Reflections in literary studies

AO2 - Many themes are given by Orwell in Nineteen Eighty Four such as Rebellion, Love/romance, Futurism, Oppression, Power, Warfare, and Manipulation. Taken to this liquid removed metropolitan where skin, attire's, and even colour gives notice of possible occurrence of more tedious and monotonous happenings in this suburb we feel insecure. At once the author Orwell gives strong evidence of win, and success with 'Victory Mansions'. Upon hearing this accomplishing noun we tend to assume multiple thoughts where we feel this novel is based upon high spirits. Quickly facing the smell of 'boiled cabbage', and 'old rag mats' we start to feel nauseous as Orwell uses the senses to make us connect with this imaginable dystopian society almost giving spirit to it making the opening page a scenic narrative technique.

Emerging Winston Smith a civilian whom cannot endure the:

"Contrived yellow eyes that follow you about when you move." (Orwell, 1949: 3)

A rather bloodcurdling method has been added to the beginning of the novel unlike a typical idealistic, yet sentimental fairytale. Hence introducing a lustrous chemical element known as the telescreen. For a second Orwell creates this seclusion, and direful painting of being alone with an oblong mechanism which acts like an ascendant possessing your physique. Enters the futuristic element of the novel where we feel agitated at the way these security supplies have been used. Looking at today's era we have the security telescreens in video stores, and many other stores around the globe for protection. This propaganda tool is in fact being used for surveillance, to make certain everyone abides by the rules. Although, during the American Civil War many methods were used to convey propaganda messages to the public, one being the famous of them all 'letterpost envelopes'. 'Propaganda has always been a problem to define' says O'Donnell, and Jowett thus coming up with an ideal definition of it calling it 'a system to shape perceptions' which is exactly what we see in our key text. This definition by Jowett, and O' Donnell can be carried forth to describe the mechanism, and conditioning system used in Brave New World when we see the whole of Chapter III where the technique of rapid shifts has been explored by Huxley. The Conditioning System is another mechanism of state control to make the citizens believe what they have been told to.

AO1, AO2, AO3- A cinematic device has been evidently used in this Chapter where a montage is displayed overlapping each conversation taking place between Bernard Marx, Benito Hoover, and Lenina. 'A gram is better than a damn' a common line seen in the whole of Chapter III explaining how a 'gram' of Soma is what they have been taught to take. Soma, a deviating yet fictional drug which helps eliminate all anxieties, and stress which the civilians prefer to swallow as opposed to facing problems. Another predictable yet possible, and probable theme under the given name of Futurism is explored to great heights as Nineteen Eighty Four sends this alarming cautionary predicting what the future will be like. Great futurists by the name of Jim Dator tends to agree to the fact that 'an idea relating to the future would be ridiculous', and another 'Take control of the future or the future will control you' by Patrick Dixon. Debateable suggestions by these futurists which relate to both the secondary and key text in many ways. In the eyes of Orwell, and Huxley the future has possessed control over each individual keeping them on the watch 24/7 where we can say these quotes by the futurists have been exploited to the fullest in English Literature, where one uses equipments and technology, and the other uses one of the most common natural sciences Biology as a weapon to keep the society in their control.

AO1, AO2 - Orwell's novel, Nineteen Eighty Four, is seen at by many informing them of the present civilization and how it can possibly be bearing. The narrative skills are similar to today, for example war taking place. There are as well similarities completely dissimilar such as people associations, 1984 identifies to the readers that the civilization is not always going to be good. It gives a hint to the readers about what might happen to the world in the close to prospect. A sense of war taking place is seen evidently as Julia holds hands with Winston in this battle, leading her to steal real life luxuries such as coffee, sugar, bread, jam, and tea as a form of rebellion. A revolutionary type of rebellion is the focus under the theme of rebellion which classifies people whom want to take the place of the current administration as anarchists. Such anarchists were Stalin, and Hitler whom were given the labels of crazy communists. Stalin became a psychotic and insane person after coming into power of success to Vladimir Lenin. Where as Hitler became a communist whom lead Germany giving them false promises of giving jobs to those unemployed, blaming Jews for this resulted in him slaughtering Jews in many places even concentration camps. Big Brother's actions resemble Joseph Stalin in many aspects, along with his characteristics giving this fictional supreme god-like figure life.

AO3, AO4 , AO2- Similarities are pictured within the casing of Nineteen Eighty Four and Brave New World when describing a creative Utopian dream named The Golden Country. However, James Hilton gives a description of 'finding utopia' where he calls it 'earthly paradise' in his novel Lost Horizon (Hilton, 1933). The earthly land in Orwell's novel happens to be a beastly world, given a dream to break away from the chains of Big Brother. An immediate response for the readers tends to be a complete surprise, as Orwell sucks us out of the drained colourless metropolis hence describing the country as 'astonishing variations, never once repeating iselft' (Orwell, 1949: 142). The structure Orwell has used to explain the pleasure of going to The Golden Country is rather an unbreakable strand of thread where the readers are given one image after the other showing the happiness, and desirous memories that lie in that land of liability. A hunt for a pastoral lifestyle remains a quest for the protagonist as he manages to recall memories of his mother and sister, thus waking up uttering the name of Shakespeare a legendary writer. Shakespeare a poet, playwright, and actor happens to be a great influence for Orwell foreshadowing the love of Julia by one of his romantic novels 'Romeo & Juliet'. Cleverly a comparison in drawn here as Romeo and Juliet's love story was based on meeting secretly, due to family feuds where as in Orwell's novel we see the feud between the Party and Winston Smith, who will stop sexual intercourse resulting in alarming, and deadly consequences if caught together.

AO4- Looking at the Critical and Cultural Commentary an article based on Robert McCrum - 1984: The novel that killed George Orwell furthers this statement of The Golden Country as exploring the article we pick up on information based on Orwell's personal life. Living life on the Jura was a pleasurable experience for him in comparison to Winston's fantasy world. All the liability is seen in the way McCrum describes the passion for going 'fishing, explore the island, and potter about in the boats. In August, during a spell of lovely summer weather'. (McCrum, 2009: 8) McCrum takes us to this Postwar Britain montage where we are given a picture of a 'a sucked orange' although a description of Orwell has been given using a hybrid of ancient cultivated origins, it only makes sense after noting the fact that Orwell's life became a citrus fruit growing outdoors fulfilling his military service, plus completing Animal Farm another famous novel.

AO3 - Differences are exploited in Brave New World where we are supplied with rather soulful, and stirring emotions when given the scene of Linda's death. John Savage has this dream of experiencing his mother's death without the use of Soma. Huxley ultimately connects Linda to the past linking her to the history of living, and understanding traditional ethics, and honesty. This is seen when she nurtures John, shows him affection and grants him as her own son from her womb. These emotions show a contrast within itself in comparison to the brutal and savage behavior seen in the beginning of the novel with innocent broods. These feelings are the only distraction we get from the brutal and nasty treatments of children, and conditioning. The language used in these chapters clearly states a mother-son relationship but with that effect of Soma the death of Linda becomes superficial, and not a natural death that would happen in today's time period in history, thus turning John into a violent brute himself.

AO2 - Looking at the extreme force of violence in Nineteen Eighty Four we see the disastrous rampage taking place at 'the central London squares' in Chapter 9 Part II. Looking at an unending fine strand of twisted fiber the structure shows the anger and hate the civilians have for Emmanuel Goldstein. Thus making it seem that way, but Orwell uses Goldstein as a scapegoat to simply get their anger out. The method of violence was the only thing proles, and other citizens could do in order for rebellion. Where as looking at Winston, and Julia they literally take the physical step for rebellion by fighting against Big Brother, and stealing the Party's indulgent food items. Being the first step of a crazy rampage we being the readers tend to feel devastated at what we are forced to face with words such as: 'massacres, deportations, lootings, rapings, torture.' We tend to feel the language is the only way Orwell could show how everyone felt bringing out their emotions. Thus making each occurrence into an almost unending record of ways to sabotage the speech with the use of commas, shaping meanings of anger.

AO2 - The chapters in Nineteen Eighty Four show an array of violence that becomes something we see often. Winston undergoes the treatment at the presumably 'Ministry of Love '. This handling of situation could possibly be described as anything vulgar, and astounding. 'Fists, sometimes it was truncheons, sometimes it was steal rods' (Orwell, 1949: 276) displays a deadly image. Hence, being in an environment where the use of Doublethink is often used Winston tries hard to admit to the fact that '2 + 2 = 5', whilst being in the room with the deceitful O'Brien. McCrum identifies the word 'Doublethink' as 'Hypocrisy' (McCrum, 2009: 13) which can be easily agreed upon when your actions start to resemble this 'Hypocritical' word in the pub. A thought that stays within you defined as 'Solipsism' is also erased hence using Ampleforth a poet to establish the fact that you cannot even think the word God, or be used in the form of literary art.

AO1, AO4, AO2 - Language acts the most pivotal piece in Nineteen Eighty Four where Newspeak, a way to communicate the democratical word Propaganda becomes easier for the Party. 'The only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year' quotes the novel, seen in the form of an Appendix at the end. The Newspeak shows the most simplest form of language with simple grammar, and vocabulary. This helps the Party, and the seemingly omniscient Big Brother which fits perfectly into their totalitarian organization controlling the public's speech, harsh consequences are seen with Ampleforth as mentioned earlier when sent to the Ministry. Creating a fictional novel where every word is changed evokes rather joyless feelings and almost creates rhetorical questions for the reader asking them if they could life in an organization as such? However, since Orwell's masterpiece became popular an actual dictionary is created given the name of Newspeak Dictionary with words such as Duckspeak, Bellyfeel, Blackwhite, Goodsex and Sexcrime, Ownlife, and the list goes forth. Such words given by Orwell gives a queer and tremulous feeling as each of these have their own meaning given some below:

Duckspeak: 'was ambivalent in meaning.' (Orwell, 1949: 352) A simple explanation has been given to us, which means each individual must speak without thinking, or thinking before they speak. This could possibly mean two things in a good way or bad way, thus giving punishment if what you say does not follow the rules of Big Brother. However, if what you say matches the ideals of Big Brother then that individual is free to speak anything according to the Newspeak.

Bellyfeel: The word simply allows you to have blind faith on an idea given. This idea of Bellyfeel means when you have completely been indoctrinated to agree, and happily accept orders, and any changes without a serious think.

Blackwhite: A justification of this term has been given in Nineteen Eighty Four 'this word has two mutually contradictory meanings. Applied to an opponent, it means the habit of impudently claiming that black is white, in contradiction of the plain facts'. As well as including doublethink this means to change the past, eliminating history, and rewriting the past which the civilians must be aware of.

AO2, AO3, AO4 - "For Orwell, freedom of expression was not just about freedom of thought but also linguistic freedom."(McCrum, 2009: 13) A well expressed description by Robert McCrum quoting how Orwell longed for linguistic freedom. Thus making it sound sadder as the rebellion was not just a fight for freedom, but a fight for verbal freedom which everyone is eligible to. Comparing this to today's era once again everyone responds in different ways to suggestions and any speech, being entitled to think what they want. Hence making Big Brother not only a person whom controls freedom but even a bigger threat to the brain taking possession of something we all carry in our brain by the name of a conductive neuron.


A quest for two lead protagonists, a quest for Orwell and Huxley themselves, and most importantly a quest for our nation. These novels tend to become an inspiration for readers as no other author has made the impossible become the possible. In this novel being like androids/machines becomes a central focus showing the lives of normal people but being treated by pressing a button from a control panel- (Literary seen in Brave New World - in the beginning). Futurists believe that technology has taken control of you, which I at some extent do believe in. Looking at different types of technologies being created by such companies like Apple, Sony etc we can argue that mp3's, and most importantly television have control over you, staying in your brain forcing you to hum the song whilst walking, or making you to suddenly utter the slogan of a popular advert for example Adidas, Mc Donald's, Nokia and many more. As far as futurists speak most of them agree to the fact that technology has taken control, making Orwell's future based novel a reality, and I for one agree.

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