Principles of management


The management are the people who guide the team in a right path wherein all together working for the same goal of success. They have to work together with Sincerity, Unity, Courage, Communication, Enthusiasm, Strengths, and Secrets of the company to form the ultimate chain of SUCCESS. The manager who runs the team should have proper interaction with each and every team member with proper updates and feedbacks. Also have to take active participation whatever happens within the team and team members. Since the manager knows about each and every member of his team, has to check with the daily metrics where that particular team member is lacking behind and has to make sure that the person has been well trained, again have to check for the daily metrics to give the feedback. Also have to sympathise and empathise with the person having any personal issues as well. Every individual team player also has to develop knowledge, confidence, time management and sincerity to be a part in the growth of the company. According to the Mintzberg's managerial roles manager should have quality of leader by motivation and activation of subordinates for staffing and for associated duties. Manager have to monitor various activity and to receive wide range of special information to develop the organization. (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004, p495).

Management also have to face the risk factor in all aspects, regarding their own team member's issues and also from the competitor perspective. The management has to take a right decision when taking any risk which should not affect the growth of the company and also have to see the financial criteria as well. If any risk factor is taken it has to be handled in a way that the company overcomes that crisis as earlier as possible with success in taking that risk. The whole team has to work together with proper interaction and dedication to make the risk as a success. Each team player has to be committed with their own work, so all team members work together of common commitment. By virtue of his interpersonal contacts, both with his subordinates and with his network of contacts, the manager emerges as the nerve centre of his organizational unit. He may not know everything, but he typically knows more than any member of his staff Mintzberg (1975).

There are a wide range of theories which can be implemented to improve the growth of a particular concern. And these are the two theories which I experienced in the concern which I worked for.

  1. Maslow`s theory.
  2. Goal Theory.
  3. McClelland's Theory of motivation.

Maslow`s Hierarchy of needs theory:

One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1940-50's USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever.

I worked for an MNC in India named CSS (Cybernet Slash Suppport) is a call centre in which we give technical support for the customers calling from US and UK regarding the installation of networking devices like modems, router, cameras, adapters etc.

In my company the basic need was a graduate with little bit of computer background who knows to speak English with neutral accent. Since I had their requirement I got selected and was put under a team. For the first time I worked with a team with people having little bit of experience and knowledge whereas I was a fresher. So as per Maslow`s diagram I had the basic requirements need by the company.

Working with the team gave me lot of experience and knowledge about time management, and relationship with leaders. At first it was very difficult to get along with the team since my other team members had bit experience in handling calls. The other members in the team will finish the work effortlessly within the given time limit, but I struggled a lot by putting my complete effort to finish the task within the given time limit, but finally I completed my task after the given time limit. So I was clearly monitored by my team leader since I was the bottom performer in my team.

Then I was given special training by my leader which was my last chance to perform in this company, else I have to leave the company. And my leader gave me training technically and personally as well, which motivated me to do my best with liking towards the job. Finally I did my best and finished the task within the time limit. Since my team leader motivated me, created a good relationship with the leader as per Maslow`s theory.

Goal Theory:

Goal theory is about how leader motivate subordinate to accomplish designated goal (Peter g, 2010, p125). The leader, the challenge is to use a leadership style that best meets subordinates motivational needs. (Peter g, 2010, p125).

In the concern which I worked the leader motivated me well which helped me a lot not only in technical work but also personally to do all works. Since I was the bottom performer in my team my leader always use to motivate me positively to do my work, but my manager use to discourage me that I am not fit for the job. Since my leader always use to motivate which automatically created a character of motivation in me. From then I use to motivate myself personally and officially whatever I do.

The manager's job is to get the work done from the technicians, so he sets a time limit for each team member in our team in order to get the output. So eventually everyone use to work in order to finish the task within the given time limit. So I motivate myself to complete the work before the time limit given by the manager. I use to set my own time to finish the task which helped me to finish my work earlier, than the time given by the manager. This motivation helped me to get lot of knowledge and experience which also gained me increase in my payroll.

According to the House and Mitchell (1974), leadership generators motivation when it increase the number and kind of payroll that subordinate receive from their work. (Peter g, 2010, p125)

Goal setting and performance

People lacking positive motivation at work may also help gain improved result and a better sense of achievement by setting themselves specific goal and identifying task directly to their work and measurable target of the time and performance. (Laurie and Mullins, 2006, p274)

When I was working in the company I was lacking positive motivation which led me to be the bottom performer in the team. Since my team leader motivated me, it helped me a lot in how to do the work faster. So from then I used to build up positive motivation and I use to motivate myself to do the work better than others by setting own time limit for myself which is earlier than the actual time given.

So all my team members will finish the work within the time limit given by the manager, whereas I would have finished my work before my team members finishes. And finally I was the top performer in my team and got appreciation from the manager who discouraged me before, which again motivated me to be the top performer consistently.

McClelland's Theory of motivation:

David c, McClelland's has contributed to the understanding of motivation by identifying three types of basic motivation needs. He classifies them as the need of power, need of affiliation, and need for motivation. (Koontz and Weihrich, p297)

All three drives- power, affiliation, and achievement are of particular relevance to management, since all must be recognised to make an organization enterprise work well. (Koontz and Weihrich, p297)

Need For Achievement:

Every person in their lifetime they would have achieved something or the other. In the company which I worked, was the place where I learnt about motivation which still helps me to do any kind of work with full dedication towards the work. Since I was the bottom performer in my team in the earlier stage, this motivation given by my leader, leads me finally to be the top performer in the team. So I was promoted to the next level in the team within a short period of time (4 months).

Since I had a good relationship with my co-workers and manager, they use to give me high responsibilities and I was able to tackle any kind of situation easily since I worked sincerely with complete liking and dedication towards work, which led me to become a team leader of a team which I consider was a great achievement in my life. So, every single person who motivates themselves and works with complete dedication and liking towards work with reach the ultimate goal of success within a short period of time.

People with high need for Achievement have an intense desire for the success and equally intense fear of failure. They want to be challenge and they set moderately difficult (but not impossible) goal for themselves. They take a very realistic approach to the risk; they are not likely to be gambler but rather, prefer to analyse and assess problems, assume personal responsibility for getting a job done and likely specific and prompt. (Koontz and Weihrich, p297)

Need for Affiliation:

The company which I worked for had the norms or rules for the company which every employer has to be followed. It was a must for every individual to follow the rules of the company which was also considered for the growth of the employer in the company. One of the managers in the company came to the shift drunk and was noticed by the management and was immediately dismissed from the company. In spite of being the manager of a team he was dismissed since he dint not follow the norms of the company.

I would use to always follow the norms of the company. I will come in for my shift before my check in time and will work even extending my shift, also had a good rapport with the team members. Since I was promoted as a team leader and was already a team player before was able to know about each individual clearly which helped me to know which work to be given to whom and whom has to be well trained in where they are lacking behind. So I always had a proper relationship, interaction and active participation with my team members in updating all the information's and techniques to give the output soon.

People with high need for affiliation usually derive pleasure from being loved and tend to avoid the pain of being rejected by a social group. As individual, they are likely to be concerned with maintaining pleasant social relationship to enjoy a sense of intimacy and understanding, to be ready to console and help other in trouble and enjoy friendly interaction with other. (Koontz and Weihrich, p297)

Need for Power:

A leader or a manager has the quality of power by taking or handling any kind of situation which does not affect the growth of the company. Since I was the team leader in the company which I worked, my main job was to get the work done by my team members by giving them proper training and consistently updating the technical information. My job was also to monitor my team in each interval and have to update myself about my team members of their performance.

So after analysing the performance of team I have to give feedback to the team members with hurting anybody's feeling or by discouraging them and have to appreciate who have performed well and have to give proper training to those of them who are lacking behind. So in this kind of situation a leader or manager has to use their power to handle the situation for the growth of the company and also the growth of each individual by motivating them positively.

According to the people with high need for power have a great concern with exercising influence and control such individual are generally seeking position of leadership; they are frequently good conversationalist, though argumentative; they are forcefully outspoken, hard headed, and demanding; and they enjoying Teaching and public speaking. (Koontz and Weihrich, p297)

Organisation as Culture:

Organisational cultures are of many types; power culture, where individual controls everything and group work cannot exits. Hence no feedback from staffs is entertained. There is role culture, where everyone is assigned a role to complete. Most organisations follow this. Staffs know what to do and everyone knows their boundaries (Mullins 2007: p.722-723).

Power Culture:

The power culture is, every individual have their own power to take their own decision since they are not working in a group.

For Example: I participated in a group work in my tutor VINCE DISPENZA class which was an activity cave rescue. So the total class were divided into 5 groups having 6 members in each group. So the task given to us was to rescue the people who were trapped in the cave and the people who were trapped in the cave were given importance in different order which is equally important that we have to rescue all.

So we worked as a group, but there were no proper co-ordination in my group. No one was ready to interact with each other, so I took the leadership and gave my own ideas and tried to interact with my group members. But they were not showing interest and also not ready to give their own points. So finally I had to give my own points when discussed with my tutor. So this power culture exists only in a very small group like this and cannot exist in an organization.

Role Culture:

The role culture is, every individual will be assigned a task where they have to work in groups. Here an individual cannot work separately or cannot take an own decision without discussing with the team members or leaders like the power culture.

For Example: In the organization which I worked, I had to work only in groups. Since I was the team leader my job was to mainly get the works done from the team members of my team by giving them proper training in order to get the output. So here it is not possible to work separately like the power culture.

So this role culture is followed by all organization to make the work easier and simpler.

Organisation as a processor of information:

Information is a critical part of any business we take. Proper information will lead to the success of a firm.

For e.g. information about customer needs, information on what products will satisfy those needs, and how those products can be prepared and delivered, and so on. The idea of information processor highlights that an organisation is successful if it uses its information efficiently and learns to go on using it (Wickham,P,2006:P.276).

Organisation as Social system:

Social system consists of hierarchical ordering; number of subsystems, interdependence, and one component depends on other and permeability. (Farace et al., 1977) said system is input-throughput-output.

That is a system "inputs" material and works on this input which is "throughput" and gives the "output". (Miller 1995: p.87-89)

A simple organization can be a very good example of a system, explained by two authors above. Organisation has subsystems like staff, team leader, manager, CEO Etc. They all are interdependent and takes input in the form of information or projects and works among them and gives out the output as product. Hence, they can form social system.

Effective 'reading' of the situation being addressed encounters using the manger's creative ability that gives way to do things differently or new leverage in solving complex issues. 'Reading' itself does not denote a mechanical process or the application of the metaphors discussed above. It is about building a relationship with a vastly complex phenomenon to understand it by analysing it in different angles. (Morgan, 2006: p.361).

These different perspectives of organisation are not mutually exclusive; indeed to the some extent they are complementary. There is no proper perspective which an organisation follow but these are one of the perspectives which organisation do follow.

Change Management:

Apart from these perspectives discussed above this is also necessary that a manager should take care. Managers often think that 'change' can be a problem but sometimes managers forget that 'change' can also be the solution for their problems.

All managers must realize that one cannot separate change management from organizational strategy. According to Burnes(2004),change is now a present future of organizational life(Paton,R & McCalman,J ,2008:p.39).

As the figure says, for developing an old organisation into new improved one requires change. The scope for change management are managing project, quality, corporate development, IT and in human resource (Recklies,O,2001).

Another point to be noted is that once the change has been done there is no chance to 'undo' mistakes. Once a manager fails in the change management process, there is hardly any chance for him to motivate the employees again.

There may also be many barriers to change. There may be barriers of perception like stereotypes in analysis, misjudgement etc. Also, emotional barriers like fear to make mistakes, not spending enough time to think.

There may be environmental barriers like lack of support from the staffs, lack of accepting criticism when others do.

At last there may be cultural barriers like tradition. It is very challenging task to overcome traditions. Character of a taboo in an organisation can also cause a problem (Recklies,O,2001).




  • Morden, T (1988). Principles of management. 2nd ed. England: Ashgate Publishing Limited. p90.
  • Morden, T (1988). Principles of management. 2nd ed. England: Ashgate Publishing Limited. p248.

Please be aware that the free essay that you were just reading was not written by us. This essay, and all of the others available to view on the website, were provided to us by students in exchange for services that we offer. This relationship helps our students to get an even better deal while also contributing to the biggest free essay resource in the UK!