THE DEFINITION OF ROMANTICISM
It is said that the real definition of romanticism doesn`t exist,we don`t have enough issues about it.( Wikipedia,2009 ) All we used to know is that it was some kind of movement of eighteen and nineteen century, and that it has to do with reactions of religion,art,literature and with some different politics of some periods.
Romanticism used to express a strong authentic emotion, like one issue of esthetics experience, giving an special accent emotions like horror, terror and fear.
It used to do also about folk art and some antic habits, and it discus also natural theory of some people habitsconditioned from naturein the language form of habits usage.
One interesting explanation tells that romanticism is called superiority of imagination of reason, some formal rules, and over the sense of fact.
It is said too that romanticism wasn't conceived like a system.
Between some characteristics of Romanticism in England we mentioned: primitivism, sensibility,love for nature,individualism,neoclassicism etc.
Between some special characteristics of those behaviors are: abandonement of some verses in favor of some empty verses, sonnets,and a lot of experimental verse forms.
Romanticism term also determines a literature and philosophical theory that tries to see the individ in a centre of life andputs it in the centre of art doing literature a expression of unique feelings and some behaviors rating faithfulness in the portrait of experience.
Although the romanticism tries to refer to foreign nature, it more looks at it like the announcement of the truth and appreciate theme for art more than those aspects of life of falsity.
We also say that romanticism stresses individ, imagination, theme, irracionality and transcendental. In between of theme it is expression of the beauty of nature,a general exaltion of emotions over the reason and intelligence.
Also romanticism has its roots of German movement of Sturm and Drung which leads up intuition and emotions over the romanticism of reneisanse, ideology, and some French revolution events.
Romanticism also determines achievements of what is perceived like heroic individualists and artists, which would elevate society.
It also legitimized the individual imagination like antic authority that allows freedom of classic notions like form of art.It was also a strong issue for history and nature inevitability.
THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ROMANTICISM
During the 17th and 18th century began a important literary movement in western Europe it is the Romanticism .Romanticism is said to have emerged in Germany which soon spread to England as well as in France, however the main inspiration of romanticism was the French revolution.
The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity, the rediscover of the artists as a supremely individual creator, the development of nationalistic pride, and the exaltation of sense and emotions over reasons and intellect. In addition romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism.
Romanticism as literary movement has many characteristics:
Love of nature
This was the main characteristic of this period because of beauty of nature found in country life. Nature was not only appreciated for its physical beauty by the romantics but also for its ability to help the urban man find his true identity.
Neoclassicism was charactericized by emotional restraint order, logic technical precision balance elegance of diction an emphasis of form over content clarity dignity and decorum. The neoclassicism was also called "The age of Enlightenment" which emphasized on reason and logic.
It was a dominant literary movement in England which sought revives the artistic ideals of classical Greece and Rome. Its appeals were to the intellect rather than to the emotion and it prized wit over imagination. As a result satire and didactic literature flourished as did the essay, the parody and burlesque.
Individualism was another important characteristic of romanticism.
Before 18th century few Europeans concerned themselves with discovering their own identities. They where as nobles peasants or merchants but mercantilism gradually transformed Europe and it destabilized their old patterns.
The changing economy not only made individualism attractive to the newly rich it made possible a free market in the arts in which painters composers and writers could seek out sympathetic audiences to a pay them for their works
The Romantics borrowed heavily from the folklore and the popular art. During the earlier periods, literature and art were considered to belong to the high class educated people, and the country folks were not considered fit to enjoy them. Also, the languages used in these works were highly poetic, which was totally different from that which was spoken by people. However, Romanticism changed all this. Their works were influenced from the ballads and folklore that were created by the masses or the common people, rather than from the literary works that were popular.
This is also one of the most prominent characteristics of Romanticism in along with sentimentality and spirituality.
Hense in many of the literary works of that period the far mysterious locations were depicted. Though this was completely opposite from the ideal of Nationalism, they never clashed with each other. The reason for this is that just like the exotic locations, the people did not know about the folklore of their places before.
British Romantics believed something exited beyond the physical world.
They were interested in the supernatural and included it in their works. The spirit world according to romantics had unleashed its power and inspiration to overthrow tyranny in government and in literature. British romanticisms' treatment of the supernatural excluded horror and macabre and focused on supernatural energy and beauty. These elements can be seen in some of the poems of Coleridge and in many other writers of this period.
THE MAIN REPRESENTATIVES OF ROMANTICISMThe main representatives of Romanticism are:
- William Blake
- William Wordsworth
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge
- Lord George Gordon Byron
Do what you will, this world is a fiction and is made up of contradiction
William Blake was born on November 28, 1757 in London. His father was a hosier and affords to give William the schooling to learn the basics of reading and writing, and after a short time he attended a drawing school.
After his talent for drawing became obvious he left his work at his father's shop where he was working and lived as an engraver.
Blake married Catherine Boucher and together they published a book of Blake's poems and drawing called "Songs of Innocence", wich during his lifetime sold slowly. Blake engraved the words and picture on copper plates and more successful was a series of copperplate engravings Blake illustrated the Book of Job for a new edition of the "Old Testament".
Blake was often guided his gentle. Mystical views of Christianity. "Songs of Experience" (1794) was followed by "Milton" (1804-1808) and "Jerusalem" (1804-1820).
Blake's work received far more public acclaim after his death, and an excerpt from his poem Milton was set to music, becoming a sort of unofficial Christian anthem of English nationalism in the 20th century.
William Blake died on August 12, 1827 in Bun hill Fields, London.
POEMS BY WILLIAM BLAKE: The Tiger, Songs Of Innocence, Cradle Song, Hear The Voice,Jerusalem,The Little Black Boy, Love's Secret,Night,A Poison Tree, The Sick Rose, To Spring. To The Evening Star, To The Muses, Mad Song etc
Fill your paper with the breathings Of your heart
William Wordsworth was born on April 7, 1770 in Cumberland. His father John was a lawyer and he motivated his children to pursue learning. William was sent to attend grammar school after his mother died, and long after his father died as well, and Wordsworth lived with two uncles.
After his graduation in Cambridge William traveled for a time, when he returned home he published two poems "Descriptive Sketches" and "An Evening Walk". At this time Wordsworth met the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge and became close friends. They worked together in a Romantic verse called "Lyrical Ballads" (1798).
He married with an old childhood friend and together with his sister lived in the Lake District village of Grasmore.William's happy home life turned to tragedy when two of his children died within a year.
William published two set of his poetry in 1807, wich were very criticized for pan. In the absence of his success he returned to travel writing, and then he published "A Travel Guide" which proved very popular.
William was asked to take Robert Southey's place which he refused, but he was obligated to take the post by Sir Robert Peel. William died in 1850.
POEMS BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: Anecdote for Fathers, By the Sea, The green Linnet. I Wondered Lonely As a Cloude, London, 1802, Ode to Duty, To The Cockoo,To The Daisy, Yew-Trees etc
SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE
If a man could pass through the Paradise in a dream and have a flower Presented to him as a pledge that his Soul had really been there, and if he Found that flower in his hand when He awake-Aye, What then?
Samuel Taylor Coleridge was born in Ottery St.Mary, 1772.His father who was a vicar of Ottery and the Headmaster of its grammar school died when he was yet a boy.
To continuo his education Coleridge went at Christ's Hospital in London. After ten years he enrolled in Jesus College where he was known for his reading and impressive eloquence. Because of his financial problems he interrupted his education and traveled to London.
In 1795 he married with Sara Tricker and they had a son. Also in this year Coleridge met William Wordsworth and they spent much time discussing poetry, politics and philosophy. As a fruit of this friendship they published the volume of poems called "Lyrical Ballads" ( 1798 ).In September 1798 he joined Wordsworth for a long tour of Germany and there he became quickly fluent in language and became famous in German Philosophy scholarship while he was little known in England.
In 1799 he returned in England and fell in love with Sara Hutchinson. The domestic trouble this occasioned is evident in the despondent tone of "Dejection: An Ode (1802).
He was remained very active as a literary figure and he wrote a successful drama "Remorse" in 1813.In 1817 he involved himself in essentially minor original projects such as his play "Zapolya". After that he published to successive volumes of verse; "Kubla Khan, a Vision, The Pains of Sleep (1816) and "Sibylline Leaves"; A Collection of Poems in 1817.
In 1824 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. Another work criticism "Aids to Reflection "appeared in 1825.
His last prose work "On the Constitution of the Church and State, ostensibly a contribution to the debate over Catholic Emancipation, appeared in 1830, a year after the law was enacted. A third edition of his "Poetical Works "appeared in 1834 shortly before his death on 25 July.
POEMS BY SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE: Christabel,Kubla Khan,Limbo,The Pain Of Sleep, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Dejection: An Ode,Desire,Despair,On Donne's Poetry, Duty Surviving Self-love, Fears in Solitude, Work Without Hope etc..
LORD GEORGE GORDON BYRON
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods, There is a rapture on the lonely shore, There is society, where none intrudes, By the deep sea, and music in its roar: I love not man the less, but Nature more.
Lord George Gordon Byron was born on January 22, 1788 in Scotland. Lord Byron was the son of Coptain John Byron and Catherine Gordon. He was very famous in his lifetime for his personality cult as for his poetry. Byron's influence on European poetry, music, novel, opera and painting has been interminable.
He spent his early childhood years in poor surrounding in Aberdeen, where he was educated until he was ten. Later he inherited the title and property of his great-uncle in 1798, and he went to Dulwich, Harrow, and Cambridge. Staying at Newstead in 1802, it is believed that he probably met his half-sister with whom he was suspected of having a relationship.
In 1807 Byron published his first collection of poetry " Hours of Idleness, which received bad reviews and a year later in 1808 he answered his critics with a satire " English Bards And Scotch Reviewers ".
In 1909 he took his seat in House of Lords, and traveled in Spain, Malta, Albania and Greece.
His real success came in 1812 when the first two cantos of "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" was published and became an adored character of London society.
He married Anne Isabella Milbank in 1875 and their daughter Ada was born in the same year. The marriage was unhappy and they got separated a year after they married.
In 1816 Byron left England and went in Geneva and never returned. There he wrote the two cantos of "Childe Harold "and "The Prisoner of Chillon".
Byron continued his travels, spending two years in Italy. During these years he wrote "Lament of Tasso" and started "Don Juan" his satiric masterpiece.
Byron became deeply interested in drama and wrote "The Two Foscari","Sardanapalans" "Cain" and the unfinished "Heaven and Earth "
Lord Byron died on 19 April 1824 from a fever in Greece.
POEMS BY GORDON BYRON: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,Don Juan,A Spirit Passed Before Me,Darkness,She Walks In Beauty,Solitude,When We Two Parted,So,We'll Go No More a Roving etc
THE COMPARISON OF ROMANTICISM WITH HUMANISM
Romanticism is a literary movement; cultural renaissance which shows the emergence of national literature as are his particular connection with the forms of literature of this oral period.
The authors rise above the cult of national human freedom representing universal values.
Humanism testifies human character, in this period were made for sharing reform revolutions of thought that humanity testifies not only the church and religious books and that his idea should be separated from religion.
In the center of humanism is man or the sciences that are closely related with. Its ideal is man equipped with full culture, with aesthetic taste and virtues, while through literature spread humanists ideas.
So the difference between there two periods lies that humanism in the center has man and reason, the fight for existence and revolutions that took place right in this period, attempting to reach the flowering of humanity in life, learning and art. And Romanticism is only a literary era that was born against the norms of pervious drawing where by all lines of opposite colors reflected through these feeling and thoughts at this period.
In the end I think that these two movements has a really large importance for social life, but I like more romanticism cuz is the spirit of human art and from this literary movement expression meaning has get the feeling of description and expression of emotions of poetry which its beautiful written art which includes the description of the nature, beauty and love...
Romanticism, the movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is so varied in its manifestations. Romanticism represents an attitude of mind that involves the expression of an idea that tends to have verbal rather that a visual origin (Encyclopedia Britannica). It lends itself more easily to expression through literature and music than through the visual art. Romantic authors tended to focus on characters and their interactions, not detailed descriptions and long passages filled with facts. They loved to write poems about love and nature.Romantics saw that being able to control characters' behaviors, to emphasize certain patterns or notions, gave the writer greater power to communicate.
What we learn for romanticism are the strong emotions that we get from literature and music which shows that romanticism is not just a literary movement, but it lives in the soul of every man, wich we appear more in the moments when we read an romantic poem, when we hear a romantic song, when we see any romantic act or when we watch a such film.
Even the nature itself has a romantic spirit which we feel when we see its beauties, with which beauties inspires us as it inspired the Author William Wordsworth when he wrote his wonderful poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud". Romantics were fascinated by nature. They believed that by studying nature, one could come to a greater understanding of the world (Wikipedia, 2009).The romantics wanted to understand nature as a system, as a thing into itself. Romantics feel free to use nature symbolically because to them, nature is symbolic of greater truths. I think that the romanticism was and continues to remain important, since many people write romantic poetry, novels and poems, since they listen to wonderful romantic songs, while still the world produce romantic films. Although romanticism was born in the eighteenth century, it has been centuries ago, perhaps not in literature as happened from eighteenth centuries and onwards, but it lived in the souls of people and such will continue to be. This is nowadays truer than in poetry and in songs, wich shows that the romantic spirit will live on, and in my opinion it is the only literary movement that will be forever preferred by the world and the great Authors like William Blake, William Wordsworth, Lord Byron and others will be the inspiration of people in our century and centuries after.
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- ( Deepa Kartha, 2009) Characteristics of Romanticism retrieved 29 October 2009 from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/romanticism-characteristics-of-romanticism.html
- ( Britain Express ) William Blake retrieved from http://www.britainexpress.com/History/bio/blake.htm
- ( Victorian web,2000) William Wordsworth retrieved July, 2000 from http://www.victorianweb.org/previctorian/ww/bio.html
- ( English.Upenn.edu) Samuel Taylor Coleridge retrieved from http://www.english.upenn.edu/Projects/knarf/Coleridg/bio.html
- ( The Literature Network) Lord George Gordon Byron retrieved 2000-2009 from http://www.online-literature.com/byron/
- ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) Humanism retrieved 5 January 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanism