APPLICATION OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION

APPLICATION OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

In our daily life we come across various communication technique e.g.analog communication, digital communication etc. Both play an important role in our daily life. Without analog signals, most of our listening activities are for nothing. Today I got an opportunity to work on the topic "Analog Communication". Here I discuss the various applications of it and its advantages. Analog Communication is a data transmitting technique in a format that utilizes continuous signals to transmit data including voice, image, video, electrons etc.

I. INTRODUCTION

Analog Communication is a data transmitting technique in a format that utilizes continuous signals to transmit data including voice, image, video, electrons etc. An analog signal is a variable signal continuous in both time and amplitude which is generally carried by use of modulation. Analog circuits do not involve quantization of information unlike the digital circuits and consequently have a primary disadvantage of random variation and signal degradation, particularly resulting in adding noise to the audio or video quality over a distance. Data is represented by physical quantities that are added or removed to alter data. Analog transmission is inexpensive and enables information to be transmitted from point-to-point or from one point to many. Once the data has arrived at the receiving end, it is converted back into digital form so that it can be processed by the receiving computer.

II. APPLICATIONS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION

There are many applications of analog communication which are used in our daily life. Some of them are explained below:

1. Communication satellite

Acommunications satellite is an artificialsatellitestationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits includinggeostationary orbits,Molniya orbits, otherelliptical orbitsand low (polarand non-polar) Earth orbits.

For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide amicrowave radio relaytechnology complementary to that of submarine. They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radiobroadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, is impractical or impossible.

Geostationary orbits

A satellite in ageostationary orbitappears to be in a fixed position to an earth-based observer. A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over the equator.

The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based antennas, which must be directed toward the satellite, can operate effectively without the need for expensive equipment to track the satellite's motion, especially for applications that require a large number of ground antennas (such as direct TV distribution).

2. Telecommunications:

Telecommunicationistransmissionof signals over a distance for the purpose ofcommunication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke,drums,semaphore,flagsorheliograph. In modern times, telecommunication typically involves the use of electronic devices such as the telephone,television,radioorcomputer. Early inventors in the field of telecommunication includeAlexander Graham Bell,Guglielmo MarconiandJohn Logie Baird. Telecommunication is an important part of the world economy and the telecommunication industry's revenue was estimated to be $1.2 trillion in 2006.

Basic elements:

A basic telecommunication system consists of three elements:

  • atransmitterthat takesinformationand converts it to asignal;
  • atransmission mediumthat carries the signal; and,
  • areceiverthat receives the signal and converts it back into usable information.

For example, in a radio broadcast thebroadcast toweris the transmitter,free spaceis the transmission medium and theradiois the receiver. Often telecommunication systems are two-way with a single device acting as both a transmitter and receiver or transceiver. For example, amobile phoneis a transceiver. Telecommunication over a telephone line is calledpoint-to-point communicationbecause it is between one transmitter and one receiver. Telecommunication through radio broadcasts is calledbroadcast communicationbecause it is between one powerful transmitter and numerous receivers.

Telephone:

In an analogue telephone network, thecalleris connected to the person he wants to talk to by switches at varioustelephone exchanges. The switches form an electrical connection between the two users and the setting of these switches is determined electronically when the callerdialsthe number. Once the connection is made, the caller's voice is transformed to an electrical signal using a smallmicrophonein the caller'shandset. This electrical signal is then sent through the network to the user at the other end where it is transformed back into sound by a smallspeakerin that person's handset. There is a separate electrical connection that works in reverse, allowing the users to converse.

Thefixed-linetelephones in most residential homes are analogue that is, the speaker's voice directly determines the signal's voltage. The advantage of this is that digitized voice data can travel side-by-side with data from the Internet and can be perfectly reproduced in long distance communication.

Mobile phones have had a significant impact on telephone networks. Mobile phone subscriptions now outnumber fixed-line subscriptions in many markets.Increasingly these phones are being serviced by systems where the voice content is transmitted digitally such asGSMorW-CDMAwith many markets choosing to depreciate analogue systems such as AMPS.

3. Fibre optic communication:

Fiber-optic communicationis a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses oflightthrough anoptical fiber. The light forms anelectromagneticcarrier wavethat ismodulatedto carry information. First developed in the 1970s, fiber-opticcommunication systemshave revolutionized thetelecommunicationsindustry and have played a major role in the advent of theInformation Age. Because of its advantages over electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communications incore networksin thedeveloped world.

The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basic steps: Creating the optical signal involving the use of a transmitter, relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical signal, and converting it into an electrical signal.

Applications:

Optical fiberis used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Due to much lowerattenuationand interference, optical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand applications. However, infrastructure development within cities was relatively difficult and time-consuming, and fiber-optic systems were complex and expensive to install and operate. Due to these difficulties, fiber-optic communication systems have primarily been installed in long-distance applications, where they can be used to their full transmission capacity, offsetting the increased cost.

4. 3G COMMUNICATION

International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a family of standards for mobile telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunication Union, which includes GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as DECT and WiMAX. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (up to 14.4 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s on the uplink with HSPA+). Thus, 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined the third generation (3G) of mobile telephony standards - IMT-2000 - to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more diverse applications. For example, GSM (the current most popular cellular phone standard) could deliver not only voice, but also circuit-switched data at download speeds up to 14.4 kbps. But to support mobile multimedia applications, 3G had to deliver packet-switched data with better spectral efficiency, at far greater speeds.

Although analog communication has changed our life but still there are certain advantages and disadvantages of using analog communication.

Advantages:

1. Uses less bandwidth

2. More accuracy

Disadvantages:

The effects of random noise can make signal loss and distortion impossible to recover.

CONCLUSION:

Thus we can conclude that analog communication plays a very important role in our daily life without which our life is not possible. There are many future applications of analog communication comes which can make our life easier e.g. Fourth generation communication, video conferencing, telemetry etc.

REFERENCES

1. http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Analog_Communication

2. http://www.jcdv.org/Engineering/WebMD/ECELab.pdf

3. http://www.flipkart.com/digital-analog-communication-systems-sam/8126509147-ou23fqrs5d

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