Water management

Water management

1. INTRODUCTION:

The minuscule lack of natural water resources is indisputable and water arrangement techniques are impeccable at the same time. Kuwait has limited natural water resources i.e., groundwater the majority of Kuwait's water needs are met by seawater salt removal process. The scarcity calls for careful optimized utilization of the water resources. Till now no cogent plans were followed. Attempting to initiate the proper infrastructural process and this abstract gives an record of the status of availability of water resources that can be utilized in optimized way, management and near by future needs and expected growth in production of water Kuwait for Kuwait. The limited water resources of Kuwait, which is located in the arid region calls for optimum utilization. With the water resources being brackish groundwater, salt removal and treated wastewater and the uses are mainly domestic and some parts for irrigation, optimization of the resource utilization is not complicated as in many other countries. But due to the lack of integrated planning, one cannot claim that the country's resources are properly utilized. One of the needs of proper planning is the estimation of the resource potential. While the salt removal and water waste purification is only bounded by economical boundaries, and vast efforts have already been made in achieving the base target of the groundwater resources in Kuwait; beyond this, no pre estimation is available of the aquifer system potential for sustainable development or even mining. The total water budget in 2001 is estimated at 765 Million m3, with salt removal, groundwater production, while salt removal and waste water reuse would cover constituting 59%, 31% and 10% respectively. The projected water demand for 2010 is 1020Million m3. The plans, indicated that groundwater would cover 51% of the planned additional production, while salt removal and wastewater reuse would cover 44% and 5% respectively. While the proposed increases in groundwater production without doubt consume, only natural water resource of the country only 41% of the generated wastewater is to be re-utilized[Emerson]. The absence of integrated planning is also manifested in the total estimated production that surpasses the estimated needs near by 20%. Regarding this, in most arid countries the scarcity of conventional fresh water supplies infers a serious threat to sustainable, for balancing the socio-economic growth and development. This threat is clearly more pronounced in the less developed countries. The mining of non-conventional seawater and wastewater resources could provide an opportunity and a challenge to water supply sustainability. In Kuwait, the average rainfall is near about 110mm per year and the fresh water streams do not exist. The fresh water resources are limited to groundwater salt less seawater, and treated wastewater effluents. The total conventional fresh water resources available in Kuwait are 6 million m3 while the total water demand has exceeded 350 million m3 in the year 2000. With the continued deterioration of existing groundwater resources, almost 93% of the water demand is currently satisfied through seawater salt removal plants. The history of salt removal in Kuwait dates back to 1951 when the first distillation plant was commissioned. Currently the desalination capacity is 1.65 million m3/d of which1.47million m3/d is provided by multi-stage flash distillation and 0.17million m3/d is supplied by reverse osmosis [Emerson:75]. On the other hand, tertiary treated wastewater effluents of about 0.4million m3/d are produced by three major municipal wastewater treatment plants. Such effluent is currently utilized in irrigation. This abstract represents the water resources management plan in Kuwait and evaluates the role of desalination and water reuse to reach the increasing water demand, also examining the recent trends in water supply and demand as well as the development in desalting plants inventory. The process of desalination requirements in Kuwait will continue to grow. A dramatic decline in cost has made desalination a viable and economic optimized solution to ensure future water supply in Kuwait and the region, while the growing environmental concern has led to increased interest in water reuse[Novak].

2. AVAILABILITY OF WATER IN KUWAIT:

Total population of Kuwait till 2009 June was 2,595000 and precipitation rate was 100mm/ year which is not enough in any circumstances for such population. Total Actual Renewable Water Resources (TARWR) volume in 2009: 0.02cubic.km (0.02 billion cubic meter/ year). Per capital share of water in 2005 was 10cubic meter/ year and in 2009 was 08cubic meter/ year.

Denouement of Total Actual Renewable Water Resources

  • Surface water: 0 %
  • Ground water: 0 %
  • Overlap is water shared by both the surface water and groundwater systems: 0 coming Waters: 100 %
  • Outgoing Waters: 0 %
  • Total Use of Total Actual Renewable Water Resources: 2.227 %

As taken from the following as exemplary:

1. Average precipitation (1961-90 from IPC (mm/year). As in the consulted Database, for some countries large discrepancies exist between national and IPC data on rainfall average. In these cases, IPC data were modified to ensure consistency with water resources data [Novak].

2. From Sep. 2004 for surface water and Aug. 2005 for groundwater

BREAKDOWN OF WATER USAGE
YEAR        POPULATION     ACTUAL RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCE    PREPITATION RATE     PER-CAPITAL SHARE    PER- CAPITAL USAGE
2000        2000899        10cubic meter/ year                8 cubic meter/ year  0.02 cubic.km         100 MM/ YEAR
2005        2,195000       10cubic meter/ year               12 cubic meter/ year  0.026cubic.km          90 MM/ YEAR
2009        2,595000       10cubic meter/ year               13 cubic meter/ year  0.03 cubic.km         100 MM/ YEAR
            

3. Analysis of Subsurface Environments: To develop and evaluate methodology's for designing optimal water quality monitoring well networks, for early detection and accurate characterization of contaminant plumes evolving through heterogeneous subsurface environments. The target networks are to fulfill the dual (conflicting) objectives of cost minimization and accurate characterization by identifying optimal subsets of well locations and activity from a four dimensional search space of potential sampling locations and times.

The following abstract on a research presents an approach for designing cost-effective water quality networks for monitoring, detection of groundwater contamination. This proposed approach aimed for reducing the number and frequency of wells sampled, maintaining high accuracy of characterizing contaminant plumes. The approach implemented used in this report is optimized based on, so that monitoring network design is figure up mathematically as an optimization problem where the decision is made on where and when to construct monitoring wells, when to analyze the constructed wells so as to minimize the total cost of well construction and sampling while maintaining a prescribed level of accuracy[Emerson:75]. With the aid of a contaminant transport model, which can help determine the characterization error associated with any given design, reduced-gradient search techniques were utilized to solve the resulting complex non-linear optimization problem. This optimization module is developed to form a basic building block in an highly adaptive design approach that is dynamic, in nature so that a primary network design can be revised in specific time period as new groundwater quality information is collected, with the construction and sampling of new wells and water resources. The methodology was tested using a contaminated plum distribution and the sensitivity of the output solution to the initial solution. This plume characterization error accuracy level, the allowed sampling time periods were conducted, are presented. Testing of other sites and the effect of spatial variability on the final design along with other optimization techniques targeted at non-convex, non-linear problems like simulated annealing are being tested. Following Figure is a sample showing the trade exchange between cost characterization errors for various sample intervals

4. Suggestions for Proper Management & Enhancement of Water in Kuwait:

The storage enhancement options for Kuwait reviewed well and hence recognized advantages of natural drainage depression near the Rawdhatain basin. Ruwaih and Al-Hadi gives the exact geographical area of this basin which is in between longitudes 47.3333 and 47.7333 degrees and latitudes 29.6666 and 29.9833 degrees. The depressions of this area collect rain water in shallow aquifers and provide the limited amount of fresh groundwater for the country. Therefore losses from storage facilities (surface or aquifer storage) would go back in to the recharging these shallow aquifers. Moreover, this is a site of excessive water and oil extraction facilities and development with the attendant infrastructure. Potential water suppliers Iran and Iraq are close to the northern border and gulf coast is also nearby the east. A major disadvantage with this particular location is its greater distance from desalination and wastewater treatment plants in the center of the country which are also potential suppliers to water storage. This option allows a production and water treatment schedule optimized for efficiency instead of depending on the temporal fluctuations of demand and supply [Novak].

4.1. Innovative Storage Design: Adapting a Solution from Low-Impact Urban Development as an Artificial Surface Aquifer:

The structure beneath is showed up with the different stages of treatment of sea water, waste water and the desalination process. The water transforms from the waste form or solid raw from to aqueous from and then gaseous form where the removal waste is done. The suitability of the general area around the Rawdhatain basin for storage enhancement facilities has been discussed. Before we proceed to delineate the exact locations for the proposed storage areas, let us discuss what type of storage design will be sought. As a standard for comparison, we will consider the surface reservoir in the main depression in the basin.

Covering an area of 143 sq. km and 11 meters depth. The reservoir would hold a maximum of 1cubic km of water enough to fulfill the demands of the Kuwait current demand. The reservoir would only require damming in the southern face, where there is a natural outlet from the depression.

The main setback facing the proposed surface reservoir is evaporation loss. It is technically impossible to cover such an area roofing or sheeting, which in case cannot completely prevent losses. In terms of volume capacity and design and maintenance ease, the surface reservoir is more attractive than the aquifer storage. However, neither of these strategies nor the design we will propose here addresses the security and vulnerability of an extensive water storage facility on which the country may come to rely. The security concerns may be valid but do not justify inaction because the status quo does not address that concerns or solve the long term water resource development needs of the country.

4.2. Artificial Surface Aquifer (ASA) Delineation:

Reiterating the desired features of the ASA:

1. Natural topography suitable for water accumulation

2. Proximity to existing facilities.

3. Proximity to Gulf sea and no Northern border with Iraq potential water exporters.

4. Least disruption of existing facilities, with the knowledge that most if not all land use and land covers can be restored to the original.

The GIS data sets that we use first of all projected from "geographic projection" into the correct "projected coordinate system" which in the case of Kuwait is "WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_38N".

This converts spatial extent according to 1 meter for .017453292519943299 degrees, and positions the map geographically according to the datum and projected specified. The projection of all data sets which come from different sources is important to make proper spatial comparisons. We will also process the DEM in order to find the patterns of this palco drainage networks. Oil wells, water wells and sand and gravel queries are concentrated in this area[Severn Trent Water].

We know focus on the smaller area in the north by cropping the SRTM DEM of the whole of Kuwait. The smaller extent of this "DEM" will allow us to make computations faster and focus attention at the desired scale. The "DEM" raster has a cell size of - 90x90(3 arc second) with a vertical resolution of -16m to +16m and horizontal resolution of -20m to +20m. The grayscale of Kuwait trends high to low elevation going from southwest to north and east to the coast, with maximum elevation pf 219m and minimum 28m below sea level. The totally white patches indicate the areas where no reliable elevation data could be obtained. Our nest step is to analyze the "DEM" to identify the low lying flat areas. In spatial analyst tools, we compute neighborhood statistics, finding the maximum elevation in a 4 by 4 rectangular grid (-.0729 sq. km area) and displaying the value of each value of grid in a cell. In Raster calculation, we find the areas of the "DEM" which have values equal to the neighborhood min. After the depression identified this .showing three major areas which will be of interest and which we will call them as "SAA" and followed by 1, 2 and 3.

4.3. Modeling Agro-forestry Pasture System Growth:

To develop a new lavishing model that can simulate the affluent growth of jumbled kinds of pastre based on the previously available aggrandizing simulation model. This scenario will be extended to model the agro forestry system and obtain the effect of trees in response to solar heat and rain counts and soil has nutrient requirements. This long-term goal is to develop a "GGIS" is an interface developed for easy use by asset managing authority for the betterment of the public.By using pastre as feed for live-stock can act as linchpin part of economics of agricultural.. Another specific component of this research for sustainable agriculture is the study of agro-forestry systems in them. This scenario will be extended to model the agro forestry system and obtain the effect of trees in response to solar heat and rain counts and soil has nutrient requirements. This long-term goal is to develop a "GGIS" is an interface developed for easy use by asset managing authority for the betterment of the public. The more than one uses of forest cover are digger, dominating to increasing productivity and sound surroundings. The models dealing with agro forestry requires a plethora of input data, which uses many vitals signals and their application outside the scope[Severn Trent Water]..

Procedures for estimating growth parameters for mono-species by implementing the numerical cost cutting codes and field growth data were developed. The resulting constraints groups are on simultaneously check, compare to constraints ranges obtained from the data considered. The process of calibration and validation, by using a developed group of constraints from authorities of Lebanon, gave quite satisfactory results as shown in Figure consulted; code set tests relocates inter-species rigorous competition in mixed pastre systems for light and essential water nutrients. This version of the model which has been developed recently is capable of growth cultivation and of a pastre with different species, by using independently obtained and discovered constraint groups for each individual species. This research also indented, for modeling of the tree effects in a typical silvo-pastoral system, effect of forest scene for light and rainfall and soil water depletion through evapotranspiration by tree crown and nutrient uptake by the trees. This newest charts for these following tree effects, are not provided into the multi-species, will result in an agro forestry model that can be easily applied to real world situation; A GGIS conditions will be improvised to take benefit of, capability to relocate the variability and GUI.

By using pastre as feed for live-stock can act as linchpin part of economics of agricultural.. Another specific component of this research for sustainable agriculture is the study of agro-forestry systems in them. This scenario will be extended to model the agro forestry system and obtain the effect of trees in response to solar heat and rain counts and soil has nutrient requirements. This long-term goal is to develop a "GGIS" is an interface developed for easy use by asset managing authority for the betterment of the public. The more than one uses of forest cover are digger, dominating to increasing productivity and sound surroundings. The models dealing with agro forestry requires a plethora of input data, which uses many vitals signals and their application outside the scope [Severn Trent Water].

Procedures for estimating growth parameters for mono-species by implementing the numerical cost cutting codes and field growth data were developed. The resulting constraints groups are on simultaneously check, compare to constraints ranges obtained from the data considered. The process of calibration and validation, by using a developed group of constraints from authorities of Lebanon, gave quite satisfactory results as shown in Figure consulted; code set tests relocates inter-species rigorous competition in mixed pastre systems for light and essential water nutrients. This version of the model which has been developed recently is capable of growth cultivation and of a pastre with different species, by using independently obtained and discovered constraint groups for each individual species. This research also indented, for modeling of the tree effects in a typical silvo-pastoral system, effect of forest scene for light and rainfall and soil water depletion through eva-potranspiration by tree crown and nutrient uptake by the trees.

5. References:

Emerson, K., R.C. Russo, R.E. Lund and R.V. Thurston. 1975. Aqueous ammonia equilibrium calculations:Effect of pH and temperature. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32: 2379-2383.

Hydraulic Structures Fourth Edition, by P. Novak, A.I.B. Moffat, C. Nalluri and R. Narayanan, this text provides the researcher the fundamental theory of hydraulic structures.

MOE. 1988. Scientific Criteria Document for the Development of Provincial Water Quality Objectives and Guidelines - Aluminum. 81 pp

The Municipality of Kuwait which provides the necessary maps and drawings that are needed for the study and the potential demography and potential water needs. Available from: http://www.greenfacts.org/en/water-resources/figtableboxes/aquastat37.htm [28 Dec, 09].

Ministry of Electricity and Water where water distribution networks and all other infrastructure information can be obtained. Available From: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/warm/2005/00000019/00000005/00006810. [28Dec,09]

Global Water Intelligence information for an up to date global water situation. Available from: http://www.greenfacts.org/en/water-resources/figtableboxes/3.htm. [30 Dec,09].

Severn Trent Water Ltd this British company research papers.

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