Coca-Cola Company has doing business in more than 200 countries and operates approximately 500 brands and more than 3,000 drink products and the company recognized in 1886. Coca-Cola goods include hygienic and still drink such as waters, juices, fruit drinks, teas, coffees, sports drinks and power drinks. The company own four out of top five non-alcoholic drink brands which containing bubbles of gas. Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite and Fanta are the core products of Coca-Cola Company (The Coca-Cola Company 2009).
Coca-Cola Company's visualization is to ensure people have right to use clean water, packaging own a life outside its original use, and also responding to make sure the communities are in good physical shape and wealthy. Live positively is the company's dedication to creating an optimistic social responsibility in the world. Live positively consists of few centre areas type to Coca-Cola Company sustainability. One of the key areas to concern is about water stewardship (The Coca-Cola Company 2009).Water Stewardship
Coca-Coca Company's goal is to ensure good in return to communities and environment with quantity of water comparable to what the company utilize in all of its products. Water stewardship has been practice in three areas:
To decrease water utilizes percentage while increasing the element case capacity, with a target to perk up water efficiency in 2012 with the percentage of 20 over 2004. Coca-Cola Company remains to exact quality standards that cover both water resource and finished beverages during operations. In 2008, water use ratio was 2.43 litres per litter of product and 9% improvement from 2004 baseline (Stirton et al. 2010).
To recycle water use in operations by recurring wastewater to the environment at intensity that supports water life by the end of 2010. The company has strict wastewater treatment values in place and work with bottling partners to make sure all system operations are aligned to reach the 2010 wastewater treatment goal. Coca-Cola Company believes the coalition with worldwide principles is vital to protect source water in the particular areas. In 2008, 88 % of facilities and over 95% of process wastewater volume were in fulfilment with the company wastewater treatment standards (Stirton et al. 2010).
To replenish water use in finished beverages by participating in local relevant projects that support communities and nature and also to meet and maintain this goal by 2020. There are more than 250 community water partnerships focus on watershed protection, conservation and providing access to clean water and sanitation for communities. These projects currently cover more than 70 countries and conducted in partnership with a wide range of organizations. Coca-Cola Company has responsibility with regard to replenishing water in areas of the world under water stress. Moreover, the company also focus much of replenishing work in communities where the needs are greatest.
By targeting in 2009, Coca-Cola Company had replenished 638 million litres for communities and 28.8 billion litres to nature, signifying approximately 22% of the water used in finished beverages (Stirton et al. 2010).Water stewardship in India
Coca-Cola Company in India has made a simple intervention at bottling plants to optimize water usage efficiency and to reduce the nozzle diameter in the bottle washer for optimal rinse water usage. Besides, the company is dedicated to ensure 100% fulfilment with look upon to wastewater treatment at all its bottling plant across the world by 2010.The generated wastewater is fully treated at the on-site Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) and this normally includes secondary treatment (including the collection of wastes, screening/settling of solids, biological treatment to eliminate nutrients and disinfection and disposal) to meet Coca-Cola Company and the Indian Pollution Control Board (PCB) norms. Thus, the treated waste water in large number of units complies with "Zero Discharge" norm of the PCB where in all the treated waste water is utilized within the plant premises for on-land discharge. In addition, the treated wastewater is also used for toilet cleaning and floor wash to reduce water and use recycle for secondary purposes within plants (Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd. 2007).
The total annual water used by Coca-Cola Company in India shows a decline of 21.08%, 17.22% and 11.72% during 2005, 2006 and 2007 correspondingly in comparison to the total water used in 2004. In 2007 the total annual water used has gone up 6.6% with reference to total water used during 2006 and this variation is due to a corresponding 6.5% increase in the production volume in 2007 as compared to 2006 (Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd. 2007).Negative performance
In India, Coca-Cola's operations are relying on plentiful sources of water, and gaining control of aquifers is an important strategy. As a result, the company has brought a greater negative impact on community water resources. Coca-Cola Company has been charged of dehydrating communities due to its pursuit of water resources to supply its company plants. Furthermore, the company is drying up farmers' wells and destroying local farming since the company started operation in India (Zacune 2006). Furthermore, Coca-Cola's operations use nearly three litres of water to make one litre of Coca-Cola (Coca-Cola: drinking the world dry 2007). The company also use water for other purpose such as industrial cleaning and bottling plant. Coca-Cola Company has operates its bottling plant in Plachimada and also Kala Dera in India. Due to Plachimada facility, the company exploited nearly 500,000 litres of water in a day from the ordinary groundwater resource. As a result, the community has been experiencing stern water shortages after Coca-Cola Company began its operations in the area, and the residual groundwater has been contaminated (Powers 2005).
The local government of Kala Dera in India declared the area's groundwater resources as over utilized in 1998. The community challenged Coca-Cola Company to shut down its bottling plant due to the company depleting the water resources. But Coca-Cola Company just ignored to the recommendations from the authority. Not surprisingly, the groundwater circumstances continue to worsen severely. As a result, the groundwater levels has fell sharply with a drop of 4.29 meters (14 feet) within a year in the period of August 2008 and August 2009, from 30.83 meters under ground level to 35.12 meters correspondingly. Overall in nine year since Coca-Cola Company has been started operating in 2000, the groundwater levels have sharply dropped 22.36 meters compare with just 3 meters dropped which is before Coca-Cola Company operate its plant in Kala Dera (Srivastava and Yogi 2010).
Furthermore, highly water usage of Coca-Cola Company has drying up famers' wells and damaging farming land through the discarding of poisonous waste (Zacune 2006). The company bore more than six wells and illegitimately installed dynamic electric pumps to extract millions of litres of pure water. It causes the level of the water table fell from 45 to 150 metres lower the surface and greater amount of farmers with severely limited access to water resource. Because of Coca-Cola's activities, there are totally 260 wells which have been building to supply drinking water and to assemble irrigation requirements have been dry. As the water supply problem, it implicated the local society such as women had to take a move for such a distance to obtain source water (Shiva and Diplomatique 2005).
On the other hand, the local community in the city of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh in India grumble that the company's over use of water resources and it cause a serious levy on their harvests and led to the drying up of wells (Zacune 2006).
Besides, since Coca-Cola's made a serious problem in water levels, many India communities failed to irrigating the lands and to do vegetation. It may cause the whole families at threat of losing their livelihoods (Zacune 2006).Positive performance
Coca-Cola is partnering with the NGOs and communities to combat water shortage and depleting groundwater levels with simple and effective solutions. One of the methods used for ground water recharge is rainwater harvesting (RWH). Through rainwater harvesting, Coca-Cola Company will give back as much rainwater as the entire sum of groundwater consumed for its operations in local area. In year 2007, this project has been made a latent alike to 75% of the groundwater consumption for its operations. In 2009, over 400 rainwater harvesting sites have been developed in over 20 states of India (Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd. 2007).
By targeting in year 2009, the company aim to being a "net zero" user of groundwater user (Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd. 2007).
Coca-Cola Company in India has joined with government agency and private sector to build and promote Drip Irrigation project for water efficient agriculture in Kala Dera area. Drip irrigation is a way which reducing the water consumption and stimulant by letting water to drip gradually to the ancestry of plants, either onto the mud surface or straight against to the origin zone through a system of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters (Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd. 2007). Coca-Cola has installed 27 drip-irrigation projects in 2008 in an area over 13.82 hectares, this project has become extremely popular with the community, giving the benefit leading to its embracing by over 190 farmers by the end of 2009 (Stirton et al. 2010).
In addition, Coca-Cola Company was partnering with local stakeholders to supporting the restoration of lakes and ponds across India. This project immensely benefit to the local communities, the restoration of lakes and ponds has expanded to an additional 6 ponds in 2009. This project is actively engaged in Varanasi and others communities in India (Stirton et al. 2010).
Coca-Cola Company in India had partnered with agricultural and industry organizations in order to contribute to the government's efforts to improve rural livelihoods and alleviate poverty. The main objectives of this project were to increase water-use efficiency with additional approach to improving farming efficiency. Moreover, this project provided benefits in getting of drinking water and facilitates improved countryside incomes and some more to educate farmers in the area of sustainable natural resource administration and livelihood options (Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd. 2007).Conclusion
Besides core business in manufacturing beverages, Coca-Cola also played an important role in its water stewardship to community social responsibility. In past years performance, Coca-Cola had performed in some ways such as reduce the water usage ratio, expand partnership with NGOs, government agency and private water concern sectors to combat and resolve the water resources throughout the particular operation areas, and also increase percentage of wastewater treatment to preserve community water resource.
However, Coca-Coca Company might pay heavy effort on improving total litres of water usage in operation system in order to reach the company's water efficient goal in 2012 by 20% compare with 9% in 2008.
On the other hand, the groundwater levels in particular area in India have dropped seriously which bring negative implication to the local community. But the Coca-Cola Company has irresponsibly to continue operate bottling plant even the company knew the area is water stressed area. Anywhere, the Company has to heavily focus on this issue in India by taking efficiency and effectiveness actions.