Parents do face several Challenging Behaviors exhibited by their infant children. Some of these characteristic challenges parents face in the early ages of their children include inconsolable crying, aggression, slow-to-warm-up children, sleep as well as defiance. However, it is imperative to note that at a particular time no two infants are precisely alike.Each and every baby is born its own manner of understanding and approaching the world. In other words, each and every child has distinctive temperament.Temperament formulates and modifies behavior of a child.The article clearly articulates that children exhibits aggression because their egos and emotions are gross. That babies cry as a normal way to communicate and express their hunger, distress, discomfort, or a need for parent's attention. However, some have colic cries. They too should be attended. According to the article, slow-to-warm-up children are shy toddlers who are extremely cautious with unfamiliar individuals or in new circumstances and situations. Further, the article offers that toddlers are often defiance and oppositional to the extreme. Such a child merely attempts to assert itself into the world. Children with big and intense emotional reactions as well as those who are more careful and shy may perhaps be more oppositional compared to children whose temperament are more relaxed and supple.
The article provides that these challenging behaviors are dropped with time as a child cognitively develops. For instance a shy child will be hugged by the unknown relative once they acquaint themselves with them and those defiant will abandon some uncouth behavior once they realize that such acts are not embraced. The article offers remedies for parents in such particular situation.
The popular multiple intelligences theory was put forward by Howard Gardner in the year 1983 to further precisely define the idea of intellect and also to look into the subject whether ways which purport to gauge intelligence are indeed scientific. In this regard, the theory of multiple intelligences argues that intelligence, principally as it is conventionally defined; never satisfactorily take in the broad variety of aptitudes humans do display. In his idea, Gardner hints that a child, who duly masters with ease multiplication, is necessarily not extra intelligent by and large than one who puts great effort to do so(Gardner; 2002; 4) . He argues that the second child might be superior in another category of intelligence and for that reason could best discover the particular material via a dissimilar approach. Further, Gardner states that the second child may perhaps excel in another area outside of mathematics, or possibly will even be viewing at the multiplication procedure at a fundamentally in-depth level, that can result into an apparent slowness that conceals a mathematical intellect that is potentially superior to that of a child who effortlessly learns the multiplication table (Gardner; 2002; 4).
Gardner's multiple intelligence theory proposals of basic sorts of intelligence are nine-fold and they comprise logical-mathematical, musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, verbal-linguistic, naturalistic and existential (Gardner; 2002; 4). For kindergarten, the teacher can teach farm animals by making drawing on charts various farm animals and then painting them according to their common real life pigmentation. It is also prudent to name the animals on the charts and then stick the charts on the classroom wall. The teacher can also use effectively plasticine (modeling clay) to model figures of various farm animals. Here, the clay that is used should have same color as that of the natural animal. A modeled animal with the right hue will help achieve visual-spatial intelligence as it gives the image of the animal in 3-D. charts on the other hand help the teacher to stimulate the learner's verbal-linguistic intelligence. Other multiple intelligence like naturalistic, logical-mathematical, , interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, musical-rhythmic and existential are achieved via models.
Human growth and development is a lasting process of cognitive, behavioral, emotional as well as physical growth and eventual change. At the age of 4-5 years, children cognitively learn and interact with world via play activities from where they start to understanding the world through discovery and feel inquiring about identity and environs. They are also able to recognize what is bad and good and further be able to obey the rules. In the early years, name writing might characterize a child's initial step in using print as a means of communication (Scholnick, 2002; 97). She says further that name writing skills may well mirror an understanding of the principle of the alphabet. However, a lot of children depart elementary school with their reading and writing skills notably under expectations. Generally, early literacy skills that learners need and are discovered to be essential predictors of future good reading skills are phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge as well as vocabulary knowledge (Scholnick, 2002; 101).
According to Scholnick (2002; 101) emphases should be made on the links amid language, literacy, as well as symbols like print and writes Scholnick states that there are a number of inroads into comprehending and varied potentials to connect notations, symbols, language, and thinking.
Skills like phonological awareness have been acknowledged as important background to learning fundamental reading skills and a consequence of reading experience. For instance, English is a language of alphabet whereby letters (orthography) are directly connected to explicit phonemes (sounds) and to morphemic elements. Alphabet knowledge is included in studies of little children's literacy skills development. Associating orthography with their subsequent sounds is crucial for decoding words and it plays a significant role in permitting the learner to move from identification of print to learning the means to process graphic and pictorial cues in words (Adams, 1990, p. 143). The vocabulary knowledge development is an imperative part of language learning. Vocabulary knowledge offers an estimation of real word knowledge. This is basic to understanding text (Adams, 1990, p. 145).
According to Jean Piaget, kids developed superlative in a classroom setting with interaction. Piaget did believe in two fundamental principles concerning moral education. He said that children build up moral values in four stages and that a child creates their notion of the world. According to Jean Piaget, the child is superstar who makes his personal moral world outlook. He formulates ideas about wrong and right as well as fair and unfair, which are not the express produce of grown-up teaching and which are frequently preserved in the features of the mature wishes to the contrary. Piaget trusted that kids made moral decision based on their individual observations of the world.
Vygotsky's social theory did emphasize the effect of peers, culture and adults on the child's development. He proposed the zone of proximal development (ZPD). ZPD refers to the distinction in a child's presentation when she tries a problem individually compared with when an adult provides assistance. The assistance from the adult is known as scaffolding. Just like the scaffolding of a structure aids to sustain it, assist from adults helps carry the child's development.
The Information-Possessing Theory proposed that the human mind like a computer is a system that does process information via the appliance of rational rules as well as strategies. Information-processing theory suggests that like a computer, children become additionally sophisticated thinkers via changes in their intellect as well as sensory systems (hardware) and further in the conventions and strategies (software) which they learn.
The Piaget, Vygotsky and information-processing theories all agree that for learning to occur there must be interaction between the learners and the environment as well as learners with learners. Like cognitive development theory of Piaget, the information-processing theory that children do play a vigorous role in their individual development. Via self-modification, a child uses facts and strategies it has obtained from earlier difficult resolution to transform its responses to an unfamiliar situation or problem. In this manner, a child builds newer and extra classy replies from prior knowledge. Vygotsky on his part did stress the significance of a child's educational milieu as a result to the developmental stages. Since diverse cultures do stress dissimilar social contacts, this did challenge Piaget's theory which states the pecking order of cognitive development had to build up in succession.
The information processing approach was the most connecting. It explains the transition involved in human development from stage wise or personality disparities in cognitive progress was the mainly connecting.
- Adams, M. J. Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.1990.
- Gardner. "Interpersonal Communication amongst Multiple Subjects: A Study in Redundancy," Experimental Psychology. 2002.
- Hetherington & Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 5th ed.. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1999
- National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families 2000 M St. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036 Snider, V. E. A primer of phonemic awareness: What it is, why it's important, and how to teach it. School Psychology Review, 25, 443-455. 1995.
- Scholnick, E.K. . Language, literature, and thought: Forming a partnership. 2002. 101