Nanotechnology Is Essential For Development Of Smart Materials

Introduction:

The technology is used for designing and building materials and devices from basic structures up to a scale one or few nanometers are known as nanotechnology. A nanometer means being on a small scale that is one billionth meter. In nanotechnology every material is kept in the right position and in right place assigned and will be useful in function of entire device. All kinds of products that are built in nano sizes are very powerful computers to super strong materials and other biological materials. At present many scientists are working on nano size structures in future they will have use of micro electronics for making small computers circuits and many kinds of materials. The materials that are stronger are cheaper and powerful computers along with cheap manufacturing that our homes are built by using of smart materials. Now by using these nano materials, we enter into molecular age. Similarly as Iron Age, industrial age and information age. The nano materials such as Bucky balls, nano shells, and quantum dots are known as smart materials because they have skills in both science and engineering communities. [1-2]

1.2) SmS ssart materials: Smart material is defined as materials with more than one property responding to external or internal stimuli such as temperature, pH, pressure etc. Nanotechnology the design is done in atomic level and materials that function as dynamically or statically behave in same way but some materials will react with external sources and they will result in change in property. For example Teflon is a smart material because it is designed in such that cannot react with external forces. All the biological structures such as human science are smart materials. Skin is a dynamic smart material since it had some features of dynamic smart material. We know that smart materials comprise a very large range of structures. [3-4] .There are factors that we can observe for these smart materials in below.

1.2.1) Self healing structures: In this self healing structure if we can observe our body for example can do self repair for cuts by blood vessel is ruptured then platelets will come together to a place and stops the bleeding of blood and it will clot it. But this is the complex operation because here many blood components are involved in it. Then if we look for simplest self healing procedure as in automobile tires daily punctures take place then a new polymer will form over it. If we take a real example the process involved in the biological membranes if we observe the below figure (1.21(a)).

We can have a idea sample picture where the membranes are held together by molecules that are in balloon shape with long strings around them. Here polar head groups like in shape of balloons which are soluble in water and will tend together. Self healing properties are now starting to use in plastic materials. [4]

1.22) Recognisation: A material can be smart when it reacts with certain conditions, materials can be smart when those are exposed and based on molecular recognisation.There are some medical applications causing for death of these cancer cells which are being in form of self assembled smart material.

1.23) Separation: Separation means separating the materials or molecules in his molecules in his components is process involved in biological and chemical and in pharmaceutical industries. In our daily observation selective reactivity is a common form of separation. In nano structure separation takes place as the cellophane that used in packing which permits only to allow small molecules not to entering the large molecules as blocking taking place.Nano filtration is a process which involves in separation or removal of toxins from waste streams.

From all these we get a clear picture that smart materials comprise a very large range of nanostructures and activities. [3-4]

Smart Materials Applications: Smart materials in general the materials are heated and again they can retain its original shape while cooling process takes place. There are so many types of smart materials in those we will discuss about Bucky balls and Boron nitride nano tubes.2)

Bucky balls: Bucky ball is a molecule which contains 60 carbon atoms and each carbon atom is bonded with three adjacent carbon atoms as in graphite. As we observe below Figure (2.1(a)) one property of carbon atom can bond to other types of atom can be observed.

This Bucky ball is discovered by Richard from Rice university and Harry from Sussex University.

To generate in large quantities of these Bucky balls then a vaporized carbon by placing in between two carbon electrodes closed together and generating electric arc between them in a reaction chamber filled with a low pressure of neon. These Bucky balls are used in real world as anti oxidants to neutralize free radicals. When an atom or molecule makes bonding with a Bucky ball will change the properties of the Bucky ball and this is called functionalization. By using the Bucky balls can improve in medical imaging and in drug delivery. These are also used in drug delivery that these are small enough to move around inside the body. And deliveries drugs directly to the infected regions in the body. [5]

Bucky balls are used in everywhere in the work as many companies like Siemens Company is developing light detector by using these Bucky balls. Then Segate Company created computer hard disk drivers by using these Bucky balls. These Bucky balls can grow up to nano tubes. The carbon tubes are basically bucky ball but the end never closes into a sphere when they are formed. The shape of cylinder similar to carbon nano tube is observed in below figure (2.1(b)). Nano tube is having some varieties in shapes they can be as Single walled carbon nano tube (SWNT) and multi walled carbon nano tube (MWNT)

SWNT is a single cylinder and MWNT consists of multiple concertic nano tube cylinders as observe in below figure (2.1(c)). Single walled carbon nano tubes had diameter less than one nanometer c60 Bucky ball. [5-6]

In the recent development of technology the nano car is enabling the technology of building Bucky ball pyramid.Buckyball pyramid is used in many range of areas, in Christmas season it is used as SETI search and for communication with alien civilazations.Feyman's paper had explained about the idea of little micro car that is approximately only 400 times smaller than an automobile. It is a Nano car. If we can consider the cost of sub parts and the uses of car can be seen below. [5-6]

Molecular Ingredients: The necessary elements are four wheels as ferric type and reinforcing elements as Bucky tubes. In below figure (2.1.1(a)) we can observe the wheels of the nano car will have four molecules.

They are as molecular ferric wheel. The oxides obtain in form of stafferes is observed in figure (2.1.1(b)).

The remaining elements of a nano car construction will be a graphitic sheet. The assembly of the nano car must depend up on engineers to find out it. [6]

Drive System: In this system the engine is hidden in the wheels. By changing the time and length characteristics and decelerated on its path. [6]2.1.2)

There are so many applications in use of nano car those can be testing the road rules and preventing the accidents etc.Building a nano car will enable building of building Bucky ball pyramids. It is an ultimate challenge to automobile industry.Buckyballs now started using in commercial useful ways.

Boron Nitride Nano tubes (BNNT): Boron nitride nano tubes are a hollow cylindrical tube made up of boron and nitrogen atoms. Using these boron nitride nano tubes we can 100 percent salt rejection for concentrations twice that of sea water with water flowing four times faster. Boron nitride nano tubes are first predicted theoretically and then successfully synthesized by using arc-discharge method by Chopra in 1995.These tubes diameter are having less than 100 nano meters and length in micrometer range. As shown in figure below (2.2(a)) the Boron nitride nano tubes are having flat tips that are formed with four membranes square then without using pentagons.

Theoretically it has been proved membrane pentagon would require energetically unfavorable B-N or N-N bonds. Boron nitride nano tubes are having Zigzag shaped tubes. Boron nitride nano tubes are filled with metals like iron, nickel, cobalt and also bucky balls. Boron nitride nano tubes have a much better resistance at high temperature. Boron nitride nano tubes are high in stiffness then compared to carbon nano tubes. There is no kinetic assessment of the yield strain in boron nitride nano tube. For calculating the BNNT yield strain it must be depended on its time and temperature. A low temperature for BNNT has lower strain than for carbon nano tube. [7-8]

These are the applications of smart materials like in which nano technology is necessary for development of the smart materials not only the applications of smart materials mentioned but in all materials the nanotechnology is applied for the further development

Conclusion:

Nanotechnology is essential for the development for smart materials. As consider till know in every product or smart material nanotechnology is involved. By using this technology we can know different structural changes and more essential products are being developed. Nano technology is a tool which can change the properties of structures and involved in development of smart materials. Some people argue that smart materials are from nature and they can survive themselves and nanotechnology is not necessary for development for smart materials. In future developments they can know that Nanotechnology is necessary for the development of smart materials.

References:

  1. Gina miller the basis of nanotechnology in 2000
  2. Oobleck, Smart materials, the free encyclopedia
  3. Linda Williams, Dr.Wade Adams Nanotechnology Demystified, 2006
  4. Mark Ratner & Daniel Ratner, Nanotechnology: A general introduction to the next big idea in 2002
  5. Richard Booker and Earl Boysen, Nano technology for Dummies in 2005
  6. Marek T.Michalewicz Nano Cars: The enabling technology for building Bucky ball pyramid in 1998
  7. Mark J.Schulz, Ajit D.Kelkar and Mannur J.Sundaresan, Nano Engineering of structural, functional, and smart materials in 2006
  8. Traian Dumitrica and Boris I.Yakobson, Rate Theory of yield in boron nitride nano tube Available from http://www.me.umn.edu/~td/Bn-3-short.pdf.
  9. Holger F.Bettinger, Traian Dumitrica, Gustavo E.Scuseria and Boris I.Yakobson, Mechanically Induced defects and strength of Boron Nitride Nano tubes in 2002

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