The medical centre is to provide medical service for the students and staff during term time. They have a full range of free pamphlets displayed in the centre for the convenience of the users covering the wide range of medical issues. The medical centre organizes health fairs on campus and provide information on healthy living as well.
Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles, power, and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management (www.businessdictionary.com)
The organizational structure forms a very important part of the organization. In the structure the roles and responsibilities can be defined. The following is the organisational structure belongs to medical centre.
The organisational structure shows the order of department of the medical centre. There are different division in the student union. In the above given chart first comes Head of student service after that it is Deputy head of student service and next it is Medical centre. Under medical centre the next department is Receptionist, under receptionist there are two different categorized one is nurse and other counsellor. Firstly in medical centre receptionist is the person that first deal with the student or staff. After that receptionist help the student to get register with NHS. Also in time of minor issue receptionist help the student or any staff member to get the appointment with nurse for the general check up. In times of major issue they help the student to get the appointment to their near by doctors. The counsellor help the student by giving medical tip and advice for their healthy living.
After understanding the organizational chart now an analysis of the process of the organization is done.
Process flow chart
Process flow chart makes it useful tools for communicating how processes work, and for clearly documenting how a particular job is done. (www.mindtools.com)
The process flowchart describes a step by step procedure as to as how the operations are carried out and the various processes involved in operations. This chart describes how the student starts the process after joining the university. It is important to analyze this chart as these are the main operational activities and forms an important part of problem identification.
The flowchart given below shows the operational activities:
When a student becomes the part of the University or joins the campus, he or she have to first get register with the medical centre. The student joining the university can use campus accommodation or private accommodation. The student leaving in campus accommodation have to compulsory have to get register with the medical centre but it is not mandatory for the private accommodation student.
Firstly student who are leaving in campus accommodation have to get register with the medical centre, where receptionist help the student to get register with the NHS who are leaving in private accommodation. Then the student will get the guidance by the nurse to get the appointment by the nurse for their general check up and to get the medical tip. In times of major issues student suffering from disease then they are suggested to consult with the doctors.
Out of many models and theories from operational management, there can be three best models suitable for medical centre in university of Wales, Newport.
- Six Sigma
- Total Quality Management (TQM)
- Lean Thinking
- Queue Management
'The term six sigma, popularized by Motorola, Honeywell, and general electric, it describes the process, product, or service with an extremely high capacity(99.99% accuracy) for example, if one million passengers pass through the St. Louis airport with checked baggage each month, a Six Sigma program for the baggage handling will result in only 3.4 passengers with misplaced luggage'(JAY HEIZER AND BARRY RENDER, p199, 2008)
Six Sigma is a methodology developed by Motorola that describes how the management of product and service delivery should be implemented. The management processes emphasize setting extremely high objectives, collecting data, and analyzing results to a fine degree.
The objective of Six Sigma Quality is to reduce process output variation so that on a long term basis, which is the customer's aggregate experience with our process over time.
The purpose of process improvement is to eliminate the root causes of performance deficiencies in processes that already exist in the organisation. These performance deficiencies may be causing real problems for the organisation, or may be preventing it from working as efficiently and effectively as it could. To eliminate these deficiencies a five-step approach is used.
DMAIC is commonly used by Six Sigma project teams and is an acronym for:
- Define opportunity
- Measure performance
- Analyze opportunity
- Improve performance
- Control performance.
(JAY HEIZER AND BARRY RENDER, p199, 2008)
Firstly to identified the problem face by the medical centre to solve the problem.
During this Measure step, symptoms of the problem that exists are identified and a baseline measurement of current and recent performance is established
To identified the problem faced by the medical centre, the question were prepared and where distributed among the student to indentified the problem.
During this Analyse step, theories about the causes of the problem are formulated, these theories are tested, and, finally the root causes of the problem are identified.
With the help of questioner distributed to the student was able to analyse that main disadvantage was speed.
The reason of disadvantage was speed and it has to be improved by implementing and designing new method.
During this Control step, controls are put in place to ensure that the gains that have been achieved will continue and the problem will not recur. To do this the following activities need to be carried out.
- Design effective quality controls
- Foolproof the improvement
- Audit the controls
Total Quality Management
Total quality management refers to a quality emphasis that encompasses the entire organisation, from the supplier to customer. Total quality management stresses a commitment by management to have a continuing companywide toward excellence in all aspect of product and service that are important to the customer. ( JAY HEIZER AND BARRY RENDER, p198, 2008)
Total quality management appear that the quality gurus provide different solution to bringing about improvement. It is the approach that puts quality at the heart of the everything that is done b an operational and including all activities within an operation. (SLACK, CHAMBERS, AND JOHNSTON, p722, 2004)
Implementing Improvement Programmes
A nusmber of factor that influence the success of performance improvement programmes.
A Quality Strategy:
A quality strategy is necessary to provide the goals and guidelines which help to keep the TQM programme heading in the direction which is appropriate for the organization. (SLACK, CHAMBERS, AND JOHNSTON, p734, 2004)
The quality is the important part of the business. To improve the quality students should be given very good treatment as they deal with health care. Proper medicine should be used so that it satisfies the student and the staff member.
Top management support goes far beyond the allocation of resources to the program; it sets the priorities for the whole organization. (SLACK, CHAMBERS, AND JOHNSTON, p735, 2004)
The management is the important part of the organization. As the medical centre deal with health care so their should be proper service in term of giving treatment and attending the patients. As the medical centre in caerleon campus have only two nurse to attend the any student so number of the staff should be increased to attend the student and their should be compulsory registration to NHS to each and every student.
All the student in the university should be aware of the medical centre and the facilities and the service provided by the medical centre. Their should free health check up in the campus and to provide with medical tips and advice to live life healthy.
Lean thinking supplies the customer with exactly what customer wants when the customer wants it, without wastes, through continuous improvement. Lean operation eliminates wastes through a focus on what exactly customer wants. (JAY HEIZER AND BARRY RENDER, p642, 2008)
Lean thinking is a concept that can be implemented. The main idea of lean thinking is to reduce costs and waste to increase the satisfaction of the customers. Eliminating waste of time is an important concept that can be used. Time wastage should be reduced to increase the speed of the operational process. Continuous improvement is necessary to improve the speed.
Lean producer set their sights on perfection; on bad parts, no inventory, only value added activities, and no waste. Any activity that does not add value in the eye of the customer is a waste. (JAY HEIZER AND BARRY RENDER, p642, 2008)
It is not possible to run a medical centre only with two nurses. The university or the management should take an initiative to improve it by increasing the staff members working in medical centre and the NHS registration should be made compulsory for all students to get enrolled in the university. As there is only two nurse in the medical centre it is very difficult for the student to get the appointment due to which their precious time is wasted. So to overcome this problem number of the nurse and staff member should be increase to avoid this problem due to which speed will be increased and time will be saved. Also it is not compulsory for the private student to get register with the medical centre due to which they have to waste their time in finding the doctor near to their house. As there is no medical centre in the Altrn-yn campus it get very difficult for the student to get the treatment in time of emergency, therefore number of channel should be increased so that student will get treatment either in the Caerleon campus or Altrn-yn campus.
The successful management of customer's perception of fairness with respect to waiting is dependent on queue design, service system design, and contact hours. A queue is characterized by the way in which customers (i.e. processes) join it in order to wait for service, and by the way in which customers already in the queue are selected for servicing. Both of these activities are controlled by the queue manager. (www.encyclopedia.com)
a) Using queuing theory
According to this theory three factors can be implemented. They are:-
- Increase the rate of service by increasing staffing. This will increase the speed of work and therefore will increase the efficiency of the medical centre.
- Increase the number of channels. This can also be done by increasing the staffing. When the staff is increased more workstations are added hence the work is minimized and the speed is increased.
- Provide one doctor in the medical centre during time of emergency.
b) Queue discipline
The best way of implementing queue discipline is using the method known as FIFO (First in First Out).The medical centre should ensure that they reply in order. The one who gets the appointment first must be given a reply first.
c) Principles of waiting
The various principles of waiting can be implemented. Few recommendations are as follows.
- When the medical centre says that it will take more time during working days to reply they should give next appointment to the student.
- Unknown waits are longer hence the medical centre should try and give additional information about the medical tips and advice to live life healthy.
Queue management is an effective way of implementing resources. This can help the medical centre to become more efficient and increase the speed. Using queuing theory, queue disciple and principles of waiting will help it to improve student satisfaction.
There are many problem identified while investigating. There may be problem in organisation structure or operational process the main problem identified is speed with maximum number of the student are not satisfied. Problem identification where done in two step first by Pareto analysis and second Fish bone diagram.
Pareto analysis are a method of organizing errors, problems, or defects to help focus on problem solving efforts. They are based on the work of vilfredo Pareto, a nineteenth century economist. Joseph m. Juran popularized Pareto's work when he suggested that 80% of a firm problems are a result of only 20% of the causes. (JAY HEIZER AND BARRY RENDER, p206, 2008)
As the number of staff working in medical centre are one receptionist two nurse and one counsellor that is not enough to run the medical centre and to give treatment two number of student in the university due to which the are not able attend number of student at a time. Also the working hours in the medical centre is from10am - 4pm which is not enough. Medical centre should be open for 24hrs with more number of staff then only the problem of speed can be reduced
These analysis helps us to identified the week point. According to the Pareto chart it can be clearly seen that speed is the major problem that is identified in the process and needs immediate attention.
Causes and effect of medical centre by fish bone Diagram:
As the problem is identified by Pareto chart let us analyse the causes of the problem. This can be done by fish bone diagram. The aim is to identify the cause.
The above diagram shows the causes of the problem which is speed. It can be clearly seen that there are four causes that to be identified. They are
As there is one receptionist two nurse working in the medical centre not able to attend the number of student at a time due to which speed is reduce by increasing the staff member the problem of the sped can be controlled.
As there is only two nurse to give the treatment and no doctors due to which in time of emergency student are told to meet the doctor which is very unsatisfactory to the student. So the medical centre should at list one doctor which would be very helpful to the student.
The productive working hours is very less. The medical centre working hrs are about 10am - 4pm to Monday and Friday and off in Saturday and Sunday. So by increasing the working hours and the stall member automatically the speed will be increased which would be very helpful to the student in the university.
The medical centre is only located in the caerleon campus not in Allry-yn campus due to which student have to go to caerleon campus for any treatment and for the registration in the NHS. So they should open medical centre in the alltrn-yn campus due which service will be improved and would satisfy the student and the speed increase.
Speed is the major weakness in the medical and can be improved by increasing number of staff member, increasing the channel, increasing the working hours in the medical centre due to which service and speed would be improved and they would be able to satisfy the student
Problem Identification Conclusion:
The main problem identified is the speed in the operational process. Therefore this area should be given special consideration and different techniques should be implemented to increase the speed of the medical centre.
Research was basically conducted on two ways:
The first and fundamental research conducted in the secondary research based on the information provided by the medical centre. The report provide information about medical centre work by providing document, pamphlets. Also defines the aim and objective of the report.
The second research conducted is a primary research in the form of a simple questionnaire. The method used to collect data. In this research a questionnaire has been designed to understand the view of the student which helps in problem identification.
Observation and Problem identification from the research:
The research was done by the direct interaction with the receptionist and the nurse working in the medical centre and also with the student in caerleon and alltr-yr-n campus. Also by providing questionnaire to the student in the campus. There where nine question. The aim is to get the feed back and experience of the student. The questions asked are mainly to access the performance of the medical centre and to identify the problem in the operational process or the organization structure.
The question where prepared on the basis of four main question such as speed, quality, dependability, and flexibility. So the rating of speed was 60% poor, quality 10% poor, dependability 50%poor, flexibility 10% poor from this it is clear that speed and dependability is very poor need to be improved by increasing more staff member, increasing channel, productivity, and service.
Based on the answer received from the four main performance objective are analysed in the bar diagram.
From the above diagram it is clear that speed and dependability is the major factor that need to be improved.
By looking at the questionnaire certain recommendation comes out. The most important obstacles in the medical centre is speed and dependability but after analysing the problem the improvement techniques can be implemented to affect the changes in the speed and dependability. After analysing the research the aim of the recommendation is to increase the speed and dependability of the medical centre. The recommendation are made on the basis of the research carry out for the medical centre.
Just in time technology is as follow:
Just in time is the disciplined approach to improving overall productivity and eliminating waste. It provide for the cost effective production and delivery of only necessary quantity of parts at the right quantity, at the right time and place, while using a minimum amount of facilities, equipment, materials and human resources. Just in time is dependent on the balance between the supplier's flexibility and the user's flexibility. (SLACK, CHAMBERS, AND JOHNSTON, p519, 2004)
Just in time technology is most basis and it should be implemented. Just in time means productivity goods and services exactly when they are needed. That means thing need to be on time neither wasting time of other and yourself. It is recommended that medical centre should apply just in time technology, because according to the research and analysis done on the medical centre, it says that speed and dependability is very poor and they need to be improved.
By applying just in time technology speed and dependability can be improved such as medical centre have only two nurse which is sufficient to attend the number of student at a time due to which hell of the time is wasted in getting the appointment and have to wait until they are called due to which speed of the medical centre is reduce. So by increasing number of staff and to increase the channel would not only save the time and would increase the speed of the medical centre.
The other factor is dependability that to be improved, as medical centre does not have doctors, is the main reason that student or other staff are not able to depend on them. This problem can be improved by providing doctors in the medical centre due to which in time of emergency student can contact doctor in the medical centre no need to search for the doctor out the university.
The main aim of the recommendation is to improve speed and dependability of the medical centre.
After analysing and evaluating the organization structure and the operations process we come to a conclusion that the problem identified is speed.
Using relevant tools the speed of the medical centre can be improved.