# Multimedia approach for teaching

### Abstract

This entire study of this project was done on "Dyslexia" and the effects of dyslexia on the people the word "Dys" means impaired and its a Greek word and "lexia" is a word. Dyslexia is mainly specified as the learning disability disorder dyslexia occurs in different form so thereby we can observe various forms of illness of this disease. Dyslexia is the disease mainly affecting the human brain in the neurological senses and especially find in the reading disability and writing and spelling disorder. So people suffering with dyslexia cannot be able to keep remember the things for a long time and they forget the things within a short period of time and therefore they can perform poorly on learning the things broadly. So the earlier and the recent studies and surveys are showing that girls are less dyslexic than the boys.

Due to the lack of working in Neurosensory organs this dyslexia will occur because of this the people can't remember the things for a long time. They use to forget the things within a short period of time. So the only problem in the dyslexic people is the working and learning memory deficit with which the dyslexics are facing the problems so therefore to overcome this problem particularly in the learning things.

For this reason we designed an attractive design of software for the dyslexic people to teach the mathematical equations on the screen effectively with multimedia effects this kind of teaching can help the dyslexic people to learn the mathematical equation without forgetting them in their daily life because we are introducing some attractive and colorful features especially for the dyslexic people to concentrate on learning. And with the help of this application they can perform mathematical concepts such as mathematical equations without forgetting them forever.

This application can help the individuals to overcome the learning disability especially in solving of mathematical concepts such as we introduced for teaching equations

### Acknowledgement

I would like to say thanks to my supervisor Elizabeth Stokes for her valuableand guidance in every part of my project. She was very helpful and encouraged in each stage of my project.

My special thanks to Elke Duncker, Vivian Fraser, Julie Kevil for their valuable suggestions. And also I would also like to say thanks to the students who did participate in my project research.

One more thing I would like to say thanks to my university dyslexia team as well.

### Introduction

Dyslexiais alearning disorderthat certifies itself as a difficulty with reading andspelling.Approximately 5-17% of U.S population is impacted by the dyslexia. The dyslexic people may suffer with tremendous difficulties in making sense of reading, writing and spelling. And dyslexia is recognised learning disorder.

If it is found in earlier stage, people can be aided to find the ways to solve their problems and develop the skills to their goals. [7]

In earlier days the dyslexia in mathematics is called as mathematics dyslexia then called as Dyscalculia.

Dyscalculia is a neurological condition that is characterized by problem with learning the basics of the numerical skills. The many of the people with this condition can understand the complicated concepts and principles in the mathematics but they can't process the formulas in right manner and even + or -.

About 4-7% of the world population has impacted by this particular learning disability, but most of the people don't about this. So, few people get the help for their condition and remaining people don't get any help as they don't know about that. And dyscalculia is in the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), but many professionals, including teachers and psychologists working with children, have not even heard of it, and most countries do not recognize it. So this is an approved disorder.

### Aims and objectives

The aim is to teach each dyslexic student to become an independent learner.

After considering all the facts which are mentioned above, the dyslexic people need more help to learn the mathematics.

As the no two dyslexics have the same learning difficulties. The first task of the teacher is to find the particular difficulty of the individual student and to design the individual student needs to get the more successful outcome.

This approach is going to develop the feel in the students to involve in the learning process.

The most important aspects of this approach are:

- Teaching the topics which are interested for the student.
- Discovering the individual learning style of the student teach them in that style as frequently as possible.

Teaching methods themselves need to match the individual's learning style, but take into account many of the following general principles:

- Make the teaching style fun.
- Break information into small sections as easily recalled.
- Make the work sheets positive/attractive.
- Continue the work in enthusiastic and confidence through learning.

The teacher should make full use of multi-sensory approaches to teaching which encompass:

- Visualize the concept by the use of images, varied colors and different fonts and size of text.
- Sound. Use the Dictaphone to put ideas to music.
- Games and activities. As the students may have much experience in failing in relation to other, the Non-competitive are best.
- Humor.
- Whatever approach is used, the aim should be encouraging the independent learner.

### Difficulties in mathematics

Dyslexic students are much interested in three-dimensional objects and things represented by the pictures. As they have problem with the symbols, they feel the difficulty with symbolic representation of mathematics. Ultimately they have the trouble with the step-by-step process as they are 'big picture' thinkers. And obviously it is important to follow the steps in the mathematics. The student should be clear about the basic concepts that are numbers and symbols representation.

### Multimedia approach to learn mathematics

For most teachers, the problem of mathematics learning is always a major concern. Students cannot understand the math symbols easily. They cannot realize the meanings and characteristics of the symbols. For teachers it is unreasonable to ask students to simulate or recite their arithmetic calculations using the symbols. Students need to learn mathematics deeply, for this students have to learn how to use the symbols, how to make conjectures and provide explanations for their solutions. And it is important that they should not learn how to calculate only.

In 1973 Polya proposed an effective four step mathematical solution:

- Understanding the problem
- Devising a plan
- Carrying out the plan
- Looking back.

But, this mechanism is concerned with an individual's effort. But our main criterion is to teach mathematics in a web-based class room. A teacher cannot pay attention to each and every student in the class room always. For web-based learning environments, collaborative learning is an effective approach for improving students'math problem solving. In the web- based class room students uses amultimediawhiteboard system. It makes students construct the process of solvingmath problems easily and collaboratively. As the students are childish in nature they like to learn the things in a play and learn environment. This web based system provides students writing down not only math symbols but also arithmetic calculation with oral explanation. As it is easier all the students tries collaboratively until a good solution has been reached. The e-white board (electronic white board) we use in this way of approach is different from the traditional classroom black board. This method simulates the students and teachers to collaborate in solving math problems.

Nowadays multimedia is becoming a new way of instruction (Najjar, 2001) in teaching mathematics. According to the systems currently available on the Internet which shows the mathematical symbols on the web, the symbols need to be translated into image format (like GIF or JPG) and saved as separated image files. But it is difficult to arrange every calculation in the image files. Moreover these files cannot be easily modified and the downloading time is time consuming. There is another approach called electronic white board was proposed to provide an alternative solution for mathematical symbol writing on the internet. In this approach we use some graphic functions and a virtual pen to support f easy drawing geometric blocks and writing mathematical equations. Where as in traditional teaching, to assess whether students have understood a mathematical problem is depends on whether they could explain the step by step arithmetic procedure to solve the problem. Conversely, it is not enough to evaluate students' mathconcepts and abilities of solvingmathproblems purely depending on their writing. Some oral interpretation and explanation should be considered from multiple thoughtfulness points of view. In our multimedia approach, the multimediawhiteboard system provides students both writing down procedures and recording oral explanations while students engaging inmathproblems solving.

### Background

### History of Dyslexia

Thomas Willis, A British physician is the first medical practitioner who described the dyslexia in his 'De Anima Brutorum' in 1672.

Dr. Adolf Kussmaul, A German physician found a man who had the difficulty with learning to read in 1878. The man was a normal intelligent and had received an adequate education. Dr.Kussumaul had described that particular disorder as 'reading blindness'. Some years later, the condition of the man was described as 'dyslexia'. The word dyslexia is derived from the Greek dys means poor and lexis means word or language.

The definition of dyslexia was an exclusionary one before the start of the National Institute Health's research in 1980's. If a child had a difficulty with reading and he could not be explained by low intelligence, or poor eye sight, or poor hearing, or inadequate educational opportunities, or any other problem, then the child described as dyslexic.

The parents, teachers or researchers were not satisfied with that definition. So, here are some definitions which are in use today.

### Definitions of dyslexia

First time in 1870s, Berlin defined the dyslexia.

### Dyslexia is defined simply as

Dyslexia is an inherited condition that makes it extremely difficult to read, write, and spell in your native languagedespite at least average intelligence.

### Definition by International Dyslexia Association

Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial, disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language. Varying in levels of severity, it is certified by difficulties in receptive and communicative language, including phonological processing, in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic and handwriting.

It is not the result of lack of motivation, centripetive impairment, poor instructional or environmental opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may happen together with these conditions.

Dyslexia is a lifelong individual and responds frequently.

### Research definition of dyslexia

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.

Dyslexia is characterized by problems with exact and fluent recognition of the words and with poor spelling abilities

The phonological element of language causes these difficulties which is unexpected in the relation to other cognitive abilities.

Secondary consequences may include troubles in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can stop the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

### Some other definitions

'Mirror writing and similar' problems are usually blamed on defects in visual perception but in truth dyslexia seems to be a complex linguistic deficiency. The remedy is proper instruction in reading"

From: Cover Story, 'Dyslexia',Scientific American. March, l985

"Children with special (specific) learning disabilities exhibit a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language.

These may be manifested in disorder of listening, thinking, talking, reading, writing, spelling or arithmetic. They include conditions which have been referred to as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, developmental aphasia, etc. They do not include learning problems which are due primarily to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, to mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or to environmental disadvantage"

From: Notes and Working Papers. . . 'Education of handicapped children.' Prepared for the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labour and Public Welfare, United States Congress (Washington, D. C. :U. S. Government Printing Office, May, 1968). page 14.

### Learning Disability

Learning Disability is one of the specific terms; it is a category containing many specific disabilities, all of which cause learning to be difficult.

The term 'learning disability' itself means that it is a disorder in one or more of the basic processes required in understanding spoken or written language. It may show up as a problem in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, or spelling or in a person's ability to do math, despite at least average intelligence which is used for financial, legislative and educational purposes only. And it is a specific learning disability and it is not a definition of dyslexia.

The term does not include children who have the learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, physical handicaps, mental retardation, emotional, disturbance, environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. [3]

### Dyslexia Synonyms

Dyslexia is also known as following:-

- Learning Disability (LD)
- Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
- Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

### Types of dyslexia

### Primary Dyslexia

This is genetic, (familial or inherited), and sex-linked, with six males to every four female cases.

These 'native' dyslectics tend to stand out in imaginative and innovative fields such as architecture, art, invention, sculpture, surveying.

They experience little problem with the basics of literacy and numeracy if they are not taught by 'look and say' but multi-sensory

Neither do those with secondary dyslexia, which I shall now describe, for the symptoms and the treatments are similar.

### Secondary Dyslexia

Acquired from illness or accident, this causes brain injury which is usually too minimal to register in brain scans yet has effects as for primary dyslexia.

Premature- (40%), trauma-, cocaine-(100%) born babies are often secondary dyslectics.

Drug therapy, and lenses other than ones correcting eyesight, produces no significant 3Rs gain for dyslectics in scientific tests.

Holistic teaching is recommended, NOT piecemeal programs. A TEAM OF SENSE MEMORIES helps retain and retrieve information. [18]

### Literal Dyslexia

It is also referred as, "Letter Blindness," a person has difficulty in identifying letters, matching upper case letters with lowercase, naming letters, or matching sounds with the corresponding letters. In Word Dyslexia, a person may able to read individual letters of the word but not the whole word itself, or he may able to read a word, but, not understand the meaning of the word. Some people in this type may read words partially. For example, a person may say the word, "twice," as, "wise" or as, "like." The person may realize that these are incorrect, but cannot read those words rightly. Some people with this type of dyslexia do better by moving their finger on the outline of a word or, by drawing the letters in the air.

### Phonological Dyslexia

It is a kind of Dyslexia. In this Phonological Dyslexia, a person has difficulty to convert the letters to their sounds. They can read words which are already familiar to them, but have trouble in reading unfamiliar or novel words. They also have difficulty in reading a non-word such as, "tord." They may misread this non-word as an existing word that looks similar. Sometime they also misread actual words as other ones that look similar.

### Neglect Dyslexia

In this type dyslexic neglects either the left or the right side of words, a problem particularly highlighted in reading the long words. For example, if expected to read, "strowt," they may read it as, "owt." If you give a word such as, "alphabetically," dyslexia persons will miss some of the first few letters, they may read it as, "betically." There may be a problem in compound words. For example, a compound word such as, "birthday' may be read partially, as, "birth" or "day."

### Semantic Dyslexia

A person with this dyslexia distorts the meaning of a word or incorrectly reads a word because of the confusion in the meaning of the given word. People with semantic dyslexia may say a synonym, antonym or a subordinate of a word instead of the proper word. For example, they may misread, "dog," as "cow" or "dove." They may misread, "twist" as "twisted" or "buy" as "bought." Some have trouble in reading function words such as, "of," "an," "not,'' and "and."

### Spelling Dyslexia

A person in this type has a problem reading all types of words and sometimes has trouble identifying individual letters. Their reading is very slow and hesitant, in particularly long words. A normal reader takes about 30 milliseconds for reading each additional letter, where as a spelling dyslexic may takes about a second to do the same. Some dyslexics tend to read words, one letter at a time, even those are short and familiar.

### Dyslexia without Dysgraphia

In this type the dyslexics have problem with reading but not with writing which is also referred as, "Pure Dyslexia." Some people may have trouble with writing arithmetic because they need to read the text and the numbers, but this people may not have any problems with spoken arithmetic. Dyslexia without Dysgraphia may not be identified, because it confuses the matters.

### Dyslexia with Dysgraphia

It is also referred as, "Deep Dyslexia," a person has a problem in writing letters as well as words, word-meanings, integrating the pronunciation of letters. People with this dyslexia face the major difficulty and need our closest care for educational and career planning.

So, there are "dyslexias," instead of dyslexia and all dyslexias are not made equal. A careful analysis must be done to assist a reader, as early in the game, as possible.

### Dyslexia Test

Take this 15 point test to diagnose Dyslexia.

Is a child or adult relative dyslectic? If you suspect - or know of this - consider these points:

- A difficulty in concentration.
- A general uncoordination and slight slowness in team ball games, sometimes swimming. Laborious, dirty writing: mixed cases. Prefers print.
- Sense and preferences not well developed. Confusions can be: b/d, N/S/W/E, W/M, 9/6, -/x/?/!, and others.
- Mixed visual sequencing which has a carry over to spelling, multiplication tables & non-contextual lists. Most, if rote-learned, are quickly forgotten.
- There is awkward pencil control the thumb curls around the pen and hand when only fingertips should be applied.
- Auditory discrimination isn't easy in subtle sounds. Some mix-ups: like nusic/ music, letter/ladder, chicken/little,
- Reception & comprehension of speech addressed to him/her is not perfect.
- Faulty sentence formation in speech.
- Generally disorganized lifestyle, dressing, writing (dysgraphia) and hobbies.
- Difficult personal relationships particularly with the generation.
- Even with a high intelligence, she/he can 'seem' stupid to many.
- A too 'rich' or 'meagre' surroundings has a major exacerbating effect.
- High genetic endowment factor.
- There is a suspicion that fields have extra sensitivity to allergies and food additives (hyperactivity). A Feingold - type diet aids some.
- A high incidence of middle ear infection in the early levels of life when language foundations are being instituted.

### DYSLEXIA RATINGS

Check how many featured apply to the person concerned:

### Causes of dyslexia

There are a number of different theories about the causes of dyslexia, but all the theories tend to agree that dyslexia is a genetic condition that changes how the brain deals with information, and it is passed on through families.

### Genetics

Dyslexia is a hereditary condition which means it often runs in families. It is estimated that if you have dyslexia there is a 40-60% chance that your child may also develop the condition.

According to the major number of experts dyslexia is caused by genetics that are received from the parents. The possibility of dyslexia is increased by the number of genes from the parents. The fact is that still it is not found how the dyslexia spreads from different generations.

### Dyslexia and reading and writing

The human brain has an innate capacity for spoken language which is why children as young as three years of age can often speak and understand relatively complicated sentences.

However, the same is not true of reading and writing. In evolutionary terms, both reading and writing are comparatively new skills learned only 5,500 years ago.

Although it is easy to take reading and writing for allowed, both depend on a complex interaction of procedures. For example, when you read the word 'cat':

- your eyes have to relay the letters to your brain,
- your brain has to match the letters to the sounds they represent,
- your brain has to combine the separate sounds into a single sound, and
- Your brain has to use your long-term memory to see what that sound represents in order to bring up the mental image of a cat.

### Theories on dyslexia

### Phonological processing theory

Phonological processing is the ability to remember and assign the sounds associated with written letters and words. The phonological processing theory states that all the symptoms of dyslexia are caused by impairment in the ability to process written words into sounds.

Many of the experts agree that phonological processing difficulties play a major role in dyslexia and some of the experts argue that it is in fact a symptom other than the main cause of dyslexia.

### The cerebellum theory

The cerebellum theory states that dyslexia is caused by physical differences in the cerebellum - a section of the brain located at the lower back of the brain. As per opinion of many of the researchers the cerebellum theory plays a major role in assisting to process language and it is also responsible for coordination and your ability to figure how much time has passed. This may answer the question why dyslexic people have problems with time management and coordination.

### The magnocellular theory

The magnocellular theory states that dyslexia is caused by the impaired development of large brain cells (neurons) known as magnocells. Magnocells also play major role in controlling your eyes in viewing the right word at the right time.

The main cause of dyslexia in looking letters and words in the wrong time and wrong order may be the defects with the magnocells. This may answer why many of the people with the condition say that words on the page looks like out of focus and fuzzy.

### Working memory theory

Working memory is the part of your memory that holds new information. The information is then either transferred to your long-term memory or forgotten.

For example, you can recall what year this is because it is moved into your long-term memory. However, you may not be able to remember your wife's mobile number even though you call her every day. That is because that information is not moved into your long-term memory.

The working memory theory states that dyslexia is caused by an inefficient working memory that finds it hard to move new information into your long-term memory. [9]

### How does dyslexia effect mathematics

Dyslexic difficulties are most likely to cause the learner problems in mathematics in the following ways:

### Short-term and working memory

Difficulties with short-term and working memory will affect the efficient learning of number bonds, multiplication tables, mental calculation, etc. However, dyslexic learners can draw on their ability to see patterns and the big picture to compensate.

### Language decoding and comprehension

Poordecodingand comprehension skills may make it difficult for a dyslexic learner to understand written verbal problems in mathematics and to master the technical language of the subject.

### Sequencing

With the advent of the word processor, sequencing in literacy is less problematic for dyslexics than it once was; essays can be reordered and sections changed, both during and after writing. In mathematics there is no choice as to where to begin to solve a question. It cannot be reordered during or after the solution has been reached. Difficulties in sequencing mean that many dyslexic learners may understand the concepts involved in a mathematics question and know what has to be achieved, but are unable to correctly sequence the procedures to achieve the right answer. They may also find it difficult to explain how they arrived at the answer, even when they are successful.

### Speed of information processing

Slowinformation processingwill mean that work in the classroom often goes too fast to allow for sufficient practice and consolidation. Dyslexic learners may need more time for understanding the question and forover learning.

### How can you help learners with dyslexia to learn mathematics?

Of course, the principles of good practice apply to the teaching of mathematics as much as to any other teaching. Specific points relating to theAdult Numeracy Core Curriculumare listed below.Access for Allis another useful resource. This section draws on the Department for Education and Skills documentThe National Numeracy Strategy - Guidance to Support Pupils with Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

### Number

- Usemultisensorymethods to help learners with the basics, such as counting accurately, distinguishing number symbols that are similar in shape and recognizing number patterns. The use of fraction walls, circles, or other visual aids may help. Squared paper helps with organization and accuracy. Work with concrete materials wherever you can.
- Allow time for over learning of key number facts.
- Learners benefit from being shown number patterns that are extensions of earlier knowledge, for example 3 + 2 = 5, 43 + 2 = 45.
- Dyslexic learners may find the transfer of a learned sequence, say,90, 80, 70... to a modified sequence92, 82, 72..., challenging. Base ten blocks or coins may help illustrate which digit changes and which remains constant.

### Calculations

- Encourage learners to use brief notes to keep them from the turning in the middle of the process.
- Mental calculations frequently favor working with the important digit first. It may be useful for some learners to apply this approach to written calculations.
- Calculators help with the speed of processing and with difficulties remembering symbols and operations.
- Get learners to talk through what they are doing as they work, always using the same mathematical language. This helps not only the process of calculation but the mastering of the language.
- Take care not to overemphasize the mechanics of mathematics at the expense of the meaning. A 'big picture' visual overview on the board or flipchart can draw on dyslexic learners' strengths and build confidence in the idea that mathematics is conquerable.

### Solving problems

- Explain mathematical vocabulary. Wherever possible, use images or give examples from a real context. Make sure language problems are sorted out before learners attempt to solve a problem.
- Only use abstract terminology once learners have understood the relevant concepts. Use informal or colloquial 'translations' alongside formal vocabulary.

### Measures, shape and space

- Dyslexic learners may find drawing shapes challenging. Support such as joining dots or modeling in plasticine adds a multisensory approach.

### Handling data

- The points on a grid and the x- and y-axes of graphs can be confused by some dyslexic learners. A simplemnemonic- 'along the corridor and up the stairs' - may help.
- Diagrams are easier to interpret if different colors are used to represent the data.
- Learning and using the termsmode,medianandmeanis difficult to master as they all begin with the same letter. Use separate colored index cards with the words and their meanings written on them.

'We use spiral learning, that's going back and revisiting what you've done...the cumulative bit. Traditionally, mathematics teaching has been that you do something and then you leave it behind...and links across certain topics aren't made. Mathematics can be taught in very much a linear fashion, you see mathematics as a set of strands and they have little to do with each other. We try and work across those strands and show that number goes across, we get students to have a feel for number.

Mathematics ...gets abstract very quickly, so link it to a practical activity or their experience wherever you can. Make them aware of the kind of errors they are likely to make - they might miss out a step in a sequence, you have to think of how their dyslexia is likely to impact on them.'

Teacher teaching numeracy to learners with dyslexia

### Multimedia approach in teaching

The term Multimedia was first expressed by Bob Goldstien, in the year 1966, to promote the opening of his Light Works show. The light works is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discotheque fare. In the late 1970's the term was used to describe presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed with an audio track running. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings, however by 1990's multimedia took on its current meaning. The word multimedia is also awarded as the word of the year in the year 1995.

In common usage, the term multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, audio, text in such a way such that they can accessed interactively. Some computers which are marketed in 1990's were called "multimedia" computers, because they are incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video, picture and audio data. Media is the plural of medium, if multi is used to describe multiple occurrences of only one form of media. This is why the word multimedia is used exclusively to describe the multiple forms of media and content. Multimedia is broadly divided into two types Linear and NON-Linear. Linear active content works without any navigation control for the viewer. The NON-Linear content provides user interactivity to control progress, as used with Computer Based Training (CBT). Hypermedia is the example of non linear content.

The multimedia can be used in many ways; it is used in advertising, giving presentation, games, and also in the education. The multimedia is used for advertising sites or making add films to promote the product. The multimedia effects in these ads makes people attract and helps in increasing the sales of the product. For giving the presentation or slide show on stage or running of media can be done using this multimedia. The multimedia plays a major role in gaming with special effects in physical environment, with multiple users in online network or locally with offline computer. The games played now a day's shows the wide range usage of multimedia with good and high range usage of graphics. These games are designed using software's like flash and Photoshop etc, a software engineer can design a game using his software skills like java, .net etc. Now days the games that are designed are mostly by using the software languages. The use of multimedia is a common place in education. Multimedia can be understood as an evolving set of teaching and learning tools that, in their most sophisticated form, combined motion video images, sounds, texts and graphics in computer driven environment under the user control. In some countries multimedia has had a strong impact especially in pre-college level education. The multimedia makes it easy in teaching, it makes students easy and fast to understand and also the student may not forget the data so easily. The Multimedia-based education when used only in certain situations would maximize the results. Using it in every circumstance would not give the desired results and also require in huge amounts in infrastructure costs.

The multimedia instructions would be appropriate only when the students have low prior domain knowledge:

When multimedia is used with students who have low prior domain knowledge or spatial aptitude, the multimedia helps the students in developing mental models and connects to the new knowledge domain. For example the people who are suffering from Dyslexia face the difficulty that causes problems with learning languages-based skills. People who have dyslexia often have trouble with reading, writing and spelling. It can also effect: concentration, short term memory, mathematics, and coordination and communication skills. So being incapable of paying attention for long periods of time, finding hard to make friends. However dyslexia has no reflection on intelligence, it is about access to intelligence. So the person suffering from this type of difficulty would use the multimedia to visualize the activities in knowledge domain and learn from them. On the other hand a student with high prior domain knowledge or high spatial aptitude would be able to create mental models of knowledge domain without any help and not gain anything from the use of multimedia

When dealing with students with low motivation, it is very important to keep them interested in learning. Use of pictures, animations and sounds can help in keeping the students in learning about a new domain. The interactivity generated by the use of multimedia instruction would also help in motivating the students towards. On the other hand highly motivated students might not need these audio visual aids and be able to understand the instructions given in text format.

### The software used for development

The application is developed by using the Adobe Flash CS4. This application explains how to solve the first order algebraic equations. Using the flash the equations are represented by the visualized images and colors. This means the equation represented in the form of visual pictures. The first order algebraic equation is in the form of x+4=2x+2. Solving this equation means finding the value of variable 'X'. To teach this problem to dyslexics the equation should be represented in visually so that the dyslexics can understand the concept easily as they are very interested with images, graphics, colors etc. For the visual representation the variable 'x' in the equation is represented by a basket and the numbers are represented by the apples. This mean if there is number 2, then it is represented with the two apples. This approach is also called as Hands-On-Equation.

The Hands-On-equations plays major role in the solving algebraic equations and this gives full representation of symbols. As the symbols and parameters are represented by images and colors, the dyslexics can feel the symbols like game pieces. So the solution of the equations will be like a game with the game pieces. This solution is converted in to a physical action between the game pieces; the dyslexics can enjoy the solution. As solving the algebraic equations the students can see the touching and moving the game pieces.

With this visual representation of equations students can be immersed themselves in their learning. This concept explains them the powerful concepts in algebra such as equivalence, the equality of subtraction, the distributive property and other important concepts of algebra. The learning of the algebraic equations in traditional methods is very difficult than this approach.

### Analysis

In order to developing this application we need some information from the students. I have done this by meeting the foundation students of Middlesex University. And I prepared a questionnaire to gather this information. The questionnaire is as follows.

### Can I contact you for further details?

From this questionnaire the major number of students is good in mathematics and all other subjects. Some of the students are facing the problems in mathematics and particularly in remembering the formulas. When come to the remembering formulas major number of students have overcame this by repeating study in their earlier life. And the remaining people are still facing the problems with the mathematics.

### The specification & design

The main aim to develop the application is to teach the algebraic equations to dyslexic students. The application is very useful and user friendly as its GUI (Graphical User Interface) is very clear and easier to use. The whole application doesn't contain any complexity and doesn't contain any indirect operations. The application is straight forward to user. So, the user doesn't any confusion in using the application. The design of this application is very comfortable and understandable to the user. The background design of the application is very interesting as it is very colorful and funny. The flow of the application is also in step-by-step manner. So, the user doesn't find any complexity when using this. If user find is unable to understand the problem they can stop the application in any place to simplify the doubts.

The whole application is designed by using Adobe Flash CS4 software which is very suitable for the animations and graphics. As this application is to solve the first order algebraic equations, the equation is represented visually in such manner that people can be attracted. Selecting the flash software to develop this application is a good choice because the flash can support multimedia effects in efficient way. The flash applications are more flexible and convenient than the other platforms. The whole application is developed by arranging all the frames in Flash and these frames are controlled by action script. This script contains the functions to play, stop, playing certain frame and stopping certain frame.

When user started the application, a window appears with all the instructions. So, the user can use the application without complexity. After entering to the next page the equation is represented in visual effect with a nice background. There the equation is replaced by images i.e. variable 'x' is represented by a basket and the number is represented by the number of apples. When user clicks the solve button two apples will move up one from each side. This action represents the equality of subtraction, but the user feels like playing with the images. This action continues until all the numbers are simplified and then this follows same for the variable x (i.e. basket). At last the complicated equation is converted into simplified form. So that user understands the how to solve the equation in step-by-step. The modifications and changes to this application can be made easily. So, the application is suitable for future extension.

After completion of these practice session there is a small quiz to conduct which can improve the confidence and interest. The quiz has the ten questions and each question contains four choices. The participant should select the right one from the four. When the participant chose the right choice the application gives a complement and right symbol and it has a button named as 'next'. So, this allows user to go to the next question. In case of wrong answer is chosen the application gives a wrong symbol with warning and it has a retry button. When the participant clicks the retry button the application goes to that question again.

The process of designing of this system is very dynamic in order to use the system easily. The user can operate the system from the starting and can understand the operation from beginning to the end of the system. The user can understand the application step-by-step from the start when the user started the application. The designing of the application is in a way which can hold the interest of the user. The flash application is much easier in its operation that can be very helpful and interesting. This design allows the user to control the application at any stage in order to clear the doubts. The application is designed in such a manner that the algebraic equation changes with changes of visualized equation.

We can design this application in many of the designing styles like the application may give the answer directly when the equation is entered. The application also may be in a form such that containing only images and removing that images one by one in order to simplify the equation. The application may be in the form of just simple images and then move them to simplify the equation. But this application is designed in a form such that it is with the good and interesting environment. And the images in this application are moving in the curvy direction. This would be more attractable in its behavior.

The data described in this application is very helpful and useful to the dyslexic people. The information used here is entirely useful to the dyslexic people.

### The information used in the application:

- Dyslexia information.
- Dyslexia characteristics and its behavior
- The deficits of dyslexia
- Working memory deficits in adults and children.
- Developmental dyslexia.

The features and design of the application are realistic. The whole application is divided in to sub-divisions. This application is made with good frame work and partitions.

- The design of the application is arranged into different stages and the explanation is given to the stages.
- The application starts with introducing the images which are assigned to the different parameters in the algebraic equation.
- A simple quiz will be conducted after explaining some examples of solutions. The questions in the quiz will be related to the samples so the participant can easily answer the questions.
- Four choices are given for each question and user needs to select the right answer.
- If the user answers right or wrong we designed the symbolic expressions relating to the selected answers with special and interesting effects like multimedia. A complement is given when the participant answered the right answer and is allowed to next question.

With special and interesting features designed in this application can attract the people towards solving algebraic equations and improve their efficiency in solving equations and can overcome their troubles with algebraic equations.

### System requirements

In order to run this application a basic system requirements are needed as listed below.

### Implementation

The implementation of this project is done by introducing flash software. So I select the flash why because it is very convenient to me and can exhibit the desired output and as well as it is very supportive and I have some particular ideas on this flash programming so that it can be very flexible to me such that can make lots of twists and turns with respect to the changing ideas according to the design patterns. The main advantage of the flash software is convenience due to this we can make changes at any stage from the advanced stage to the finishing stage while designing the application. The designing of this application with flash is not only for the reason of convenience but also for the execution of the output with much efficiency with our desired aspects.

At first I decided to design the project with the help of the PHP and asp c# and designing of my project with all I mentioned above software application is very good so far but the only thing what I can say is designing with PHP is convenient for me than the asp c# but the fact that should say is designing with those is a bit complicated to me. So that's why I decided to do the application in flash because I know to develop the program in flash so doing application on flash is very supportive to me due to this reason really preferred to do the application on flash.

So if we develop the software application with some other application the execution of the output is going to vary and the execution is going to be different than what I expected. So for that reason I took my supervisors guidance and words into account I prepared and implemented the design in flash so that I can implement the application which can be very easily to understand by the dyslexic people.

One of The important things I should say about the implementation of this application is if I would had design the application in others software rather than flash it's going to be in convenient to do any modifications so I will fail to implement an application so I can't give an efficient project to the dyslexic people. Especially for this reason keeping the problems of dyslexic people into my view and prepared and implemented the application which is very comfortable to understand the mathematical equations by operating automatically on switches. So I am sure about my implementation on flash is going to help the dyslexics very supportively.

Because on flash we can exhibit the output as we wish and we can create the graphical effects on flash that can make the dyslexics to learn the mathematical equations very interestingly. And we can teach the equations conveniently and easily to make them to understand.

### Results and Evaluation

The aim of the project is to present a good sensible application to the people especially suffering with the dyslexia and its deficits because they are disabled. And the whole result of the project is to provide an easily understanding output result to perform the mathematical equations. So the result of the project should give the solutions of mathematical equations with some special and attractive effects with multimedia. So the result should be user friendly and very much supportive to the user to handle the application very easily to execute the output.

So the result of the project should satisfy each and every aspect of the relating and should attract the disabled people towards to the learning of math equations it should be in a formal way to do the equations. If the result is in complex way the dyslexic people cannot be able to understand the concept because they are disabled particularly suffering with the learning disability. If the result is in a complex way the disabled that is the dyslexic could struggle to understand the concept of mathematical concepts they can't understand as of the normal people. Normal people has that capability to understand the concept even if they find the process is a bit complex so here in this project we are doing our implementation for dyslexic people. So by keeping the problems of dyslexic in our view we should be careful while doing the designing of application that not to give any output of complex concepts that are difficult to understand by the dyslexic people. So we should take care of them to give a formal and an understanding result to them to grasp easily.

The evaluation of this project is going to give an outstanding result that can be capable and handle easily by the dyslexic people as it can lay good foundation to solve the equations and to learn the concepts of the mathematical solutions in their future as well. So to evolve as its best I designed the application in simple format by using the effective and attractive images that can easily make the dyslexic people to concentrate towards to the learning of the typical mathematical equations. As the name suggests that the equation are typical and the normal people can do it by explaining then on black-board as usual but coming to the dyslexic people we need to do something special to make them concentrate towards to the learning

So for that special kind of teaching to the dyslexic people here in this project introduced an interesting objects to solve the typical mathematical equations in an easily and understanding method. Here introduced the objects like the colorful apples with baskets to solve the equations. Why I introduced these objects because the images of apples and the baskets and the wooden tables can attract the dyslexic people towards the learning of the mathematical equations by forgetting the typicality of the equations. So this advantage here introduced the objects of colorful thing to make them happy towards to the learning and explains them by doing solution with these objects. Here the images play an important role of teaching to the dyslexic people.

A strong confidence indulged in me that this application I going to help the dyslexic people to help a long by dragging their minds towards to the mathematical learning of the typical mathematical equations in an understandable methods of solving and obtaining the result. One more advantage of introducing the image objects such as apples and baskets to teach the mathematical equations as the images are very solid and realistic and therefore they can remember the concept forever and make to fix in their mind. So therefore they can overcome these solutions in future in all the fields of solving of typical mathematical solutions.

### Visual guide of the application

The visual guide allows the user to understand the application easily. When the user starts the application, a window appears as shown below.

This page explains about the visual representation of the equation to help the user to understand. There will be a go button which allows the user to go into the application. The window appears as below after pressing the GO button.

In this we can see a visual representation of an equation 2X+3=X+5. It is made to understand the solution easily. And there is a button named Solve this allows the user to solve the equation. When process is started the images of apples one from each side moves towards up. Then second images follow the same process and so on until all apples are finished either of the sides. When the user clicks the solve button that button will disappear and a stop button will appears on this allows the user to stop the application at any time to clarify the doubts. The window be like below the user can stop the application at any time.

When user clicks the stop button the screen will be like below. The user can stop the application at any time.

After finishing apples any one of the two sides the application looks like below. Here user needs to click the solve button in order to proceed further.

Once the solve button is clicked the baskets follow the same process of apples until the baskets are finished from any one of two sides.

The solve button will disappear after clicking on it and the stop button will appear and vice versa.

At last the solution will be displayed after all the calculations made. And a next button will be there and it allows the user to go to another equation.

When the next button is pressed the application follows the same process as the first equation. After finishing the solutions another window appears as follows.

This page intimates that we are going to participate in a small quiz. The following window appears after pressing the go button. We can see a question with four choices. The user needs to select right answer from the four answers.

If the answer given by the participant is correct a compliment appears as follows. And there will be a next button which allows the participant to go to next question.

When the next button is pressed the participant can go to next question. If the participant gives the wrong answer the window appears as below with warning and a retry button.

In this screen the retry button allows the participant to go to the previous question which is answered wrongly. So, that user can retry the question. After finishing all the questions the last screen appears as below. And the score will be displayed.

### Future work

The intended things that which I am going to do in the upcoming of my areas of study and the dissertation are going to discuss them briefly as already I gained some knowledge with the experience of doing research and the study about dyslexia in this entire project. So with this experience and so I am going to describe briefly about my work that which I am planning to do with this practice so I decided to present the application software equations solving for the dyslexic more than this which we done in this project particularly in the solving of double, fractional and higher order equation to help and overcome in solving of any kind of equations by the dyslexic people in any situation and at any time

By introducing objects and images to make the dyslexic people to understand the concepts of mathematical equations in a simple procedure so here I show only solving of the single form equations. And after this in future if have time and chance I can be able to perform the equations in the double form and also the equation that consists of variables consists of X and y form.

The following solutions that can be possible for me to give some fantastic presentations especially for the dyslexic people who are suffering in the fields of mathematics particularly in performing the equations which are difficult to them.

- If I get a chance in future to do some of the interesting projects which I am doing at present it can be able to do the solving of double equations by gaining the experience and the practice with the current project what I am doing now.
- So in the sense it can be able to do the programming in solving the fractional equations such as x/y and the equations like 2/3 as well with practice of the present project I can be able to design the project to do the equations of changing variables.
- So by designing the application in an easy way that what we have designed now it can make the dyslexic people to understand the concepts in an easy way and simple so that they change their mind towards to the interest of learning typical mathematical solutions and can execute possible results and can perform solutions of mathematical solutions as well.
- So by understanding and learning the typical mathematical equations with the help of the friendly designs of software application which is designed by me and in future they can perform sharply in doing typical mathematical solutions.
- So in future I am thinking that I can make the designs which can show the symbols of positive learning for the dyslexic people towards the mathematical solutions. And they can handle the equation without showing the symbols of uninteresting.
- So one more interesting thing I should say that by doing the application software on different equations it should remember that we should not follow the same images and objects to solve the equations other than the application what we are doing now. So by replacing the objects instead of the objects which we are using and solving the equations the dyslexic people couldn't feel the boar and they can show very much interest in solving the typical and different type of mathematical equations. So we should remember about the replacing of images while teaching new equations to the dyslexic to delete the feeling of observing the same picture images so from this we should observe that there should be a replacement of images while performing the higher order equations. To make the dyslexic people to participate in doing so.
- So we should note that we need to do daily to daily updates to make the dyslexic people interesting towards doing in the typical equations the profit of updating the images and effects while performing newer equations would arise the new interests in them in doing and learning of new equations and so on very interestingly.

### Conclusion

So finally I came to explain that this project is going to be an ultimate source of solution to the dyslexic people that who is suffering with learning disabilities in different fields. I am coming to explain the detailed version of my designed project and on what basis I designed this project.

Dyslexia can be defined as the defect that found especially in the field of learning and reading inabilities totally it can be defined as the lacking of reading and writing, learning, spelling etc and therefore it is a worst problem that is troubling the people in the areas of different fields. The dyslexic people can study but they can't remember for a long time what they studied before a short time period of time. So coming to the learning they can learn the things which are very easy and possible for them but not the big equations such as simple calculation equation even they cannot solve the simple equation if explain the equations normally in a class atmosphere as of the ordinary people . Coming to the normal people if we teach the equations on the normal black board they can understand easily and we do the same teaching on black-board to the dyslexic people they can't be able to understand.

To overcome this type of situation and to teach the dyslexic people to teach the mathematical solutions and make them to remember forever I design an excellent way of teaching method designed with the help of flash software and this is designed with the combination of images that includes multimedia effects that can attract the dyslexic towards to the learning of mathematical equations and to make them to concentrate towards to the learning equations we need to include some attractive moving images and with the help of that moving images we are going to solve the equations and starts to explain. This kind of teaching and explanation will help the dyslexic to learn and solve the equations very easily. And can understand very easily how to solve the equations whenever they needed in different kinds of situations.

Finally I came to conclude that this project is going to shape as an outstanding and an ultimate source to the dyslexic who are suffering from the learning difficulties. And I hope this project can evolve as solution for the understanding new methods of teaching which can be a useful tool for the dyslexic that can overcome the solving of mathematical equations and learn the further mathematical equations of the higher order to perform their best in all the fields because mathematics is an important subject in our daily life.

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