The Management is defined as an art of getting work done by others. The main task of the manager is to do the work effectively by the skill full workers and staffs under his direction.
According to C.S. George, Management consists of getting things done through others. A manager is one who accomplishes objectives by directing efforts of others. This definition brings in two elements, namely, accomplishment of objectives, and direction of group activities towards the goal.
F.W. Taylor, known as the father of scientific management, has opinioned that "Management is an art of knowing what is to be done and seeing that it is done in the best possible manner". This definition highlights two basic functions, namely, planning and controlling, involved in the process of management.
Henri Fayol, father of modern management, has put forth an appropriate definition. "Management is to forecast, to plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and control activities of others".
This research is carried forward to show that the every link of the organization requires top talented persons. Many authors have viewed that the skill-full can do the task more quickly and more efficiently. It also says that each and every designations in a company should be occupied by people relevant to the job. That is, if a person is qualified in HR management, then he should be placed as HR manager or any work related to the qualification. Placing a right person in the right job also very in the company. This brings an effective benefit to the company.
The PROCESS OF THE MANAGEMENT
- The Management is a process of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling activities of the employees.
- It uses the eminent, effective and efficient mobilisation and use of physical and human resources for achieving organization goals.
- It is in need of conceptual, administrative, analytical and human skills for decision-making, coordination, communication and delegation of authority to get the best results.
APPLICATION OF RESOURCES FOR ACHIEVING ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES
A Few noteworthy definitions by experts
- "Management is the process by which co-operative group directs actions towards common goals." Joseph Massie.
- "Management is accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people" Lawrence Appley.
- "Management is that process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organisation through systematic, coordinated and co-operative human efforts." McFarland.
- "Management is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling in order to attain stated goals." HenrySisk. "Management is a social and technical process that utilises resources, influences human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish an organisation's goal. Theo Haimann, William Scott.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT
- Management is a process or task.
- Management is social activity.
- Management is a control and delegation of authority.
- Management is mainly objective-oriented and goal-oriented.
- Management is a dynamic activity.
- Management makes use of the eminent, effective utilisation of resources etc.
- Management is multi-disciplinary activity.
- Management is an important and critical sub-system of an organisation.
- Management is a discipline activity.
- Management act as both art and science.
- Management is all pervasive and predominant activity.
- Management exercises influence and also creates influences.
- Management is an modern creativity process.
MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
The management and administration definition have some slight variations. But some authors says that both management and administration are same and it can be used interchangeably. Normally the management represent systematic integration, mobilization and use of physical resources and direction of human efforts for achieving the objectives and the goal of the company.
According to William Newman, Peter Drucker, the term "Management is used in connection with the performance of economic activities. The administration is mainly used for the purpose of the non-economic activities. And also it determines the general purpose of an enterprise, corporate policies and general plans and procedure for achieving the objective and the goal. But the management is concerned with implementation of policies within the limit set by the administration. In the words of Spriegel, " Management is essentially an executive function and deals particularly with the active direction of human efforts. Administration is largely determinative, whereas management is essentially executive. According to British authors of Management, the term "management refers to a high level of managerial activities such as goal-setting, policy formulation and strategy-making and administration is an operative part of it concerned with lower order management activities such as implementation of plans and other decisions.
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
The Management consists of three levels. Each levels are structured according to their positions. The Levels of management is as follows:
- High-Level Management(Strategic Management)
- Middle-Level Management(Tactical Management)
- Low-Level Management(Operational Management)
The Strategic management is generally indicates the ownership group. For example, in a joint stock company, equity share-holders are the real owners of the company. Because they are in a large number. They are widely spreaded and not interested in the managing the company So they elect their representatives as directors and then they form a board of directors. That makes up the top level of management.
The Tactical management comes in between the Strategic and operational management. In order to f The tactical management constitutes departmental managers, deputy managers, foreman and administrative officers etc. These middle-level managers are mainly responsible for the overall functioning of their respective departments. They act as a interface between the high level managers and lower level managers. The main work of middle level managers focus around determining departmental goals and devising plans and best ways as a means for achieving their department goals.
In the levels of management , the Lowest point of management is the Lower-level management. The operational workers belongs to the operational management. The operational-level management consists of first line supervisors, inspectors, section officers, foreman etc. They are the people who have direct contact with 'core group' of workers such as operators, assemblers, mechanics, salesmen, and clerks etc. They directly exercise the work performed by core group workers. This management issue orders and give instructions to them and educate the core group workers about the way of doing the work and regularly supervise and manage their activities.
BUSINESS NEEDS TOP TALENT AT EVERY LINK OF THE ORGANIZATION:
With the growing economical position, the business people are in need of top talent workers at every link of the organization. The top talented people can take quick decisions regarding business. They can bring good Return of Investment from the business. Nowadays, in each and every organization, each levels of management is carry on by the experienced and efficient people. Because the experienced and the efficient people can take quick decision and solve the business at a fraction of a second. Even many indian companies are hiring the experienced persons at their work. The experienced persons will give many ideas for the problems.
The Modern Management system will definitely flourish but will not replace traditional industries. The Management in the each and every country should follow the basic management theory and principles. Each levels of management requires the top talented workers to run the business efficiently. The various authors are viewed that managerial benefits depends upon the team coordination work of the employees.
The secondary research is used in this study. The literature was viewed to understand how Management becomes plays a vital role in the society. Each and every people in the levels of management should be very much talented, they only they can run the management efficiently. The Management Information System is mainly useful in an organisation and this is explained by various authors in their literature. This also conducted to know how efficient management will result in a motivated workforce. The study is conducted based on secondary data available. The research was conducted on the basis of book, articles and journals. In study is conducted based on secondary data available.
Thus the Management is an emerging, developing, dynamic and multi-disciplinary activity. The applications of the management is as old as human civilization. The management is mainly treated as a product of twentieth century. Due to rapid, diverse, complex and unstructured changes takes place in business environment, the management theory and practices has also undergone through many essential changes. New additional features and dimensions have been added to the management for making it more attractive. Its main focus shifted to new innovative areas such as ,management of strategic alliances, improvement in productivity, worldwide demand of quality management, management of change growing emphasis on ethics, strategic management and empowerment process in organization etc. Thus an application of management theory and practices has to be supplemented by high degree of creativeness and innovativeness on the part of the manager. Therefore the eminent and successful business requires top talent at every link of the organization.
* Management Theory and Practice by B.S. Moshal.
* The Practice of Management by Peter Drucker.
* The Philosophy of Management by Oliver Sheldon.
* New Pattern of Management by Rensis Likert.
* Production and Operation Management by Adam Jr.E.E and R.J.Ebert.
* Management Principles and Functions by Donnelly Gibson.
* Management Information Systems with student CD and MISource 2007 by Stephen Haag and Maeve Cummings.
* The Principles and Practice of Management by E.F.L. Breach.
* Principles of Management by G.S. Terry. Richard D.
* The Management of Business by Earl P. Strong, Harper and Row.