazolli, "QoS-Aware Routing and Admission Control in Shadow-Fading Environments for Multi-Rate MANETs", submitted to IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, Nov. 2008. Available online
  7. N.Mohamed, A.Abdullah and A.Abidin, "Performance Evaluation of AODV, DSDV & DSR Routing Protocol in Grid Environment", IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 261-268, July 2009.
  8. The Network Simulator NS-2 tutorial homepage, http://

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