Realize the robots design

Realize the robots design

1.1 Introduction

a. The statement of work

The aim of this project for us is to realize the Robot's design using a process based on the practice of concurrent engineering; we will work as individuals in parallel on separate prototypes before converging/eliminating our group's design set into one unit for building.

Some requirements should be considered during the designing and planning of the whole project.

  • We are going to conduct this project in a group of six people and the work should be well divided and allocated to each person according to their interests and strongpoint.
  • An autonomous robot is to be constructed and should be capable of following a 5m black line track.
  • The robot should carry an egg in a provided spoon whilst undertaking its journey.
  • We should also aim for our robot to be as fast as possible and in a good shape and appearance, for a race will be held.

b. Division of requirements and mission

We divide the mission in two parts.

The construction of our smart car. This part includes all kinds of hardware and software supports and the combination of each part, which will make our car perform as required.

This part forms the basis of the whole running and tracking system and can be developed into different directions according to the customer's emphasis and demand.

1.The functional developing. This is the part that will make our smart car smarter and more outstanding. In this project, the key purposes are tracking, carrying and being the fastest; therefore, what we will focus on is the sensor system (tracking), stability (carrying) and the combination efficient (speed adjusting). This part should be carefully designed to implement some specific functions as our customer's will.

To briefly demonstrate the divided tasks and in order to declare the allocation, a table is shown below:





Power supply part design/Leader

Zhaoyang Zhong

Design the power supply part and make decisions.

Make each part of the car well matched and keep our group working well.

Software design/Thinker/Carer

Di Shang (programming) &

Yiwen Guo (sencor signal input)

Design the sensors and the PIC to make our smart car move as we expect.

Reduce the error when the car is tracking and improve its reaction rate.

Circuit design and simulation/Carer

Xiaosu Zhang

Design and simulate the circuits.

Make the circuits work as we expect and be able to correct mistake during testing.

Time & Budget plan/Carer

Yiwen Guo

Make schedule and do the money budget.

Account for the project and make sure our work will be finished on time.

Aesthetic appearance and circuit design/Carer

Meng Wang

Design and simulate the circuits/Design the appearance of our smart robot car.

Make the circuits work as we expect and be able to correct mistake during testing./A best looking appearance.

Mechanical construction design/Carer

Shuli Li

Analysis and design the mechanical part.

Ensure the safety of the egg and improve the speed as fast as possible.

The table of the task allocation

c. Equipments of the project

To build the robot and make it realize several functions as we expect, a list of necessary items is shown below:







Ball wheel



Under pan


Burden the whole body



Detect the black line

Camera monitor


Detect the black line

Stepper motor


Run the wheels

Power supply system


Supply power to each part of the robot system

Bread board (or PCB)


Where the circuit will be built on

Micro processor


Receive and process data

Basic circuit components (LEDs, resistors, capacitor, inductors, wires, op-amps, etc.)


Necessary for the circuit build

Basic mechanical construction components (papers, axletree, gears, etc.)


Necessary for the mechanical construction and the appearance

Necessary tools (scissors, glue, sand papers, etc.)


For the construction and test of the robot



Carry the egg

The table for the equipments we need

1.2 Requirements specification

a. Requirements of operational

1. Performance and related parameters

The robot will be capable of following a 5m black line track and carry an egg with a spoon during its journey.

2. Utilisation

The systems of the robot will be kept working to make the robot finish the competition. The time of its journey is ranged from 5 minutes to 10 minutes as all matter is considered.

3. Effectiveness

Maintenance down-time (MDT) will be 10 to 30 minutes. Depending on the parts that need more consideration, the time will be different.

4. Environment

The robot is expected to work on a clean and flat table. The table should be put horizontally and the working temperature should be the room temperature (5℃-25℃).

b. Requirements of mandatory and preference

To demonstrate the requirements of mandatory, a numbered table is shown as follow:


Requirements of mandatory



The robot should be able to move forward and backward.

This is the basic function of the whole system.


Requirements of mandatory



The robot should be able to change its direction.

The robot will change its direction by its ball wheel.


The robot should be able to detect the black line.

So the robot will have a moving direction.


The track information should be sent to the processor.

The processor will be programmed to monitor whether the direction is right.


The processor should be able to analyse the data and send the signal to the stepper motors.

The 3 wheels will be controlled by the processor.


The robot should stop or move backward when it lose the track of the black line.

The realization of the tracking function.


The egg should be carried through the entire journey.

The safety of the egg should be guaranteed.

The table of the requirements of mandatory

To demonstrate the requirements of preference, a numbered table is shown as follow:


Requirements of preference



When the robot is moving on a straight black line, it will move as fast as possible.

To save time during the straight lane.


When the robot is moving with the top speed on a straight line, it will move as straight as it can.

If it moves in a polyline track on a straight line, time is wasted.


Requirements of preference



When the sensor detects a curve, the robot will firstly slow down, rather than suddenly stop.

To ensure the safety of the egg.


The cooling system should be efficient to ensure that the microprocessor will be working in a suitable temperature.

This will ensure the speed of the microprocessor and the safety of the whole system.


The egg with the spoon will be put in the most stable position.

To ensure the safety of the egg.


The appearance of our robot car will be the best looking.

This is a product and should be the first one come into people's eyes.

The table of the requirements of the preference

Section 2

2.1 Design Outline

  1. The sensors
  2. Software design
  3. Circuit design
  4. The mechanical construction
  5. Aesthetic appearance

2.2 Proof of concept

  1. The choose of sensor
  2. Programming
  3. The realization of the auto tracking

2.1 Design Outline

a. The sensors and signal inputs.

To undertake the sensor part, first of all, we need to have a general idea about the theory of the sensor and the tracking system.

The word tracking here means that the robot car will be following along a black line on the white floor. Usually, we approach that by taking the infrared detection method.

Infrared detection is a method that uses the different characteristics the infrared light shows when it shoots on different colour reflective surfaces.

During the moving of the robot car, the sensors will continue to give off infrared light to the ground.

The diffuse reflection will occur when the infrared light encounter in the white floor.

Then the reflected light will be received by the tube receiver which is set on the smart car.

On the other hand, if the infrared light encounter in the black line, the light will be absorbed. Then the tube receiver will not receive the signal.

How the SCM determine the location of the black line and control the route that the smart car will go through is depending on whether the tube receiver has received the reflected infrared light.

There is something that we need to notice. The detecting range of a infrared detector is limited, which is normally no more than 10cm.

For the probe for transmitting and the probe for receiving, we can use integrated infrared probe.

For integrated infrared sensor, we can use an integrated model E3F-DS10C4 intermittent photoelectric switch detector. It has a simple, reliable working performance. Besides, the sensitivity of the probe can be controlled as long as we adjust a knob on it.

To provide more concrete information and details, a data sheet of the E3F-DS10C4 is shown in the next page:

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