PPC - production planning and control

LTRATURE REVIEW

Last year couple of authors tried their best to attempt to identify production planning and control (PPC) top authors. Fernandes et al. published an article whose main goal is to identify the top PPC authors by means of a survey on PPC researchers. They identified top 10 authors, their influence and impact in PPC. The main contributions of Fernandes et al.

“Identified (among a great number of books regarding PPC) the books that has more influence on the PPC area

Guided the study of PPC by means of presenting the main books and authors of PPC

Showed the most valuable work of the PPC top authors, initiating a process of determining who the PPC gurus are”. Fernandes et al. (July 2009)

“variability is a well-known problem in construction projects which leads to the general deterioration of project performance. In this paper, the authors report on a detailed research analyzing this relationship during the construction phase of a home building project at activity and project levels. By doing so, two indexes proposed

i. An activity planning reliability index called the process reliability index (PRI) &

ii. A project aggregate labor productivity index, called the project productivity index (PPI).

Statistical analyses using the proposed indexes conducted showing positive and strong relationships between planning reliability and performance at activity and project levels. The research findings provide the guidelines of a preliminary methodology to forecast the impacts of planning reliability over project performance when lean production methodologies are applied in project planning and control”. (Gonzalez, et al. July 2008). Investigated the relationship between planning reliability and project performance and found out that

Tried to explain remote scheduling of production activities they said “remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production. This paper also proposes design guidelines and performance measures against which production managers can evaluate and improve their solutions”. (Orsoni et al. July 2007)

Did some work on distributed production planning and control agent-based system and said “remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions, highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production”. (Lima, R. M. et al. October 2006)

“Refining a Workload Control (WLC) concept to improve the applicability of the approach to the shop characteristics found in practice. This is a two-stage process leading to significant conceptual refinements to a key WLC methodology. The first stage focuses on the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a WLC concept designed for Make-To-Order (MTO) companies. Refinements made include changes to the backwards scheduling procedure and the way in which jobs are released onto the shop floor. The second stage focuses on the process of implementation. Using a case study of a MTO company, the paper describes the strategy taken to overcome a number of prerequisites to the successful implementation of a Production Planning and Control (PPC) concept. Issues addressed include grouping machines and determining capacities. This case study adds to the available literature by looking specifically at implementing WLC from the customer enquiry stage, while the case study experience also provides further refinements to the WLC concept”. (Stevenson, Mark Feb2006). Conducted research on

“Manufacturing companies often complain about the difficulties they face in meeting their customers logistic requirements. Many blame the perceived inadequacies of their production planning and control (PPC) software for their performance deficits. PPC software is just one of six configuration aspects of the entire PPC system. The authors argue that the configuration of the PPC aspects objectives, processes, objects, functions, responsibilities and tools has carried out methodically and consistently in order for the PPC system to function properly. The analysis of examples of so-called `stumbling blocks' of PPC, inadequate configurations of one or several of the aspects supports this claim. There investigation closes with the proposal of a checklist that the authors suggest as a first approach to ensure the consistent configuration of PPC systems”. (Wiendahl et al. Oct 2005). Investigated Stumbling blocks of PPC they found out

M. Stevenson et al. (March 2005) presented a review of production planning and control. The paper reviews classic approaches to Production Planning and Control (PPC) such as Kanban, Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) and Theory of Constrains (TOC) and elaborates upon the emergence of techniques such as Workload Control (WLC), Constant Work In Process (CONWIP), Paired cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization (POLCA) and web- or e-based Supply Chain Management (SCM) solutions. A critical assessment of the approaches from the point of view of various sectors of the Make-To-Order (MTO) Industry presented. The paper considers factors such as the importance of the customer enquiry stage company size degree of customization and shop floor configuration and shows them to play a large role in the applicability of planning and control concepts. The paper heightens the awareness of researchers and practitioners to the PPC options, aids managerial system selection decision-making, and highlights the importance of a clear implementation strategy. WLC emerges as the most effective Job Shop solution; whilst for other configurations there are several alternatives depending on individual company characteristics and objectives. The paper outlines key areas for future research, including the need for empirical research into the use of Workload Control in small and medium sized MTO companies.

Zülch G.,Fischer J. (March 2003) enumerated that during the realization of the CAESAR planning games, which has been supported by the European Leonardo da Vinci Programmed the use of modular planning games within a global scenario has shown to be very effective in concisely relaying educational content from the area of production management. In particular the close-to-reality situations have proven time and again to be highly motivating for seminar participants. In order to improve the transferability of acquired knowledge into practice the IFAB-Institute of Human and Industrial Engineering of the University of Karlsruhe has further developed the INSIGHTS-PPC planning game for production planning and control in such a way that the planning tasks to be tackled are set in direct relation to market similar repercussions. This realized in a new market share model. The market share model explained, paying particular attention to the practical consequences, which come along with the implementation of such a model. Despite the potential of the developed market share model and the positive feedback from seminar participants there is a risk of the participants being diverted from the intended educational content, that of production logistic fundamentals and techniques, and of them perceiving the focus of the seminar as a relaying of market mechanisms.

Found out “there is much computer-aided production planning and control (PPC) systems available on the market which can provide a solution to the complex task of production planning and control. However, the question remains, how can a company find an optimal system from the vast amount of available systems”? (Starbek M. &Grum J. December 2000)

“There are numerous tools available to be used for production planning and control purposes. The number of tools is ever increasing, and so are the levels of sophistication as well as complexity. For the specific manufacturing firm, the task of selecting the most appropriate set of tools is not trivial. However, in recent years, the understanding of the relationship between tools and manufacturing environments for which they are suitable has increased. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of production planning and control tools available today, as well as new trends, issues and ideas”. Olhager J. &Wikner J. (April 2000) Worked on Production planning and control tools,

“closing product and material cycles have emerged as a paradigm for industry in the 21st century, and are directed towards an economical and responsible use of our limited resources. Disassembly plays a key role in recycling. It enables the recovery of functioning components for re-use of pure materials for re-utilization and the separation of harmful substances. Major challenges presented by the enormous variety of products disassembled, by uncertainty as to quantity and by their unknown properties. An appropriate planning and control of disassembly processes is essential for an economic disassembly. Based on an investigation of the suitability of common production planning and control (PPC) methods for disassembly, a specific disassembly planning and control concept (DPC) outlined”.

Wiendahl et al. (December 1999). Touched a general approach to disassembly planning and control and their findings are

“In a business era characterized by a dazzling rate of change, the improvement of production planning and control begins to be a main objective for manufacturing industries. This paper postulates four main statements to be considered for the design of production plans and control systems (PPC-systems) comprising human and technical sub-systems. The first is that production models required for the design of PPC-systems (i.e. design models) cannot be identical to production models required for planning and control of production systems (i.e. regulatory models). The design of PPC-systems must primarily focus on the quality of interaction between the regulatory models. This insight supports the second statement, which postulates that the design of PPC-systems requires a complementary design approach. Complementary design means to take explicitly into account that human and technical sub-systems- based on the differences in strengths and weaknesses of both- can achieve through their interaction a new quality, possible neither to human nor technical sub-systems alone. The third statement is that a complementary design of PPC-systems will only be possible if a fundamental change of mind from a static to a dynamic as well as from a technical to a socio-technical perception (i.e. a complete perception) of production systems takes place. Without a complete perception of production systems, designed PPC-systems will not be sufficiently reliable, maintainable and flexible, will be difficult to comprehend, and their elements will not be re-usable for further applications. The fourth statement is that the integral support of the design process requires a dual modeling framework comprising a meta- and an object-model. Considering these fundamental insights that were confirmed by a practical case study, a dual modeling framework for the design of PPC-systems which incorporates criteria for complementary design is outlined”. Moscoso P. G et al. (November 1999)

Investigated on modeling framework for complementary design of production planning and control systems and said

“A production system's typology and a compact PPC software reference model are included in the knowledge base, which created. The inferences made based on rules that relate a semantic network of PPC software features with a semantic network of production systems' attributes. The results given by the expert system include the module architecture and the set of features of the PPC software package, which are applicable in a certain manufacturing setting”. Tatsiopoulos I. P. &Mekras N.D. (July 1999) tried to find out an expert system for the selection of production planning and control software packages and presents a rule-based expert system that can be used for the selection of a suitable production planning and control (PPC) software package to be applied in a manufacturing firm.

Wiendahl H-P. &Breithaupt J-W. (June 1999) Worked on modeling and controlling the dynamics of production systems and infrared that nowadays, in a fast-changing production environment, companies have to adapt their production structures rapidly. Therefore new methods for production planning and control (PPC) are required that consider these dynamic changes. Today's PPC systems mainly based on static models now a dynamic production model has been developed applying methods of control theory. Using the funnel model and the theory of the logistic operating curve, a continuous model of a single production system developed. For the control task, backlogs as well as a work-in-process (wip) controller developed. The controllers interact to adjust the capacity and input rate of the work system to eliminate the backlog as soon as possible and to set the wip to a defined level. Simulation experiments confirm that this concept ensures the synchronization of capacity and work. In an ongoing research project, an extended model for several work systems connected via the material flow designed, which based on the elementary one. A suggestion to integrate the strategy into PPC on the planning level already been generated. The objective of this approach is to develop the present open-loop control realized in PPC into a closed-loop control with defined control and reference variables.

“the performance of an FMS significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effectively utilized by integrating process planning and PPC functions. The various types of flexibility to be planned and provided for in process planning and manufacturing are summarized in the article, as well as emerging conceptual frameworks for integration, along with their implementation requirements and problems. Distinctive elements that differentiate these frameworks, such as the extent of integration of process planning and PPC activities, number of alternative process plans, and the time at which numerical control programs are generated, are discussed, followed by a brief summary of the articles compiled for this special”. (Gaalman G.J.C. &Suresh N.C. February 1999)

Conducted research work towards an Integration of Process Planning and Production Planning and Control for Flexible Manufacturing Systems and this introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows

“the growing number of production enterprises that use software systems to support the production planning and control (PPC-systems) and the limited life-time of these systems imply that many enterprises have to decide whether or not an existing PPC-system is worthwhile reengineering. The factors that have an impact on this decision are non-quantifiable”. Luczak H. Et al. (July 1998)

Analyzed PPC-systems, re-engineering or replacement and concluded

Porter, J.K. et al. (1996) discussed Production planning and control system developments in Germany and briefly explained the impact of MRP on UK manufacturing industry in the context of the next generation of developments. Draws a contrast with production planning and control systems in Germany, which derive shop floor control through different architecture of business control systems. Presents the state of these developments in Germany as analyzed by a leading academic institution (the FIR at Aachen University of Technology). Compares this with UK developments, as seen by the Liverpool short-term scheduling group, which recently has analyzed production planning/ scheduling practice in a range of different companies across various industry types.

In early 1990s computer aided process planning with relation to production planning and control brought into practice, which provided integration between both of them, “Introduces concepts for the integration of Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Production Planning and Control (PPC). Characterizes the current situation regarding integration by a one-way communication from CAPP to PPC, since a revised link not envisaged. Introduces a new approach to full integration by the extension of functions within both systems' components as well as integration of both data and information technology”. (Hermann Kühnle et al. 1994)

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