International Tourism in Developing Countries
International tourism as a fact brings in a lot of foreign financial resources but then it also brings in a lot of drawbacks. The author here calls them leakages. He defines leakage as a process where the foreign exchange generated by tourism is lost due to few reasons like importing ,paying loans and promotions. The other factor influencing the leakage is the type of tourism being promoted. For example high income tourism will require very high quality and high priced goods to be imported. This will lead to a major leakage though providing high foreign exchange. Mass tourism has a higher potential in lowering the income than the ecological and adventure tourism.
In order to correct and evaluate the return on investments it is essential to take up a cost of opportunity study .This study will establish a leakage break- even point and thus will help in choosing the suitable project. Secondly the anti-competitive practices that affect tourism sustainability. Notably the tour operators the hotels and the travel agencies have fierce competitions with themselves. People tend to take up tour packages as they are cheaper and better, but due to the travel agencies having tie ups with smaller firms and the profit margin is low as the competition is high.The benefits and expenses of package tours to service suppliers in rising countries depend to a huge extent on the nature and conditions of the contracts between them and the tour operators from the tourism-originating countries. Accordingly, the bargaining powers of suppliers from developing countries are a central issue affecting the tourism sustainability of developing countries.
Article : journal of economic cooperation 24,1 2003
Topic : Problems and Prospects of Sustainable Tourism Development in The OIC Countries :Ecotourism
Author: Nabil Dabour
The tourism industry is showing sustained expansion and has achieved global acknowledgment as a major segment. Yet the tourism industry is struggling to cope with the ecological effects. Environment and social accountability is not entirely defined by many industrial players especially those of the ecotourism segment which is the unique. The issues in tourism in diversified countries are due to its own touristic features. The following are the reasons or issues in tourism sustainability.
Lack of knowledge and awareness - Few countries still lack in basic economic importance of tourism as an industry and its potential of bringing in foreign exchange and employment.
Lack of tourism safety and diversification- Modern touristic approach is towards diversification and change. Tourism developers should stick with new rapidly changing requirements of tourists. Should be ready to change to new demands and technologies.
Lack of technical know-how and weak promotional activity- Even though tourism awareness is there in many countries there are no people to bring it out .The promotions are not stronger and not exposed.
Lack of tourism-related infrastructures -
Many countries lack in infrastructure necessary for tourism development. Like hotels, transportation, communication, safety etc.
Lack of tourism investments- Investment in tourism is being regarded a high risk but in tourism developing countries reasonable financing should be provided for certain projects.
Lack of consistent tourism strategies and policies
- Conflicts with policies and strategies between government and tourism agencies.
Article -The Challenges to Sustainability in Island Tourism
Author - Pauline J. Sheldon
School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii
Occasional Paper 2005-01, October 2005
The author discusses about the issues in island tourism sustainability. The following issues rise up when the density of tourist increases
- cultural and political consequences.
For example Malta, has high tourist and high residents and thus has issues with sustainability.
Measures have to be taken to access and prevent tourism density or saturation. They have to take up measure s like economic measure, social measure and environmental measure. The author measures tourism by using an index called Tourism Penetration Index. TPI include three variables
- Visitor spending per capita of population. (Economic measure)
- Average daily visitor. (Social measure)
- Hotel rooms per square kilometre. (Environmental measure)
With this measure the islands with low TPI had issues with profitability and the high TPI is to sustain vacation quality.
Economic issues have aroused due to the limited economic health of the island. The islands have limited resource and tourism is the provider of revenue and employment for the local population. Fishing is less reliable and due to the effects of global warming the fish population is being depleted. Thus the tourism in island needs to be redesigned and the taxation policies, entrepreneurial subsidies, and investment incentives are all useful to strengthen the economy. The author suggests islands should have their own governance to gain most economy. Tourism in islands is seasonal and that is another challenge to tourism sustainability Environmental issues like floods, biodiversity in danger can all be a factor in sustainability. Too much of tourist can create too much of waste which is an issue for disposal.
Islands face complex socio-cultural issues, particularly those with indigenous populations. Tourism on islands, particularly small ones, brings hosts and guests into closer contact than on mainland destinations, creating a more vulnerable situation for social disruption. Crime, commoditization of culture, and loss of traditional lifestyles, moral standards and family life impact islands more than mainland destinations. Studies of resident sentiment and response to tourism in the islands of Malta and Hawaii (2003, Sheldon et al 2005) show the importance of this component. Community integration is key to successful and sustainable tourism development (Mitchell and Reid, 2001), meaning that all islanders affected by tourism must be involved in the planning process. Stakeholders on islands are not only in closer proximity but also have long histories of conflict making it even more important to involve them in the decision-making process (Sheldon et al).
With these issues in mind, solutions and approaches to minimize the problems are discussed in the next section.
Chapman, R. (2007). Sustainability and Tourism. Geodate 20(2). Warringal Publications Tourism sustainability is the major fact as they deal with the assets that are tied to ecotourism. The regions those who practice Ecotourism has the advantageous effects to trim down poverty level. It's also a known fact that Ecotourism plays a major role in preservation of nature. Sustainability has many decisive factors that are related to the economy, society, and to culture. The encouragement of performing sustainability in tourism is a job assigned to the Nature and Ecotourism Program.
The two major hazards that are inherent in tourism are the degradation of the land, due to overdevelopment and misuse of the environment to take the full advantage of tourism revenue. Australian Gold Coast and Spanish Costas are the best cited example. These places had a boom in the 60s to the 80s to become tacky, excessive, and these urbanized people were rational and were not interested to make the environments safe, natural and beautiful again. The other major hazard that was found is the nature of the society which cheapened itself. Due to drastic change in our culture the local life as changed accordingly. The identity of various places and the native inhabitants were destroyed and are also being destroyed in the name of commerce. The significance about ecotourism should be known to everyone, because it is the only way to stop the harms that have been listed above.
The Recognized threat to tourism Can tourism survive 'sustainability'?
Ref: The recognized threat to tourism: Can tourism survive' sustainability'?
Tourism Management, Volume 14, Issue 2, April 1993, Pages 131-136.
How tourism is sustainable?
The two major threats to tourism India are the ecological and development of sustainability. The two threats are the cause of one reason. The degradation of the tourism area due to Industrial activities and the other fact is the growth of sustainable ecological activities. In certain societies like the Australian society the today's burning problem for the tourism sustainability as the Commonwealth and State governments are all involved in this business. The adventure travels, rural and outdoor-oriented are the main sectors that are at risk due to sustainability. The faction of conservation is mainly to protect the tourism industry is by using open water and terrain.
In case of physical deprivation the most important resource of tourism industry will be lost. Sustainability has the capability for caring the future generations while taking care the needs of day today's generation. The tourism and the protection movement have determined different advancement for sustainability such as a biocentric method. The perspective of sustainable ecological is to take approach that is more cautious, while trying to save the natural asset base. The major issues for the sustainability development are the impacts of ecosystem integrity, non-substitutability of certain activities, and species bio-diversity. The need of various allocation of resources not only include the allocation of commercial consumption resources, but they are also the best available information which benefits the future to the fullest. The next major victim to the sustainability is the subject of treat or hope for the industry. The adoption of methodology of sustainability is a greater gain for the tourism industry. And the major threat is the continued as the number of industrial and commercial industries activities for the natural environments are being expanded. A range of large number of pollutants are other in Bourne materials that has damaged the fish stock are usually been used by the tourism industry. Hence the major threat is that whether tourism can really survive sustainability.
Hemmer M, Reiseerziehung in geography education in Germany
This case study pinpoints about tourism, which is the main subject of discussion in geography of Germany. At early 70's, the travel education was practically concerned about the expansion of tourism and on enhancing the traditional analysis of tourist regions. This development has created a way for general paradigm shift in German geography and has played a very important role in the day to day life of the people. All round the year, the tourism focuses on the ability of tourists to plan and execute their own journey plans and the technical and organizational aspects were restricted (e.g. the ideology of producing travel brochures and the planning of the trip). And during 80s, tourism was completely excluded from the school curriculum. It was only during the mid- 1990s tourism had a big boom. Its only through theoretical knowledge, the model of sustainable tourism is constituted. By this context tourist acquires the ability for self-reflective analysis of conflicts between the touristic profit structures and the ability to discuss major solution strategies. One must become sensitive to the environmental issues and should be conscious on the path they travel and should create a life time challenge to take personal responsibility to care about the environment.
This case mainly discusses about tourists sensitiveness to environment and social responsibility for the way of travelling through appropriate teaching units. Also, it is clear that a important change in attitude can be achieved only through attitude dimensions. And this case focuses on the day to day status of tourist's life and on the discussion of evaluating the upcoming analytical approaches.
Gu, HM (Gu, Huimin), Ryan, C (Ryan, Chris),TOURISM MANAGEMENTVolume: 29Issues: 4Pages: 637-647Published: AUG 2008
This paper inspects the problem with respect to the impacts of tourism on the residents in Beijing, but it does this with the subject of reference to the theories of place identity. Literature is concentrated by two concepts. First a comparative need of practical evidence on community impacts of tourism in Mainland China and Second, the lack of conversation about the tourism literature, on place identity. This study involves both quantitative and qualitative measures, but this paper mainly concerned about the results obtained from the quantitative study. Normally, it was found that the tradition which worried about the outweighed assumed advantages from economic development and this function of tradition in the place attachment is only an approximate outcome. Moreover, a structural equation representation is recommended and thereby attitude towards tourism are based upon attitude toward tradition. Place identity as a great impact on tourism and based upon this identity, the tourism as a source of potential employment, place of residency and alleged intrusiveness
Finally, a substantial literature exists on the impacts of tourism are enlightened on local communities and the observations from these tests hoisted the questions about the role of government and self-efficacy in place identity in a Chinese environment
Zeeman, Estelle ,Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences Vol 68(8-A), 2008, pp. 3219
This study examines the importance to develop a community radio station for a South African National Park - Kruger National park. By this ideology the station will be of National benefit to the strategies of employment and proficiency development within the socio-economic support of what the thesis put forth a Parks Emergent Radio Community (PERC). It has two stages namely a theoretical stage and a creative stage, where the unpredictable changes and dynamics of the process of community association, tourism's capacity to lessen poverty and the vital role played by radio are considered and in the creative stage, these findings of the theoretical stage, are implemented in the design of the programme. The contents around the demands of tourism in National Parks, and the collective form of radio are artistically combined into a potential programme design. This study argues for the benefits of the progress of Community Radio Station for National Parks, given the anticipated precipitous growth in the tourist trade in South Africa.
This proposal wraps up the ambiguity of being granted a broadcasting authorization and brings out the sponsors to withdraw promising financial support and introducing the remarkable financial strain on the radio station. This is because a station's sustainability is critical to obtain a broadcast certification from the Independent Communications
Budeanu, Adriana , International Journal of Consumer Studies. Vol 31(5), Sep 2007, pp. 499-508
Study shows that despite of their pronounced optimistic approaches towards tourism sustainability, only a few tourists act accordingly by buying accountable tourism products, prefer environmental friendly mode of transportation or behave conscientiously towards the destination communities. The core obstacle for development towards sustainable tourism is the Minimal support from the customers. Major motive behind this can be that existing proposals are missing customers' interest, which dispirits the industry and governments to persist to support sustainable tourism. Practical measures to encourage sustainable utilization in other regions points out those explicit barriers may exist in the nature of tourist preferences. Taking a vital look at tourism research and literature, this article observes the relationship between reasons for tourists' preferences for the products and services, and environmental enthusiasms. After categorizing the feasible gaps that may explain present failures to reconsider the need of tourist choices, On discussion the thesis brings out the suggestions for the effectiveness of revealing the awareness of raising tools designed to smooth the progress of the shift towards the responsible tourist attitude and actions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (Journal abstract)
This case focuses on the interest to tourists to expand customers' interest towards sustainable tourism. It also concludes by saying that it is mainly concerned with the tourists and their interests.
Gilmore, Audrey1; Simmons, Geoff ,Strategic Change. Vol 16(5), Aug 2007, pp. 191-200
This paper brings out that the strategic marketing management plays an critical role in the development of sustainable tourism principles within National Parks. Sustainable tourism marketing converses about the integration of social, economic and environmental outlook. The study presented here focuses on two major topics: the incorporation and harmonization of tourism activities (conveyed by various organizations) . the use of strategic marketing for sustainable tourism proposals(marketing issues, interpretation, branding, communication messages). Two of the case studies are reported on the basis of above mentioned major topics, one among them is the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) soon to be elected as a National Park and the other is the existing well-established National Park to point up the vital issues subjected in attaining tactical modification in terms of a sustainable marketing ethos within such an environment. A prime finding is that the National Park descriptions materialize to afford a strategic skeleton for sustainable tourism. However, this description has a limited impact in terms of tangible accomplishment of policies and guidelines and influences all pertinent tourist service providers to contribute.
This article brings out the strategic marketing management in sustainable tourism within National Parks.The genuine realization of sustainable tourism relies upon the description of the National Parks.