The specialization of information technology field is very wide. It evolves technology of both the computer hardware and computer software and more applications for computer technology are discovered. Today information technology (IT), especially computers, is the most important major because all people in different majors are using technology in their lives, so the technology should is developed fast. There are many specializations of Information technology are offered by many universities in the world as a bachelor, master, or PhD degree. The popular specializations are 18 as most of U.S, U.K and Canada universities provide.
The first one is artificial intelligence (AI). It is a complex, branch of computer science which attempts to fusion in human intelligence and reasoning into computing systems to let the computer thinking, expecting, and solving problems. AI researches are interested in modeling all rules of human intelligence. Most of the researches involve creating computer systems able to plan, adapt to different situations, acquire human-like senses, and effect changes to the environment, exactly like robots.
The second branch is cognitive science which is contemplates with understanding simulation, and elevating artificial intelligence. Cognitive science concerned with researches in artificial intelligence, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience, and engineering.
The third branch is computer engineering it concerned with incorporates between communication engineering and computer science and. Computer engineering interested in designing and improving computers and anything related to this field like operating system, ATM, and micro computers.
The forth one is computer information systems (CIS). This specialization is related to managing information systems and designing applications for processing data with problem solving application to make the organization more efficient.
The fifth one is computer graphics. This one is related to graphic design and artificial intelligence. It combines technologies and video to produce two and three dimensional images and video like those seen in video games and computer animated films.
The sixth one is computer programming which is one of the most pursued specializations. Computer programming involves studying of instructing computers to perform certain tasks and writing instructions in one of good programming languages to list the steps which computer must follow to solve a problem. Also it involves testing computer to debug programs from errors. This branch includes sub branches like analysis of programming languages, syntax and semantics of formal languages, and language schemes.
The seventh branch is computer networks. It studies sorts and technologies of communications between computers. Computer networking studies the design of local area networks in small areas (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) which use telephone lines, satellites, or radio waves to connect networks for thousands of miles. Also it interested in network architecture, communication protocols, and networks topology.
The eighth one is computer servicing technology which is the studying of how to install, repair computers, and making sure that everything in the company is working.
A broad, often confusing term used to describe a wide range of fields involving the study of how data is stored in computers (for example, stacks, queues, and files) and how data can be processed to solve accounting and management problems. In most cases, data processing courses and programs are offered through business rather than computer science departments. Programs offered by technical colleges (often called data processing technology programs) provide vocational training in data entry and computer operations. Four-year colleges and universities may offer data processing programs that combine study of management and computer science. Such programs are often intended to train managers, known as electronic data processing (EDP ) managers, to run complex computer centers. At the graduate level, data processing-related subjects may be included as part of management information systems or information science degree programs.
Involves the study of systems, known as databases, that can efficiently store, process, and retrieve substantial quantities of information. Undergraduate computer science programs may offer introductory database courses although advanced study, including analysis and design of relational, network, and hierarchical databases, generally occurs at the graduate level.
This rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field examines the nature of information itself as well as the processes by which information transfer occurs. Drawing on other fields such as telecommunications, computer science, lin guistics, philosophy, mathematics, psychology, and sociology, information science involves the analysis and development of systems for the storage and dissemination of information using computers, telecommunications, or other technologies. Courses may be offered at the B.S. degree level; graduate computer science programs provide opportunities for advanced study.
KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING/EXPERT SYSTEMS:
Knowledge engineering is a subfield of artificial intelligence that produces a type of computer system called an expert system. Expert systems are computer programs designed to perform at the level of the hum an expert, solving problems that are beyond the capability of conventional computer systems. Introductory courses are sometimes offered at the undergraduate level; in-depth study is available at the graduate level.
The study of computer systems modeled after the biological nervous system. Neural networks are designed to imitate the workings of the human brain and are used in areas such as voice and pattern recognition and speech synthesis. Introductory courses are sometimes offered through B.S. programs in computer science. Advanced study is generally offered through graduate computer science programs.
A branch of computer science that applies artificial intelligence and engineering concepts to create and program mechanical devices (robots) that are able to perform a variety of tasks including some previously performed by humans. Many technical and community colleges offer associate degree programs in robotics technology, which involves troubleshooting and maintaining robots; courses emphasizing the theory and design of robots may be offered through B.S. programs; advanced robotics st udy is available through graduate programs.
A still-evolving discipline based on computer science, computer technology, management, and engineering economics. Concerned with the cost- effective development and modification of computer software components, software eng ineering may use computer-aided software engineering (CASE) to reduce the time required by programmers to generate new programs and revise old ones. Courses in software engineering may be available through undergraduate computer science departments; advan ced study is available at the graduate level.
Involves the analysis of existing computer systems and the design of new systems that meet the specific information needs of an organization. Undergraduate computer science programs often provide courses in systems analysis; adv anced study is offered through graduate computer science departments.
A specialization that joins computer technology with information processing and distribution. Telecommunications engineering involves the analysis and design of all systems that receive, transmit, and deliver infor mation. Courses may be offered through undergraduate electrical engineering or computer science departments. Advanced study in telecommunications engineering is available through graduate programs.