# Results And Calculations

• Initially, the pressure readings (P), which were given in bars were converted into KN/m. 1 bar = 100KN/m
• The area of the pipe (A) was then derived from the pipe diameter which was given as 0.01905m. p x (0.01905) = 0.000285m

The flow rate (Q) was then ascertained from the equation:

Q = Amount collected (kg)

Time (s)

Q = (4 * 10-3)

6.97

Q = 0.000574 m/s

The velocities (v) for all the groups were the worked out from the following equation:

v = Q A v = 0.000574 0.000285 v = 2.013 m/s

The next step was to get the Reynolds number.

Re = v * L Where, L = Length (m), V = kinematic viscosity of oil (m/s) V Re = 2.013 * 0.01905 0.00001 Re = 3835

The pipe friction factor (?) was the derived from the following equation:

? = 0.316 Re 0.25 ? = 0.316 3835 0.25 ? = 0.0402

The theoretical head loss due to friction was then worked out using either the Darcy-Weisbach or Hagen-Poiseuille method depending on whether the flow was turbulent or laminar respectively.

### IN NO MORE THAN 150 WORDS TOTAL,

Compare and discuss your results in relation to theoretical expectations highlighting any possible source of error. All the calculations were completed on an excel spreadsheet using the relevant formulae. An example of each type of calculation from the first line on the spreadsheet will be given in the following section to give an idea of what each step involved. The relationship between the pipe factor (?) and Reynolds Number (Re) The shape and the form of the jet as it discharges into the Perspex deflector What if anything, would be the effect of using water for experiment rather than using oil? Why logarithmic values are used in this experiment and why their use Is so prevalent in hydraulics, generally. These results were then manipulated to show the Logs of both ‘hf /L' and ‘v', which were subsequently used to plot charts 2 and 3.

### IN NO MORE THAN 75 WORDS, for each of the following, DISCUSS:

The relationship between the pipe factor (?) and Reynolds Number (Re)

Compare and discuss your results in relation to theoretical expectations highlighting any possible source of error. All the calculations were completed on an excel spreadsheet using the relevant formulae. An example of each type of calculation from the first line on the spreadsheet will be given in the following section to give an idea of what each step involved. The relationship between the pipe factor (?) and Reynolds Number (Re) The shape and

### The shape and the form of the jet as it discharges into the Perspex deflector

Compare and discuss your results in relation to theoretical expectations highlighting any possible source of error. All the calculations were completed on an excel spreadsheet using the relevant formulae. An example of each type of calculation from the first line on the spreadsheet will be given in the following section to give an idea of what each step involved. The relationship between the pipe factor (?) and Reynolds Number (Re) The shape and

### What if anything, would be the effect of using water for experiment rather than using oil?

Compare and discuss your results in relation to theoretical expectations highlighting any possible source of error. All the calculations were completed on an excel spreadsheet using the relevant formulae. An example of each type of calculation from the first line on the spreadsheet will be given in the following section to give an idea of what each step involved. The relationship between the pipe factor (?) and Reynolds Number (Re) The shape and

### Why logarithmic values are used in this experiment and why their use Is so prevalent in hydraulics, generally.

Compare and discuss your results in relation to theoretical expectations highlighting any possible source of error. All the calculations were completed on an excel spreadsheet using the relevant formulae. An example of each type of calculation from the first line on the spreadsheet will be given in the following section to give an idea of what each step involved. The relationship between the pipe factor (?) and Reynolds Number (Re) The shape and

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