There has been a serious problem in the past on how to manage the corporate activities. Many executives after performing an arduous research have come to an agreement that robust project management techniques will be an appropriate solution for the above problem. Project management is a systematical organization of resources which includes material, equipment and the man power for the final completion of the project. The project management is applied in different fields of activities. The activities may include construction, defense and engineering. Project management mainly considers with project planning and project monitoring. The project planning comes out with schedules from the initial step to the final one. Generally these schedules are made by using the gantt charts. Also the project planning consists of activities like the estimation of cost, proper utilization of resources, network diagrams, critical paths, proper work break down. Here all these activities are well organized by a project planning manager. A project manager should have knowledge on all the aspects of the project. He should be familiar with different operations, for instance in order to manufacture a product like a gear or shaft, we need to have knowledge about the different operations like the hardening, turning, milling, grinding and finally the important one is the testing. So, in order to get the final finished product the manager should have enough knowledge to at least guide or assign work to his sub ordinates. For better interaction with the team members, the project manager should have good communication and interpersonal skills. Organization of tasks is also an important role of the project planning manager. Project monitoring is another important part of project management. Project monitoring mainly considers with tracking the progress of the tasks, comparing the actual activities to the predicted ones and finally taking the deviation between them and adjusting variance to gain the actual one. In a line process, series of steps takes places from the raw material makeup to the finished product. The output from step 1 will be the input to the step 2 process and the output to the step 2 process will be the input to the step 3 process , this continues until the final finished product. Here one thing to be taken into consideration is the monitoring of the step by step outputs. The reason for monitoring the outputs step by step is to keep track of the outcome and do some adjustments in order to minimize the errors in the initial stages.
One of the approaches for the project management is the traditional approach. Several stages are included in this approach. The first stage is initiation, in this stage the scope of the project is decided. This stage should be considered carefully as it shows impact on the further stages. The second stage includes planning and design, here the description of individual as well as the whole tasks of the system should be designed carefully and also should be well planned. The third stage of project management is executing, this consists of different processes to complete the tasks which are mentioned in the in previous stage. These activities are called planned activities because they are already in the process line. These activities must be implemented accordingly with respect to the time and the funds should be released. The fourth stage of project management is monitoring and controlling. The success of this stage is purely dependent on the attention and keen observation of the technicians. The manager should give the technician proper information like the final specifications so that there will be proper monitoring on the product in a timely manner which controls the errors and makes some adjustments to give the final product with the required specifications. The final phase of the project management is closing which includes the completion of the required product filing the documents and submitting the reports accordingly. This phase gives the completion of each phase of an activity and also the total completion of the activity. There will also be a closing to the contract depending upon the type of contract; hence the final phase shows us that the project is completed successfully.
A project manager should have equal knowledge on technology. In the past days the equipments and the methods used in the firms were not the sophisticated, like the work is totally manual not automatic. But as the technology is improving day by day the management of the industries are using newer techniques. The manager should have knowledge on these upgraded versions so that he can be a good supervisor for his subordinates and this will result in high quality of the product. For example, in an automobile industry the assembly of different parts is done manually by using different tools which takes much time for finishing the final assembly of the product. The manger at that level has no need of having enough technical knowledge but in the present days everything is automated and programmed. This automation reduces much of the total estimated time as well as the estimated cost, hence the manager at this level should have proper knowledge on the technical skills to update himself as well as the his subordinates.
Success of the project depends upon the project manager. The project manager is responsible for the successful completion of the project; proper completion of the project with respect to the time, cost and quality gives the ultimate definition of the project success.
Consider the example of the repair of a DC motor. In the first stage of project management the project manager must define the repair specifications such as Repairing low voltage polyphase induction motors for potential VFD applications while maintaining the original characteristics and efficiency of the motor is a possibility. Repair practices have a tendency to damage the motor, reducing its original characteristics and efficiency for which a proper supervision should pass through. In the second stage the project manager should plan the general repair of a motor. Research data was collected for the purposes of the study and repair. At this stage he should lead the project, monitor the work and communicate with the technicians at work which would not be possible normally without managing skills. The purpose of this study is to determine the best electric motor repair practices to improve induction motor survivability in potential inverter applications while maintaining the original efficiency rating of the motor. The result will be a written electric motor repair specification to be used by electric motor repair centers and end users for the repair of low voltage induction motors for VFD applications. The specification is to help reduce the billions of dollars lost, per year, in unnecessary energy costs, downtime, and repairs. The specification should also be utilized for the repair of all low voltage induction motors to set the standard for the highest of quality repairs. Thus the project management accomplishes a feed back in the normal repair of a motor and thus improves the efficiency of a motor. Your Needs Assessment is your baseline document ,Establish process early for managing change orders, Original scoping should be thorough as possible Any subsequent changes must be thoroughly vetted, a form should be completed and members and executives must sign off.
The various problems involved in the project management of a repair of DC motor are
Project can't begin on time: In this particular case the repair of a motor may not be done on time due to the non availability of technicians or due to the non availability of proper parts that are to be replaced and for many other reasons. Project has vague requirements; the availability of proper parts which are to be replaced in the place of spoiled parts are to be pre identified. Project managers can't stay within project parameters for the successful completion of the project. Lack of Strategic Alignment leads to the unsuccessful or incomplete completion of project and Stakeholder Management. Communication breakdowns cause unclear project goals and objectives and this leads to the Staff gaps which should be carefully handled by the Project managers and check to minimize the staff gaps. Harmonic Distortion and how it effects the motor and other electrical equipment, Minimum operating speeds and motor cooling are the two different problems involved in the repair of a motor, at this stage of project fulfillment there should be proper synchronization between a technician that deals with harmonics and the technician who deals with operating speed of the motor which is in turn concerned with the load. Even in case of replacement of parts the project management place a vital role so that the end user will be given an efficient work. In particular even fan replacement should also be considered, when the original fan has been damaged. The replacement must be original. The efficiency of motor gets reduced when the fan is replaced any larger fan or any number of fans. The life of the motor gets reduced when the fan is replaced by the smaller fan. Thus a proper supervision should be taken in the fulfillment of each and every step of project. Milestones that impact downstream milestones and the overall timeline of project. Missing a Critical Path means the entire project is delayed and the head have to make up ground on downstream critical paths.
In the view of an end user the problems involved in the completion of a project doesn't matter much and rather the budget involving in the project, the maintenance cost of the output after the delivery and the time taken for the completion of the project play a vital role and even these aspects are to be undoubtedly fulfilled by the manager through the project management techniques. The most significant reasons for the success of a project are Project Sponsorship at executive level, Good project charter, Strong project management, The right mix of team players, Good decision making structure, Good communication, Team members working towards common goals. In turn Project management involves estimating the length of time to complete a project . Once a project has been undertaken then a project manager is responsible for carrying out the project on the assigned time table.
How do the managers establish a time schedule?? Generally based on average length of time for each component Average length of time based on past experience Length of time to complete each step is a random variable. No major project is ever installed on time, within budget, or with the same staff that started it. Yours will not be the first. Projects progress quickly until they become 90% complete and then remain at 90% complete forever. Something always go wrong when everything seems to be going well. They get worse when we feel they cannot get any worse. Something will always be overlooked when everything seems to be going better. There is no system which is completely debugged. Debugging a system in turn introduces new bugs which are harder to find. If project planning is not done properly, it may take thrice the actual time. Whereas, carefully planned project would take only twice the planned time. Project teams detest progress reporting because it vividly manifests their lack of progress. Leadership, Organization, Communication, Finance, Technical savvy, Politicking, Team building, Praising, Punishing are the key jobs of a project manager which satisfies the end user at the utmost level.
The project management is not an abrupt change that has to be done for every work after normal completion of project but it is a step by step procedure in fulfilling the needs of end user. In the conclusion project management skills and techniques prove to be the need of the hour for the successful functioning, scrutinizing, verifying and also not only in bringing an efficient output but also in satisfying the end consumer from every point of view.