Product Development and Integrated Engineering Practice
This chapter gives an overview for the work related to the background of this research. The area covered will be on New Product Development (NPD), New Service Development (NSD), Concurrent Engineering (CE), and Usability Engineering (UE). The literature review in this chapter will show the relationships between the new product development and concurrent engineering and will explain how, usability engineering can be used as an engineering model to achieve the essential benefit from these models to improve the product development.
This chapter is divided into five sections. Section 2.2 is concerned with the evolution of the product development. Section 2.3 is concerned with the concurrent engineering background,. It shows the reasons of using it in this research, and what is and the benefit of the new product development; Section 2.4 discusses the issue of usability engineering and its influence on the product development. Section 2.5 presents the human- centred design theory.New Product Development
A product is defined as something a company makes to sell it to a customer. The and pProduct development process exists due to several reasons, for example market pull and technology push (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2000). Manufacturing or service provider companies use the product development as a strategic business function to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2000; Krishnan and Ulrich, 2001), but the product development is not an easy job for the companies as they face a many challenges to manage any new product development due to various factors, such as the increase of in the complexity of the new product as in the case of the mobile phones, the mixture of different products which the company provides to the customer (Adler et al., 1995), and the pressure coming from customers demanding more developed products with a better quality.
A new product development involves many integrated technologies,and this requires the company to do a lot of research to develop the company. Any failure from the designer in the company will lead to an increase in the number of failures within the new developed product (Barrett et al., 2003). The development team in the companies must have a total design look (Pugh, 1991). The Product Development Processes (PDP) activity is not a partial activity of the design; the idea behinds it is to divide the processes -see figure 2.2 below- so the developing teams can enter the feedback and the involvement from engineers or users into the early stage of the design to help attain the design right from the first time with less cost and good quality. Pugh model emphasizes that any product contains an involvement of technical and non- technical factors -which is applied to this research-, and therefore, to get your total design done smoothly, you need to join all the partial parts together.
In the field of telecommunication industry, especially mobile phones, the design and development processes are more complex than any other products, because mobile phones these days are merged with many products weather a hardware or software, such as the merge the cameras, emails, and GPS (which is hardware and soft ware in the same time).
The total design model presented by Pugh (1991) helps to assist the design within a complex product. This model divides the design process into different stages in a sequence (one coming after another), and each stage gives a feedback to the stage before and after it., Pugh model's first stage consists of studying the market needs and forwarding it to the research and development to see the opportunity from this study. The following stage revolve around putting a specification for the product, concept design, and detailed design, then manufacturing, and finally launching and selling the product. But as the product complexity increased and the time became a vital factor with the electric technology products, the model needed to be supported by other systems to help in reducing the process time. Re-engineering and concurrent engineering are an examples for on these systems, but how they can help and what are the gaps that face them within the mobile phone industry are have to be explained.
Products have become more personal these days and attached to the user's daily use. The concentration on the customer needs has become a vital with these products. Ketola (2002) mentioned that from 1990s, the product developments change to concentrate more on customer needs including the customer satisfaction, product segmentation, etc., Lampinen (2005) considered that developing of a new product consisted of two sides, user side and technology side. The user behaviour is affected by using the new products according to different factors, such as like social, cultural and technological factors. The initiative of using concurrent engineering model is used is to increase the focus on customer's needs with the product, which is one of the advantages that were proposed for the companies to use the concurrent engineering system, . The latest research shows that there are gaps and vague in the involvement of the customer within this model (Ketola, 2001), and while the product becomes more complex, the usability involvement in the products decreases due to the fact that the manufacturer or developer wants to reduce the time to market, which also purges the customer's needs within the development process.
Competitions between the companies play a major part in the product development; Bruggeman and Everaert (2000) emphasize on maintaining their share and profit in a competitive market. The companies start using the concurrent engineering model in an attempt to reduce the cost for during the design processes. Miller (2005) argues that there is a relation between the customers inputs and the product development, which this research will take as a gap to be filled by service provider companies for mobile phones. Miller (2005) emphasizes that most of the companies have problems with organizing their own usability resources, and find difficulty in deploying it in their own development processes.Difficulty of Product Development
Lagrosen (2005) argues that the success of any company depends on its ability to develop and produce new competitive products, but for this success to be achieved, the design must meet the needs of the customers. Lindman (2002) states that clever companies used the new technology in their industry will use it as a competitive advantage, but they must consider that this step may become a weakness factor in their developing processes if they could not find resources or competitive skills.
In order to develop a new product, Pitta and Franzak (1997) and Lindman (2002) argue that there are two ways for the company to use. First, the external strategy which means that the company will seek the knowledge for the new product development from outside resources like customers, market information, other company products, ...etc, Second, the internal strategy which means you use your own knowledge and your own people on condition that you know better your product and your market customer.
Pitta and Franzak (1997) argue that the internal strategy will make the company weak for the changes that happened outside in the market and may lead to provide unneeded products. But for the external strategy Pitta et al. (1996), Pitta and Franzak (1997), Lagrosen (2005) and Chen and Hesieh (2005) argue that it is a crucial strategy especially for the customer involvement in the first steps of any new product development. Chen and Hsieh (2005) add that the customer involvement must take place before the new product development processes by gathering the data from different user segmentation, and then give results to the development team inside the company. As a result many companies start using and integrating new models of engineering within their industry through showing, why and how can these models can be implemented and enhance the new product development process.
New Service Development
New product development also includes the development of a new service. As mentioned in the previous section the company developed new product to stand against the competitor and to gain and maintain the competitive advantage. Without providing a new service or a developed service they will lose their customer (cooper et al., 1994; Easingwood, 1986).
There are enormous advantages for developing services for the company; for example there are no needs for adding a new infrastructure or a hardware as it is usually a software developing (Easingwood, 1986; De Brentani, 1993). The platform for most services are universal which makes the development processes easier and quicker to launch to the customer, but also the companies face some disadvantage with this development; for instance the copy from other competitors, brings confusion within the company department for example marketing, research and development and sales (Easingwood 1986; De Brentani and Cooper 1992; Kelly and Storey 2000).
There are some factors that affected the new service development, such as formal front design and the formal planning design. The second factor is the formal extensive launch programme which includes formal promotion strategy and extensive people learning (De Brentani, 1993). Edgett (1993) emphasized that the problem facing the new service development (NSD) is the lack of the strategic plan provided by the management to the department. Also the weak contributions of the customer and the part the company has focuses on the internal system aspect than the customer (De Brentani, 1993)
In different companies an argument has been commenced about the new service development process models. The researcher argues if the processes are similar for any industry or different, Cowell (1988) argues that service industries differ in their nature, processes and delivery. Other researchers like Ennew (1998) insisted that also they have different processes and models but all new service development basic components are reasonably similar.New Service Development Process Component
As Ennew (1998) suggested that components of the new services are agreed to be common on the basic level of the service development, the following components are the base for the company to use as a guideline:
- Formulation of the New Service Development Strategy.
- Idea Generation.
- Idea Screening.
- Concept Development and Testing.
- Comprehensive Business Analysis.
- Process and System Design and Testing.
- Marketing Programme Design and Testing.
- New service Launch.
- New Service Launches Assessment.
The stage of formulation the strategy considered due to the need the roles for the teams which segment will be targeted by the new service, the resources needed to finish the project and what are the profit from it, as almost half of the service companies had a formal strategy for new service development (Storey and Kelly, 2001).
New service ideas figured from internal and external sources services. Many processes were granted from internal sources like brainstorming, using marketing research, and contacting staff. While the external sources can be taken from the competitors, trade presses, market research agencies and customers. Many companies are using both sources (Easingwood, 1986; Scheuing and Johnson, 1989).
Screening stage is a process when the new ideas that have been identified are valid and reasonable for further investigation in terms of time and other resources. Idea screening is to determine to what extent the new ideas fit with the service firm's strategy, products, image and its organisational assets. Main factor to the success of the service companies was the proper fit of the new service with the current service offerings (Martin and Horne, 1993).
This stage Ideas that was approved during the screening process must transform into service concepts that developed and test it, so it can be used by the consumers (Cowell 1988). Market testing for the service is inadequate with the services companies and it is the least activity that the company want to use due to the fact that testing of the new services will increase the chance of coping or imitating by competitors before launching the service (Cowell, 1988; Scheuing and Johnson 1989; Mohammed and Easingwood, 1993).
This stage is to deal with the design and development of the new service that included detailed features of the design so it can be tested to eliminate bugs. In this stage, if there are needs for staff recruiting or new equipment to be bought, it must be highlighted and done before moving to the next stage.
This stage is relating to establishing a detailed design and the activities to assure the successful delivery of the service (Lovelock, 2001).
The rule of marketing department in this stage is to position and present of new service to customers within the company objectives and without affecting the market strategy as it has vital rule in the success or failure of the new service. There is a crucial role also for the after sale service on the success of the new service development as it increases the customer loyalty (Cooper et al., 1994; Cowell, 1988).
New service launch is connected with the marketing activities and strategy. In the launch stage, well comprehensive training must be provided to the departments such as marketing, operations, and customer contact to be informed about the new service. The quality of implementation of marketing activities in this stage is critical for the success of a new service (Cooper and de Brentani, 1991).
Services Company in this stage evaluates the success or the failure of the new service project. The processes include assessment for the performance during the pre-launch, post-launch and after-launch in order to gather the information about the factor leads to the success or failure of the service (Storey and Kelly 2001).
Research in the area of design and product development looks at many sectors and they investigate the issues related to concurrent engineering (Weston et al., 1991; Braiden et al., 1993). The finding that concurrent engineering model is one of the best models helps in reducing cost and time of developing product especially in complex product.
Concurrent Engineering (CE)
There are many case studies about using concurrent engineering in the manufacturing processes development. However, due to the big jump and the increase in technology these days, the mobile industry gets more and more complicated. In the same time, the cost and the time shaped as a main and vital factor not to the manufacturers only but also to the customers. The telecommunication industry for the mobile phones is divided into two parts; the product itself (Mobile Phone) and the service from the service provider.
Ketola, P. (2000) argues that mobile phones are a life management device and not only a communication device. This increases the complexity of the mobile phone industry. This complexity will increase and need to be managed in more efficient tools, as we are in the third generation now, where many new technologies are used and still need to be integrated in this industry. And in less than decade we will start using the fourth generation of the wireless mobile than the chaos will happen again. If we do not prepare from now to this new comer we will face troubles. Harker (1996) said "A tidal wave of change is headed towards Telecommunication industry and much of this change is being brought by technological innovation and the information revolution."
Therefore, as engineers, managers, and designers, we must find and launch new methods or integrate different methods in order to face this complexity in the mobile. To establish new good product, Crawford and Benedetto (2003) mention that a relation must be established between the three inputs, which are time, quality, and cost to produce the best output as a product with value.Definition of Concurrent Engineering:
There is no exact definition to Concurrent engineering, but there is a famous one, for example, the definition by the side of the usability life cycle. Winner (1988) suggested that concurrent is "a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers from the outset to consider all elements of product life cycle, from conception through disposal, quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements". Or it is a "Paralleling of life-cycle functions, consensus and Cooperation" Ashley (1992).
Combining more than one definition together defines "Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. Typically, concurrent engineering involves the formation of cross-functional teams. Which allows engineers and managers of different disciplines to work together simultaneously in developing product and process design. CE approach intend to cause the developers from the outset to consider all elements of the product life cycle, from the concept through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements".
Some researchers look from the customer side, Cleetus (1992) proposed that "Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to integrated development. emphasizes response to customer expectations, and embodies team values of cooperation, trust, and sharing in such a manner that decision making proceeds with large intervals of parallel working by all life-cycle perspectives early in the process, synchronized by comparatively brief exchanges to produce consensus."Background to Concurrent engineering
In the mobile industry there is a lot of competitiveness especially in the last few years due to new technologies arrived to the customer. The quality and the usability of the product for the mobile user was not a big issue as it is now. But due to the increase in the competitiveness between the manufacturers it is nowadays a main factor. Competition is a brutal threat, therefore the time and the quality of the product and customer needs to be involved more deeply in new product development projects as an essential competitiveness tool.
New product development engages sometime in a huge complicated amount of processes; it is starting from the pre-design stage until the end. The development process needs an extended time and cost. These processes take from one to ten years depending on the product and its complexity. Mobile phone industry is the opposite where you have a complex product containing many technologies emerge with it, which put the companies designer race with time to finish and launch the products before other competitors. Many methods are used nowadays to help in accelerating these processes.
Product performance assets by using a five dimensions model which are "product quality, product cost, development time, development cost, and development capability" (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2004). The high joint performance along with their performances will lead to economic success. However, these dimensions to perform at high-level,level face some challenges during the process like time pressure, economics, team diversity, and team spirit. To achieve these dimensions, companies need to use an engineering tool totool to cure the gap in their process.
Concurrent engineering was used in manufacturing industry including the telecommunication industry in the last ten years for many reasons; for example to "create products better, cheaper, and more quickly brought to market" (Smith, 1997). Concurrent engineering designed to boost the concurrency of multidisciplinary design by integrating a mixture of technologies such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and communication networks. King and Majchrzak (1996) argue that the human factors assumptions made by the Concurrent engineering tool development are expected to reduce concurrent engineering tools from successfully enabling the concurrent engineering process.Concurrent Engineering Basic Principles
Concurrent Engineering relyrelies on eight basic principles (Prasad, 1996).
- Early Problem-discovery
- Early Decision-making
- Work Environment Structuring
- Teamwork Affinity and Trust
- Knowledge Leveraging
- Common understanding
- Ownership and Empowerment
According to CAMR (2006) the goals of concurrent engineering are
- Decrease product development lead-time to market
- Greater competitiveness
- Improved profitability for the company
- Greater control and cost reduction of design and manufacturing costs
- Improved product quality
- Close integration between departments and make it easier
- Promotion team spirit and information sharing
Why company spend high cost to deploy concurrent engineering system in their projects and what we are going to gain by applying it, Becchetti (2001) in his case study presented these advantages of applying CE
- Shrinking time-to-market (by 30-60%)
- Reducing product life cycle cost (by 15-50%)
- Reducing engineering changes and rework (by 55-95%)
- Improving quality of the product (by 200% to 600%)
- Improving productivity (by 20% to 110%)
- Active customer involvement.
Cleetus (2001) argues that concurrent engineering does not have any limitation on the employment of the customer focus to get the product "right from the first time". He added that what Concurrent engineering maintains to emphasize on customer requirements so when the end product is launched it will be satisfying the customers needs (Cleetus, 2001). Also Cleetus and Reddy (1992) see that concurrent engineering process has to be focused on the customers needs but no additional directions are given in Concurrent Engineering literature about how it will be made.
Concurrent engineering is valid in such product development where the final product consists of compound integrated technologies or engineering outcomes like integrated software, hardware and mechanics. Many researchers like Ketola (2002) argue that concurrent engineering focuses on the customer requirement and usability of the products. And that the design team's goal in this product works in terms of customer satisfaction, rather than in achieving company proprietary standards. Also these attempts to define Concurrent Engineering involving the customer needs fail to explain how it actually helps in responding to qualitative customers' expectations, still. Recent research record does not present support. Chao (1993) argues that Concurrent engineering allows improved implementation of user requirements if the customers has participated in it. Another point of view like Valjus (1994) mentioned that there is proof those customer satisfaction problems has not been taken in mind during the project processes either before start with it or after finishing it.Information technology in Concurrent engineering
Information technology are an aiding tool to concurrent engineering, it enables and supports storage and distribution of design and customer requirement and customer information within the company, but this also is not an easy job. The need to have a proper model to mange and organize these processes and the proper flow of data that needed and where it is needed, Saad and Maher (1995) argues that concurrent engineering tool need to fulfil four requirement: Information sharing, communication media, Process management, exploration space., while Johannsen (1996) argues that this tool need to be supported in communication support, cooperation support, coordination support, IT architectures. ICS association argued that an integration of concurrent engineering tool to information system is to exchange data, communication idea and creating new approaches.
Many Information technologies where used and will be used to aid manufacturing process for the aim and objective of our study. Neural Ware Package is used with SPSS 16. In later chapters in this research a full explanation about why we used these two simulation packages,packages will be given.
Usability will not come without the human centre design, as the competition is so high in this sector and the confidentiality for the mobile it self or the service and the time and cost issues as mentioned take a main part according Ketola (2002), Sawyer ( 2001). The complexity and the nature of mobile phone leads decrease the involvement of the user in the development processes, while according to ISO/IS 92411 "usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goal in effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction", the most factor which will be discussed in later sections will be the customer satisfaction because if we do not reach, it means the first two factors have failed to be reached by the developer.Definition of usability
ISO 9241-11 (1998) defines usability as "The Extent to which a product can be used by specific users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness and satisfaction in a specified used". Another definition "usability is not one dimension but can be known by five attributes, which are learnability, Efficiency, Memorability, Errors, and Satisfaction" (Nielsen, 1993).Usability engineering and product Development
There is an argument that most of mobile users do not know the technology or the application in their mobile. The main concerns for them are to use it in sufficient way for their own need. (Rogers, (1995), Norman (1998), Cooper (1999) and Steinbock, (2001)), Goode (2005) and Ryun (2005) argue that the mobile phone becomes more close to the users in these days and the users start using it in their day life in more specialized way. So the important of usability and the customer satisfaction are increasing according to the group we are studying
Most researchers for example Shackel (1991), Nielsen (1994) and Jordan (1998), define usability from different view but they all agreed that learning the use of the product is the major part in the usability, Ketola (2002) argue in his work that there is a need to enhance the learning for mobile phone. There are some gaps still in applying usability between theories and practice in product development. One of major problems within applying it its taken as single case study for each company with less research to apply one techniques in more than one company (Kuijk, (2007), Wixon (2005) and Norman (1996).Advantages of usability engineering
The advantages of the usability have increased the productivity, reduced errors, reduced training, improved acceptance, and Enhanced the reputation. Clegg et al. (1997) emphasize that usability issues are on the agenda in most IT development projects. The respondents in their study estimate that as many as 60-70 % of the projects have addressed usability matters "successfully". In addition, the respondents reported that users are rarely successfully involved in the projects, and that actual levels of user involvement are low. This opposes to the claims that usability was successfully addressed in the majority of the development projects.Usability design Principles
Gould and Lewis (1985) suggested three design principles for the usability
- Early focus on users and tasks
- Empirical measurements, for example using prototypes
- Iterative design; a cycle of design, evaluation and redesign
Many problems have prevented the effective, and the efficient implementation of usability engineering. The Usability Engineering is efficient when it has capability to cover the needed product development areas with sufficient actions and resources and it is effective when it helps improving and verifying the product design. The main problems are organizational and managerial problems. Problem of doing usability engineering too late, the cost of design changes (Ketola, 2000).Factors that enable successful usability engineering
There are many factors that help in enabling successful usability engineering (Mayhew, (1999) and Nielsen, (1996). The list below show a summarized factors that are applicable to our research
- Established credibility
- Effective communication
- Usability buy-in
- Engineering approach (instead of artistic approach)
- Well-defined work products
- Managing of expectations
- Clear added-value
- Continuous testing
Successful usability engineering is based on human-centred design, and successful human-centred design is based on technology, marketing, and user experience.
Human-Centred Design (HCD)Definition of human centred design
By definition, Human-centred design is a continuous process that starts by studying the users, creates the design by iterative steps until the design is accepted by the users, and ends by having feedback from users when the system or product is ready. It optimises the interactive system of the user, the product, and the task in the context of an organisation and the environment (kirvesoja, 2001), Stjernstrom (2001) mention that user-centred design is an approach to system development, which spotlights on making the system usable. The official definition of usability according to ISO 13407 is "The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use".
ISO 13407 states that there are few benefits of User-Centred design for the product you are developing. It become "easier to understand and use, thus reducing training and support costs. They improve user satisfaction and reduce discomfort and stress. Improve the productivity of users and the operational efficiency of organisations, and improve product quality appeal to the users and can provide a competitive advantage".
The general principles in the ISO 13407 standard are involvement of the users, allocation of function, iterative design, and multidisciplinary design. ISO 13407 characterises the integration of a human-centred approach by:
- Active involvement of users and clear understanding of user and task requirements
- An appropriate allocation of functions between users and technology,
- The iteration of design solutions,
- Multidisciplinary design
According to Ketola (2001) the challenge of doing successful usability engineering (UE) in a concurrent engineering project is to view the product as an integrated entity of hardware and software, and Usability Engineering as a project that needs to be managed using project management strategies in order to verify the usability of a product.
It is found from both Concurrent engineering and Usability Engineering that the human factor is the main common concern in both systems. We need to focus on Human-Centred Design. According to Ketola (2000) the mobile industry are moving now from Technology-centric to user-centric telecommunication world. Another factor can be achieved by concurrent engineering is reducing the time leading of the product development. These methods are needed methods to be integrated together. The milestone model which divided the periods to stages and put some coordination issues, then he summarized the Usability Engineering task in Concurrent Engineering projects as follow "Improve the predictability of timetables, Back-up the development, Support the product development to a achieve customer satisfaction".
A usable systems can help the company to save cost and time, because a usable system will increase productivity, increase customer satisfaction, increase sales and revenues, reduce development time and costs, reduce maintenance costs, and decrease training and support costs.
Applying usability in product development is a method to do typical tasks with the product, while observers, including the development staff, watch, listen, and take notes. It does not have to be a finished product. The usability must be tested from the prototypes models we have like early paper-based stages through fully functional later stages. Usability need to be tested to ensure it effectiveness but all agreed according to Nielsen (1996) that the two main procedures must be given the main concern is which are testing the reliability of test which mean that that we will get the same result if we repeated our test, while the second procedure is the validity of the test which mean that our test must cover the whole issues related to the usability function of our product, also due to the increasing in the involved of the human centred design the final words about the product will be from the user himself .
Prasad (1996) proposed the "Usability testing as a process that employs participants or users who are representative of the target population to evaluate the degree to which a product meets specific usability criteria". The researcher agrees in that three standard factors must be measured during any usability testing. Included
Effectiveness: the user's ability to successfully use the mobile and achieve tasks needed is through the user interface and the application and services provided to him.
Efficiency: the user's capability to quickly achieve tasks with simplicity and without frustration.
Satisfaction: to which extent the user has the benefit of using the mobile and the application and services provided to him.
But also before any test is started we must agree that any usability test has three main aspects in a relationship; figure 2.3 show the interaction connection between the three aspect
Which leads us to a question if we can pass our product without testing it? Potosnak (1988) refers that some application according to their developer said it works and no complain announced, but she argues that this is not true without the testing of the usability. The companies can have no basis to argue about the usability of their product, and she added that it is far better to succeed by design than by default or chance. Usability testing guidelines and support the success and reduce the risks related with launching a new product.
Usability team on www.usability.gov emphasizes that by measuring the three factors we will
- Determine the user satisfaction with our product
- Identify any usability problems that the product has
- Collect quantitative data on participants' performance
- Determine participants' satisfaction with the product
Other benefits that we will achieve from this measurement to launch correct and accessible products, beside the fact that achieving an excellent user interface we will attain:
- Risk reduction.
- Cost reduction.
- Increased return on investment.
- Competitive advantage.
- Organisational efficiency.
The researcher sees many features for usable product but the most common one according to Nielsen (1996) are:
- Easy to learn: The user can quickly go from not knowing the system to getting some work done with it.
- Efficient to use: Once the user has learned the system, a high level of productivity is possible.
- Easy to remember: The infrequent user is able to return to using the system after some period of not having used it, without having to learn everything all over.
- Few errors: Users do not make many errors during the use of the system, or if they do make errors they can easily recover from them. Also, no catastrophic errors should occur.
- Pleasant to use: Users are subjectively satisfied by using the system; they like it.
There is a need to develop a new method for usability testing in mobile industry. There are many methods of testing but some researchers like Lee and Grice (2004) support this need to find new methods. This can achieve by developing a new testing methods and combining some of the known testing methods. The earlier the project implements usability the more efficiency and benefit will increase. We can not forget that usability testing is a part of user-centred design. This process contains a series of tests developed specifically to evaluate performance metric and usability measure, Usability team has developed table 2.1 to compare these difference in the measurement.
This chapter presents the basis for this research and explores the product development and the models than can be integrated with the process. The next chapters are explaining the whole body of the new product development, and the building for a mobile phone project, giving comprehensive details about the relation and the gaps found in the literature review.